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Instruction set architecture

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An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer. [1]

145 relations: Accumulator (computing), Addressing mode, Advanced Micro Devices, AltiVec, Arithmetic logic unit, Arity, ARM architecture, Assembly language, Athlon, AVR32, Binary multiplier, Binary-code compatibility, Bit field, Bitwise operation, Branch (computer science), Byte, Bytecode, Call stack, Common Language Runtime, Compare-and-swap, Comparison of instruction set architectures, Compiler, Complex instruction set computer, Computer, Computer architecture, Computer data storage, Computer hardware, Computer performance, Computing, Consistency model, Control flow, Control store, Control unit, Coprocessor, CPU cache, Data type, DEC Alpha, Delay slot, Digital signal processor, Direct memory access, Emulator, Executable compression, Explicitly parallel instruction computing, Fetch-and-add, Field-programmable gate array, Flash memory, Forth (programming language), Fred Brooks, Harvard architecture, IBM System/360, ..., Immunity-aware programming, Indirect branch, Input/output, Instruction pipelining, Instruction set architecture, Instruction set simulator, Instruction-level parallelism, Intel, Interface (computing), Interpreter (computing), Interrupt, Java virtual machine, Just-in-time compilation, Kolmogorov complexity, Linearizability, List of instruction sets, Load-link/store-conditional, Load/store architecture, Load–store unit, Logarithm, Logical conjunction, Logical disjunction, Machine code, Mainframe computer, MCP-1600, Micro-operation, Microarchitecture, Microcode, Microcontroller, Minimal instruction set computer, MIPS architecture, MMX (instruction set), MOS Technology 6502, Motorola 68000, Multi-core processor, Multiply–accumulate operation, Negation, Non-blocking algorithm, NOP, NOP slide, One instruction set computer, Opcode, Operand, OVPsim, P5 (microarchitecture), Parallel computing, Personal computer, Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements, Power Architecture, Predication (computer architecture), Processor design, Processor register, Programmable logic array, Programmer, Programming language, Programming model, Random-access memory, Read-modify-write, Read-only memory, Reconfigurable computing, Reduced instruction set computer, Register allocation, Register transfer language, Rekursiv, SIMD, Simulation, Sine, Smalltalk, Software, SPARC, Square root, Stack (abstract data type), Stack machine, Status register, String (computer science), Subroutine, Supercomputer, System call, Test-and-set, TI MSP430, Transcendental function, Transmeta, Transport triggered architecture, Trigonometric functions, Typification, VAX, Vector processor, Very long instruction word, Virtual machine, Western Digital, Word (computer architecture), X86 instruction listings, Z/Architecture, Zilog Z80, 3DNow!. Expand index (95 more) »

Accumulator (computing)

In a computer's central processing unit (CPU), an accumulator is a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored.

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Addressing mode

Addressing modes are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs.

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Advanced Micro Devices

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.

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AltiVec

AltiVec is a single-precision floating point and integer SIMD instruction set designed and owned by Apple, IBM, and Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola's Semiconductor Products Sector) — the AIM alliance.

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Arithmetic logic unit

An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers.

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Arity

In logic, mathematics, and computer science, the arity of a function or operation is the number of arguments or operands that the function takes.

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ARM architecture

ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.

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Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

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Athlon

Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of x86-compatible microprocessors designed and manufactured by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).

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AVR32

The AVR32 is a 32-bit RISC microcontroller architecture produced by Atmel.

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Binary multiplier

A binary multiplier is an electronic circuit used in digital electronics, such as a computer, to multiply two binary numbers.

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Binary-code compatibility

Binary-code compatibility (binary compatible or object-code-compatible) is a property of computer systems meaning that they can run the same executable code, typically machine code for a general-purpose computer CPU.

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Bit field

A bit field is a data structure used in computer programming.

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Bitwise operation

In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.

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Branch (computer science)

A branch is an instruction in a computer program that can cause a computer to begin executing a different instruction sequence and thus deviate from its default behavior of executing instructions in order.

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Byte

The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.

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Bytecode

Bytecode, also termed portable code or p-code, is a form of instruction set designed for efficient execution by a software interpreter.

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Call stack

In computer science, a call stack is a stack data structure that stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program.

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Common Language Runtime

The Common Language Runtime (CLR), the virtual machine component of Microsoft's.NET framework, manages the execution of.NET programs.

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Compare-and-swap

In computer science, compare-and-swap (CAS) is an atomic instruction used in multithreading to achieve synchronization.

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Comparison of instruction set architectures

Computer architectures are often described as n-bit architectures.

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Compiler

A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).

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Complex instruction set computer

A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a computer in which single instructions can execute several low-level operations (such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store) or are capable of multi-step operations or addressing modes within single instructions.

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Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer architecture

In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.

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Computer data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

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Computer hardware

Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.

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Computer performance

Computer performance is the amount of work accomplished by a computer system.

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Computing

Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.

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Consistency model

In computer science, Consistency models are used in distributed systems like distributed shared memory systems or distributed data stores (such as a filesystems, databases, optimistic replication systems or Web caching).

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Control flow

In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.

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Control store

A control store is the part of a CPU's control unit that stores the CPU's microprogram.

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Control unit

The control unit (CU) is a component of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) that directs the operation of the processor.

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Coprocessor

A coprocessor is a computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor (the CPU).

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CPU cache

A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average cost (time or energy) to access data from the main memory.

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Data type

In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.

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DEC Alpha

Alpha, originally known as Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), designed to replace their 32-bit VAX complex instruction set computer (CISC) ISA.

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Delay slot

In computer architecture, a delay slot is an instruction slot that gets executed without the effects of a preceding instruction.

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Digital signal processor

A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.

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Direct memory access

Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of computer systems that allows certain hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU).

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Emulator

In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system (called the host) to behave like another computer system (called the guest).

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Executable compression

Executable compression is any means of compressing an executable file and combining the compressed data with decompression code into a single executable.

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Explicitly parallel instruction computing

Explicitly parallel instruction computing (EPIC) is a term coined in 1997 by the HP–Intel alliance to describe a computing paradigm that researchers had been investigating since the early 1980s.

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Fetch-and-add

In computer science, the fetch-and-add CPU instruction (FAA) atomically increments the contents of a memory location by a specified value.

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Field-programmable gate array

A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".

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Flash memory

Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.

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Forth (programming language)

Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore.

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Fred Brooks

Frederick Phillips "Fred" Brooks Jr. (born April 19, 1931) is an American computer architect, software engineer, and computer scientist, best known for managing the development of IBM's System/360 family of computers and the OS/360 software support package, then later writing candidly about the process in his seminal book The Mythical Man-Month.

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Harvard architecture

The Harvard architecture is a computer architecture with physically separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data.

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IBM System/360

The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.

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Immunity-aware programming

When writing firmware for an embedded system, immunity-aware programming refers to programming techniques which improve the tolerance of transient errors in the program counter or other modules of a program that would otherwise lead to failure.

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Indirect branch

An indirect branch (also known as a computed jump, indirect jump and register-indirect jump) is a type of program control instruction present in some machine language instruction sets.

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Input/output

In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.

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Instruction pipelining

Instruction pipelining is a technique for implementing instruction-level parallelism within a single processor.

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Instruction set architecture

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.

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Instruction set simulator

An instruction set simulator (ISS) is a simulation model, usually coded in a high-level programming language, which mimics the behavior of a mainframe or microprocessor by "reading" instructions and maintaining internal variables which represent the processor's registers.

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Instruction-level parallelism

Instruction-level parallelism (ILP) is a measure of how many of the instructions in a computer program can be executed simultaneously.

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Intel

Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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Interface (computing)

In computing, an interface is a shared boundary across which two or more separate components of a computer system exchange information.

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Interpreter (computing)

In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program.

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Interrupt

In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.

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Java virtual machine

A Java virtual machine (JVM) is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java programs as well as programs written in other languages and compiled to Java bytecode.

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Just-in-time compilation

In computing, just-in-time (JIT) compilation, (also dynamic translation or run-time compilation), is a way of executing computer code that involves compilation during execution of a program – at run time – rather than prior to execution.

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Kolmogorov complexity

In algorithmic information theory (a subfield of computer science and mathematics), the Kolmogorov complexity of an object, such as a piece of text, is the length of the shortest computer program (in a predetermined programming language) that produces the object as output.

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Linearizability

In concurrent programming, an operation (or set of operations) is atomic, linearizable, indivisible or uninterruptible if it appears to the rest of the system to occur at once without being interrupted.

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List of instruction sets

A list of computer central processor instruction sets: (By alphabetical order by its manufacturer.).

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Load-link/store-conditional

In computer science, load-link and store-conditional (LL/SC) are a pair of instructions used in multithreading to achieve synchronization.

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Load/store architecture

In computer engineering, a load/store architecture is an instruction set architecture that divides instructions into two categories: memory access (load and store between memory and registers), and ALU operations (which only occur between registers).

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Load–store unit

In computer engineering a load–store unit is a specialized execution unit responsible for executing all load and store instructions, generating virtual addresses of load and store operations and loading data from memory or storing it back to memory from registers.

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Logarithm

In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.

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Logical conjunction

In logic, mathematics and linguistics, And (∧) is the truth-functional operator of logical conjunction; the and of a set of operands is true if and only if all of its operands are true.

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Logical disjunction

In logic and mathematics, or is the truth-functional operator of (inclusive) disjunction, also known as alternation; the or of a set of operands is true if and only if one or more of its operands is true.

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Machine code

Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Mainframe computer

Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.

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MCP-1600

The MCP-1600 was a multi-chip microprocessor made by Western Digital in the late 1970s through the early 1980s.

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Micro-operation

In computer central processing units, micro-operations (also known as a micro-ops or μops) are detailed low-level instructions used in some designs to implement complex machine instructions (sometimes termed macro-instructions in this context).

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Microarchitecture

In computer engineering, microarchitecture, also called computer organization and sometimes abbreviated as µarch or uarch, is the way a given instruction set architecture (ISA), is implemented in a particular processor.

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Microcode

Microcode is a computer hardware technique that imposes an interpreter between the CPU hardware and the programmer-visible instruction set architecture of the computer.

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Microcontroller

A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.

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Minimal instruction set computer

Minimal Instruction Set Computer (MISC) is a processor architecture with a very small number of basic operations and corresponding opcodes.

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MIPS architecture

MIPS (an acronym for Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA)Price, Charles (September 1995).

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MMX (instruction set)

MMX is a single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 with its P5-based Pentium line of microprocessors, designated as "Pentium with MMX Technology".

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MOS Technology 6502

The MOS Technology 6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".

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Motorola 68000

The Motorola 68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the m68k or Motorola 68k, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit instruction set, with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus, but with a 16-bit data ALU and two 16-bit arithmetic ALUs and a 16-bit external data bus, designed and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector.

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Multi-core processor

A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent processing units called cores, which read and execute program instructions.

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Multiply–accumulate operation

In computing, especially digital signal processing, the multiply–accumulate operation is a common step that computes the product of two numbers and adds that product to an accumulator.

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Negation

In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P (¬P), which is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true.

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Non-blocking algorithm

In computer science, an algorithm is called non-blocking if failure or suspension of any thread cannot cause failure or suspension of another thread; for some operations, these algorithms provide a useful alternative to traditional blocking implementations.

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NOP

In computer science, a NOP, no-op, or NOOP (pronounced "no op"; short for no operation) is an assembly language instruction, programming language statement, or computer protocol command that does nothing.

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NOP slide

In computer security, a NOP slide, NOP sled or NOP ramp is a sequence of NOP (no-operation) instructions meant to "slide" the CPU's instruction execution flow to its final, desired destination whenever the program branches to a memory address anywhere on the slide.

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One instruction set computer

A one instruction set computer (OISC), sometimes called an ultimate reduced instruction set computer (URISC), is an abstract machine that uses only one instructionobviating the need for a machine language opcode.

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Opcode

In computing, an opcode (abbreviated from operation code, also known as instruction syllable, instruction parcel or opstring) is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed.

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Operand

In mathematics an operand is the object of a mathematical operation, i.e. it is the quantity that is operated on.

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OVPsim

OVPsim is a multiprocessor platform emulator (often called a full-system simulator) used to run unchanged production binaries of the target hardware.

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P5 (microarchitecture)

The first Pentium microprocessor was introduced by Intel on March 22, 1993.

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Parallel computing

Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.

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Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

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Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements

The Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements are a set of conditions sufficient for a computer architecture to support system virtualization efficiently.

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Power Architecture

Power Architecture is a registered trademark for similar reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction sets for microprocessors developed and manufactured by such companies as IBM, Freescale/NXP, AppliedMicro, LSI, Teledyne e2v and Synopsys.

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Predication (computer architecture)

In computer science, predication is an architectural feature that provides an alternative to conditional branch instructions.

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Processor design

Processor design is the design engineering task of creating a processor, a component of computer hardware.

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Processor register

In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Programmable logic array

A programmable logic array (PLA) is a kind of programmable logic device used to implement combinational logic circuits.

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Programmer

A programmer, developer, dev, coder, or software engineer is a person who creates computer software.

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Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

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Programming model

A Programming model refers to the style of programming where execution is invoked by making what appear to be library calls.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Read-modify-write

In computer science, read-modify-write is a class of atomic operations (such as test-and-set, fetch-and-add, and compare-and-swap) that both read a memory location and write a new value into it simultaneously, either with a completely new value or some function of the previous value.

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Read-only memory

Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.

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Reconfigurable computing

Reconfigurable computing is a computer architecture combining some of the flexibility of software with the high performance of hardware by processing with very flexible high speed computing fabrics like field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).

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Reduced instruction set computer

A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).

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Register allocation

In compiler optimization, register allocation is the process of assigning a large number of target program variables onto a small number of CPU registers.

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Register transfer language

In computer science, register transfer language (RTL) is a kind of intermediate representation (IR) that is very close to assembly language, such as that which is used in a compiler.

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Rekursiv

Rekursiv was a computer processor designed by David M. Harland in the mid-1980s for Linn Smart Computing in Glasgow, Scotland.

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SIMD

Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) is a class of parallel computers in Flynn's taxonomy.

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Simulation

Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.

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Sine

In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle.

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Smalltalk

Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.

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Software

Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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SPARC

SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.

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Square root

In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that; in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or) is a. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16 because.

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Stack (abstract data type)

In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations.

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Stack machine

In computer science, computer engineering and programming language implementations, a stack machine is a type of computer.

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Status register

A status register, flag register, or condition code register (CCR) is a collection of status flag bits for a processor.

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String (computer science)

In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.

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Subroutine

In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.

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Supercomputer

A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.

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System call

In computing, a system call is the programmatic way in which a computer program requests a service from the kernel of the operating system it is executed on.

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Test-and-set

In computer science, the test-and-set instruction is an instruction used to write 1 (set) to a memory location and return its old value as a single atomic (i.e., non-interruptible) operation.

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TI MSP430

The MSP430 is a mixed-signal microcontroller family from Texas Instruments.

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Transcendental function

A transcendental function is an analytic function that does not satisfy a polynomial equation, in contrast to an algebraic function.

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Transmeta

Transmeta Corporation was an American fabless semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California.

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Transport triggered architecture

In computer architecture, a transport triggered architecture (TTA) is a kind of processor design in which programs directly control the internal transport buses of a processor.

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Trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.

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Typification

Typification is a process of creating standard (typical) social construction based on standard assumptions.

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VAX

VAX is a discontinued instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s.

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Vector processor

In computing, a vector processor or array processor is a central processing unit (CPU) that implements an instruction set containing instructions that operate on one-dimensional arrays of data called vectors, compared to scalar processors, whose instructions operate on single data items.

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Very long instruction word

Very long instruction word (VLIW) refers to instruction set architectures designed to exploit instruction level parallelism (ILP).

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Virtual machine

In computing, a virtual machine (VM) is an emulation of a computer system.

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Western Digital

Western Digital Corporation (abbreviated WDC, commonly shortened to Western Digital or WD) is an American computer data storage company and one of the largest computer hard disk drive manufacturers in the world, along with its main competitor Seagate Technology.

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Word (computer architecture)

In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.

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X86 instruction listings

The x86 instruction set refers to the set of instructions that x86-compatible microprocessors support.

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Z/Architecture

z/Architecture, initially and briefly called ESA Modal Extensions (ESAME), is IBM's 64-bit instruction set architecture implemented by its mainframe computers.

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Zilog Z80

The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor.

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3DNow!

3DNow! is an extension to the x86 instruction set developed by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).

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0-operand instruction set, Arithmetic and logic operation, Arithmetic/logic instruction, Code density, Electronic action, Fixed length instruction, Fixed length instruction set, Fixed width instruction, Fixed width instruction set, Fixed-length instruction, Fixed-length instruction set, Fixed-width instruction, Fixed-width instruction set, Instruction (computer science), Instruction (computing), Instruction Set, Instruction Set Architecture, Instruction Sets, Instruction set, Instruction set architectures, Instruction width, Instruction(s) (computer science), Load and store instructions, Load/Store instruction, Load/store instruction, Native instruction, Register pressure, SIMD instruction, Variable length instruction, Variable length instruction set, Variable width instruction, Variable width instruction set, Variable-length instruction, Variable-length instruction set, Variable-width instruction, Variable-width instruction set, Zero address machine, Zero-address machine.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instruction_set_architecture

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