140 relations: Academic institution, Academy, Actor analysis, Adam Smith, Advocacy group, Anarchism, Anthropology, Antonio Gramsci, Art, Émile Durkheim, Base and superstructure, Behavior, Business, Capitalism, Catholic Church, Charitable organization, Civil religion, Civil society, Corporation, Country, Cournot competition, Credibility thesis, Critical theory, Cultural artifact, Cultural reproduction, Cultural studies, Culture, Culture industry, Dialectical materialism, Diminishing returns, Division of labour, Douglass North, Economic system, Economics, Economy, Education, Emergence, Endogeneity (econometrics), Factory, Family, Feminism, Feudalism, Financial institution, Fitness landscape, Game theory, Government, Health care, Higher education, Historical institutionalism, History of psychiatric institutions, ..., Hospital, Ian Lustick, Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses, Individual, Industrial sociology, Industry, Institute, Institutional abuse, Institutional economics, Institutional logic, Institutional memory, Institutional racism, Institutionalist political economy, Jurisprudence, Language, Law, Learning, Linguistics, Linkage institution, List of national legal systems, Lost Decade (Japan), Marriage, Mass media, Maxima and minima, Mechanism (sociology), Media studies, Medical sociology, Medicine, Meme, Memetic institutionalism, Middle Ages, Military, Military sociology, Modern history, Money, Money illusion, Nash equilibrium, Nation, Nation state, Natural selection, Neo-Marxism, Non-governmental organization, Paramilitary, Path dependence, Patriarchy, Peer group, Penology, Philosophy of law, Political party, Political science, Preschool, Primary education, Psychiatric hospital, Public choice, Religion, Research, Research institute, Role, Schenck v. United States, School, Secondary education, Social class, Social constructionism, Social order, Social purpose, Social science, Social structure, Society, Sociolinguistics, Sociology, Sociology of culture, Sociology of education, Sociology of health and illness, Sociology of language, Sociology of law, Sociology of punishment, Sociology of religion, Sociology of scientific knowledge, Sociology of the family, Sovereign state, Spontaneous order, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, State (polity), The Organization Man, Think tank, United States Congress, University, University of Birmingham, Virtual community, William H. Whyte. Expand index (90 more) » « Shrink index
Academic institution is an educational institution dedicated to education and research, which grants academic degrees.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Actor analysis can be seen as an approach to environmental management.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Antonio Francesco Gramsci (22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist philosopher and politician.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.
In Marxist theory, human society consists of two parts: the base (or substructure) and superstructure.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A charitable organization or charity is a non-profit organization (NPO) whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. charitable, educational, religious, or other activities serving the public interest or common good).
Civil religion is a concept that originated in French political thought and became a major topic for American sociologists since its use by Robert Bellah in 1960.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.
Cournot competition is an economic model used to describe an industry structure in which companies compete on the amount of output they will produce, which they decide on independently of each other and at the same time.
The credibility thesis is a proposed heterodox theoretical framework for understanding how societal institutions or social rules come about and evolve.
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
A cultural artifact, or cultural artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is a term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, ethnology and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users.
Cultural reproduction is the transmission of existing cultural values and norms from generation to generation.
Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
The term culture industry (Kulturindustrie) was coined by the critical theorists Theodor Adorno (1903–1969) and Max Horkheimer (1895–1973), and was presented as critical vocabulary in the chapter "The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception", of the book Dialectic of Enlightenment (1944), wherein they proposed that popular culture is akin to a factory producing standardized cultural goods—films, radio programmes, magazines, etc.—that are used to manipulate mass society into passivity.
Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
In economics, diminishing returns is the decrease in the marginal (incremental) output of a production process as the amount of a single factor of production is incrementally increased, while the amounts of all other factors of production stay constant.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Douglass Cecil North (November 5, 1920 – November 23, 2015) was an American economist known for his work in economic history.
An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
In econometrics, endogeneity broadly refers to situations in which an explanatory variable is correlated with the error term.
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporations which provide services as intermediaries of financial markets.
In evolutionary biology, fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes (types of evolutionary landscapes) are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes and reproductive success.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Historical institutionalism (HI) is a new institutionalist social science method that uses institutions to find sequences of social, political, economic behavior and change across time.
The rise of the lunatic asylum and its gradual transformation into, and eventual replacement by, the modern psychiatric hospital, explains the rise of organised, institutional psychiatry.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
Ian Steven Lustick (born 1949) is an American political scientist and specialist on the modern history and politics of the Middle East.
"Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes Towards an Investigation)" (original French title: "Idéologie et appareils idéologiques d’État (Notes pour une recherche"), is an essay by the French Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser. First published in 1970, it advances Althusser's theory of ideology. Where Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels posited a thinly-sketched theory of ideology as false consciousness, Althusser draws upon the works of later theorists such as Antonio Gramsci, Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan to proffer a more elaborate redefinition of the theory. Althusser's theory of ideology remains influential since it was written.
An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity.
Industrial sociology, until recently a crucial research area within the field of sociology of work, examines "the direction and implications of trends in technological change, globalization, labour markets, work organization, managerial practices and employment relations to the extent to which these trends are intimately related to changing patterns of inequality in modern societies and to the changing experiences of individuals and families the ways in which workers challenge, resist and make their own contributions to the patterning of work and shaping of work institutions.".
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
An institute is an organisational body created for a certain purpose.
Institutional abuse is the maltreatment of a person (often children or older adults) from a system of power.
Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of the evolutionary process and the role of institutions in shaping economic behaviour.
Institutional logic is a core concept in sociological theory and organizational studies.
Institutional memory is a collective set of facts, concepts, experiences and knowledge held by a group of people.
Institutional racism (also known as institutionalized racism) is a form of racism expressed in the practice of social and political institutions.
Institutionalist political economy, also known as institutional political economy or IPE, refers to a body of political economy thought stemming from the works of Thorstein Veblen, John Commons, Wesley Mitchell, John Dewey which emphasizes the impact of historical and socio-political factors on the evolution of economic practices.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
A linkage institution is a structure within a society that connects the people to the government or centralized authority.
The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.
The is a period of economic stagnation in Japan following the Japanese asset price bubble's collapse in late 1991 and early 1992.
Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
In mathematical analysis, the maxima and minima (the respective plurals of maximum and minimum) of a function, known collectively as extrema (the plural of extremum), are the largest and smallest value of the function, either within a given range (the local or relative extrema) or on the entire domain of a function (the global or absolute extrema).
The term social mechanisms and mechanism-based explanations of social phenomenon originate from the philosophy of science.
Media studies is a discipline and field of study that deals with the content, history, and effects of various media; in particular, the mass media.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A meme is an idea, behavior, or style that spreads from person to person within a culture—often with the aim of conveying a particular phenomenon, theme, or meaning represented by the meme.
Memetic institutionalism is a term created by Mikael Sandberg in Social Capital and Democratisation.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military sociology aims toward the systematic study of the military as a social group rather than as a Military organization.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
In economics, money illusion, or price illusion, is the tendency of people to think of currency in nominal, rather than real, terms.
In game theory, the Nash equilibrium, named after American mathematician John Forbes Nash Jr., is a solution concept of a non-cooperative game involving two or more players in which each player is assumed to know the equilibrium strategies of the other players, and no player has anything to gain by changing only their own strategy.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Neo-Marxism is a broad term encompasing twentieth-century approaches that amend or extend Marxism and Marxist theory, typically by incorporating elements from other intellectual traditions such as critical theory, psychoanalysis, or existentialism (in the case of Jean-Paul Sartre).
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
Path dependence explains how the set of decisions one faces for any given circumstance is limited by the decisions one has made in the past or by the events that one has experienced, even though past circumstances may no longer be relevant.
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
In sociology, a peer group is both a social group and a primary group of people who have similar interests (homophily), age, background, or social status.
Penology (from "penal", Latin poena, "punishment" and the Greek suffix -logia, "study of") is a section of criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice of various societies in their attempts to repress criminal activities, and satisfy public opinion via an appropriate treatment regime for persons convicted of criminal offences.
Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence that seeks to answer basic questions about law and legal systems, such as "What is law?", "What are the criteria for legal validity?", "What is the relationship between law and morality?", and many other similar questions.
A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
Psychiatric hospitals, also known as mental hospitals, mental health units, mental asylums or simply asylums, are hospitals or wards specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders, such as clinical depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.
Public choice or public choice theory is "the use of economic tools to deal with traditional problems of political science".
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
A research institute or research center is an establishment founded for doing research.
A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behaviors, rights, obligations, beliefs, and norms as conceptualized by people in a social situation.
Schenck v. United States,, is a United States Supreme Court case concerning enforcement of the Espionage Act of 1917 during World War I. A unanimous Supreme Court, in an opinion by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., concluded that defendants who distributed fliers to draft-age men, urging resistance to induction, could be convicted of an attempt to obstruct the draft, a criminal offense.
A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
The term social order can be used in two senses.
Within the context of law, "social purpose" is a scheme of statutory construction declaring that a statute should not be construed in a way that would violate normal societal values or good.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
The sociology of culture and, the related, cultural sociology concerns the systematic analysis of culture, usually understood as the ensemble of symbolic codes used by a members of a society, as it is manifested in the society.
The sociology of education is the study of how public institutions and individual experiences affect education and its outcomes.
The sociology of health and illness, alternatively the sociology of health and wellness (or simply health sociology), examines the interaction between society and health.
Sociology of language is the study of the relations between language and society.
The sociology of law (or legal sociology) is often described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies.
The sociology of punishment seeks to understand why and how we punish; the general justifying aim of punishment and the principle of distribution.
Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology.
The sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) is the study of science as a social activity, especially dealing with "the social conditions and effects of science, and with the social structures and processes of scientific activity." The sociology of scientific ignorance (SSI) is complementary to the sociology of scientific knowledge.
Sociological studies of the family look at.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Spontaneous order, also named self-organization in the hard sciences, is the spontaneous emergence of order out of seeming chaos.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
The Organization Man is a bestselling book by William H. Whyte, originally published by Simon & Schuster in 1956.
A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of Birmingham (informally Birmingham University) is a public research university located in Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
A virtual community is a social network of individuals who interact through specific social media, potentially crossing geographical and political boundaries in order to pursue mutual interests or goals.
William Hollingsworth "Holly" Whyte (October 1, 1917 – January 12, 1999) was an American urbanist, organizational analyst, journalist and people-watcher.
Democratic institution, Government institution, Government institutions, History of institutions, Instituted, Instituting, Institutional, Institutional structure, Institutions, Meta-institution, Meta-institutions, Metainstitution, Metainstitutions, Social Organizaiton, Social institution, Social institutions, Social organisation.