314 relations: A-box 1 of insulin gene, A-box 2 of insulin gene, A-box 3 of insulin gene, A-box 5 of insulin gene, Acetyl-CoA, Acetylation, Acetylcholine, Adenosine triphosphate, Adipocyte, Adiponectin, Adipose tissue, Adrenaline, Allele, Alpha cell, Amino acid, Amyloid, Amyloidosis, Anabolism, Anandamide, Anaphylaxis, Androgen, Anovulation, Antioxidant, Aqueous solution, Arne Tiselius, Arthur Riggs (geneticist), Autoimmunity, Autophagy, Édouard Laguesse, Baker's yeast, Beckman Research Institute, Berlin, Beta cell, Beta sheet, Biological half-life, Biomolecular structure, Biosynthesis, Blood sugar level, Blood sugar regulation, Brockmann body, Bucharest, C-box 1 of insulin gene, C-box 2 of insulin gene, C-peptide, CAAT enhancer binding, Calcium channel, CAMP responsive element modulator, Cannabinoid, Carbohydrate, Carbohydrate metabolism, ..., Carboxypeptidase E, Cardiovascular disease, Catabolism, Catecholamine, Cattle, Central nervous system, Charles Best (medical scientist), Charles Evans Hughes, Chen-Lu Tsou, Cholecystokinin, Citric acid cycle, City of Hope National Medical Center, Cognition, Combined rapid anterior pituitary evaluation panel, Cone snail, Conjoined gene, Conserved sequence, Conus geographus, Conus tulipa, Conventional insulin therapy, CREB, Crystal structure, Crystallography, Cytosol, DBP (gene), Democrat and Chronicle, Depolarization, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetic coma, Diet (nutrition), Diglyceride, Disulfide, DNA replication, Dorothy Hodgkin, E-box, E-box 1 of insulin gene, E-box 2 of insulin gene, Eli Lilly and Company, Elizabeth Hughes Gossett, Endocrine system, Endocrinology, Endocytosis, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endosome, Enzyme, EP300, Eponym, Escherichia coli, Ester, Eugene Lindsay Opie, Eukaryote, Exocrine gland, Extracellular signal–regulated kinases, Fat, Fatty acid, Fertility, Fibril, Frederick Banting, Frederick Sanger, G protein, G-box 1 of insulin gene, Gannett Company, Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Genentech, George B. Walden, George Ludwig Zuelzer, George Minot, Gerald Reaven, Gland, Glasgow, Glucagon, Glucagon-like peptide-1, Glucocorticoid receptor, Glucokinase, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glucose 6-phosphate, Glucose tolerance test, Glucose transporter, GLUT2, Glycerol, Glycogen, Glycogen synthase, Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, Glycolysis, Glycosuria, Glycosylation, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, GSK-3, HDAC1, Health system, Helmut Zahn, Herbert Boyer, Hirsutism, Histone, Histone deacetylase 2, Homeostasis, Human, Hydrogen, Hypertension, Hypodermic needle, Hypoglycemia, Hypothalamus, Iatrogenesis, ILPR, Incretin, Inhalable insulin, Inositol trisphosphate, Insulin, Insulin (medication), Insulin analog, Insulin aspart, Insulin detemir, Insulin glargine, Insulin glulisine, Insulin lispro, Insulin pen, Insulin pump, Insulin receptor, Insulin resistance, Insulin signal transduction pathway, Insulin tolerance test, Insulin-degrading enzyme, Insulinoma, Intensive insulin therapy, International Diabetes Federation, International unit, Intracellular, Islet cell transplantation, Israel Kleiner (biochemist), James Collip, James D. Havens, John Macleod (physiologist), John Ralston Williams, Joseph von Mering, Keiichi Itakura, Ketosis, Kir6.2, Latin, Leonard Thompson (diabetic), Ligand, Lipogenesis, Lipolysis, Liver, MAF (gene), Malonyl-CoA, Messenger RNA, Metabolic syndrome, Metabolism, Methylation, Microscope, Molar concentration, Mole (unit), Molecular mass, Myristic acid, Na+/K+-ATPase, Negative regulatory element, NeuroD, NEUROD1, Neuron, Nicolae Paulescu, Nitrogen, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Norepinephrine, Obesity, OGT (gene), Oscillation, Oskar Minkowski, Oxidative stress, Oxygen, Panayotis Katsoyannis, Pancreas, Pancreatic islets, Parasympathetic nervous system, Paul Langerhans, PAX4, PDX1, Peptide hormone, Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate, Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Phospholipase, Phospholipid, Phosphorylation, Pico-, Pig, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Portal vein, Post-translational modification, Potassium channel, POU2F1, Preproinsulin, Proinsulin, Promoter (genetics), Proprotein convertase, Proprotein convertase 1, Proprotein convertase 2, Proteasome, Protein, Protein dimer, Protein kinase B, Proteolysis, Pulsatile insulin, Pyruvate dehydrogenase, Radioimmunoassay, Reactive hypoglycemia, Reactive oxygen species, Receptor (biochemistry), Regulatory sequence, Ribbon diagram, Robert Bruce Merrifield, Rochester, New York, Rockefeller University, Romania, Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, RWTH Aachen University, Safflower, Scotland, Secretion, Signal peptide, Signal transduction, Silencer (genetics), Skeletal muscle, Species, Starch, Subcutaneous injection, Sucrose, Sugar substitute, Sulfonylurea, Sulfonylurea receptor, Sympathetic nervous system, Synthetic crystalline bovine insulin, Syringe, TCF12, TCF3, Teleost, The New York Times, Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Translation (biology), Triglyceride, Unified atomic mass unit, University of Chicago, University of Pittsburgh, University of Toronto, USF1, USF2, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, William Bosworth Castle, World War I, X-ray crystallography, Z-box of insulin gene, 2-Arachidonoylglycerol. 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A1 is a regulatory sequence for the insulin gene.
A2 is a regulatory sequence for the insulin gene.
A3 is a regulatory sequence for the insulin gene.
A5 is a regulatory sequence for the insulin gene.
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein hormone which is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Alpha cells (more commonly alpha-cells or α-cells) are endocrine cells in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amyloids are aggregates of proteins that become folded into a shape that allows many copies of that protein to stick together forming fibrils.
Amyloidosis is a group of diseases in which abnormal protein, known as amyloid fibrils, builds up in tissue.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Anovulation is when the ovaries do not release an oocyte during a menstrual cycle.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius (10 August 1902 – 29 October 1971) was a Swedish biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1948 "for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins.".
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Ancient Greek αὐτόφαγος autóphagos, meaning "self-devouring" and κύτος kýtos, meaning "hollow") is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components.
Gustave-Édouard Laguesse (23 April 1861 – 6 November 1927) was a French pathologist and histologist born in Dijon.
Baker's yeast is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol.
The Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope (BRI) is a not-for-profit medical research facility located at and partnering with the City of Hope National Medical Center in Duarte, CA, United States.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
Blood sugar regulation is the process by which the levels of blood sugar, primarily glucose, are maintained by the body within a narrow range.
Brockmann body is an endocrine organ in some teleost fish, and is composed of a collection of islet tissues.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
C1 is a regulatory sequence for the insulin gene.
C2 is a regulatory sequence for the insulin gene.
The connecting peptide, or C-peptide, is a short 31-amino-acid polypeptide that connects insulin's A-chain to its B-chain in the proinsulin molecule.
CAAT enhancer binding (CEB) is a regulatory sequence for the insulin gene.
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.
cAMP responsive element modulator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CREM gene, and it belongs to the cAMP-responsive element binding protein family.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.
Carboxypeptidase E (CPE), also known as carboxypeptidase H (CPH) and enkephalin convertase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CPE gene.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Charles Herbert Best (February 27, 1899 – March 31, 1978) was a Canadian medical scientist and one of the co-discoverers of insulin.
Charles Evans Hughes Sr. (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was an American statesman, Republican politician, and the 11th Chief Justice of the United States.
Zou Chenglu (17 May 1923 – 23 November 2006), better known in English as Chen-Lu Tsou, was a Chinese biochemist.
Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
City of Hope is a private, not-for-profit clinical research center, hospital and graduate medical school located in Duarte, California, United States.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
A triple bolus test or a dynamic pituitary function test is a medical diagnostic procedure used to assess a patient's pituitary function.
Cone snails, cone shells, or cones are common names for a large group of small to large-sized extremely venomous predatory sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs.
A conjoined gene (CG) is defined as a gene, which gives rise to transcripts by combining at least part of one exon from each of two or more distinct known (parent) genes which lie on the same chromosome, are in the same orientation, and often (95%) translate independently into different proteins.
In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) or proteins across species (orthologous sequences) or within a genome (paralogous sequences).
Conus geographus, popularly called the geography cone or the geographer cone, is a species of predatory cone snail.
Conus tulipa, common name the tulip cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
Conventional insulin therapy is a therapeutic regimen for treatment of diabetes mellitus which contrasts with the newer intensive insulin therapy.
CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) is a cellular transcription factor.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
D site of albumin promoter (albumin D-box) binding protein, also known as DBP, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the DBP gene.
The Democrat and Chronicle is a daily newspaper serving the greater Rochester, New York, area.
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
Diabetic coma is a reversible form of coma found in people with diabetes mellitus.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin (12 May 1910 – 29 July 1994) was a British chemist who developed protein crystallography, for which she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964.
An E-box (enhancer box) is a DNA response element found in some eukaryotes that acts as a protein-binding site and has been found to regulate gene expression in neurons, muscles, and other tissues.
E1 is a regulatory sequence for the insulin gene.
E2 is a regulatory sequence for the insulin gene.
Eli Lilly and Company is a global pharmaceutical company headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, with offices in 18 countries.
Elizabeth Hughes Gossett (August 19, 1907 April 21, 1981), the daughter of U.S. politician Charles Evans Hughes, was the first American, and one of the first people in the world, treated with insulin for type 1 diabetes.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside eukaryotic cells.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Histone acetyltransferase p300 also known as p300 HAT or E1A-associated protein p300 (where E1A.
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Eugene Lindsay Opie (5 July 1873 – 12 March 1971) was an American physician and pathologist who conducted research on the causes, transmission, and diagnosis of tuberculosis and on immunization against the disease.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Exocrine glands are glands that produce and secrete substances onto an epithelial surface by way of a duct.
In molecular biology, extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
Fibrils (from the Latin fibra) are structural biological materials found in nearly all living organisms.
Sir Frederick Grant Banting (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, physician, painter, and Nobel laureate noted as the co-discoverer of insulin and its therapeutic potential.
Frederick Sanger (13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist who twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, one of only two people to have done so in the same category (the other is John Bardeen in physics), the fourth person overall with two Nobel Prizes, and the third person overall with two Nobel Prizes in the sciences.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
G1 is a regulatory sequence for the insulin gene.
Gannett Company, Inc. is a publicly traded American media holding company headquartered in Tysons Corner, Virginia, near McLean in Greater Washington DC.
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) or gastroinhibitory peptide, also known as the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, is an inhibiting hormone of the secretin family of hormones.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genentech, Inc., is a biotechnology corporation which became a subsidiary of Roche in 2009.
George B. Walden (February 18, 1895 - August 6, 1982) was a chemist who worked for Eli Lilly and Company on the mass production of insulin.
George Ludwig Zuelzer (German spelling- Georg Ludwig Zülzer) (April 10, 1870 - October 16, 1949) was a German physician of Jewish ancestry who was a native of Berlin.
George Richards Minot (December 2, 1885 – February 25, 1950) was an American medical researcher who shared the 1934 Nobel Prize with George Hoyt Whipple and William P. Murphy for their pioneering work on pernicious anemia.
Gerald M. "Jerry" Reaven (July 28, 1928 – February 12, 2018) was an American endocrinologist and professor emeritus in medicine at the Stanford University School of Medicine in Stanford, California, United States.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a 30 amino acid long peptide hormone deriving from the tissue-specific posttranslational processing of the proglucagon peptide.
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.
Glucokinase is an enzyme that facilitates phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glucose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Robison ester) is a glucose sugar phosphorylated at the hydroxy group on carbon 6.
The glucose tolerance test is a medical test in which glucose is given and blood samples taken afterward to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood.
Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose across the plasma membrane.
Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) also known as solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 2 (SLC2A2) is a transmembrane carrier protein that enables protein facilitated glucose movement across cell membranes.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycogen synthase (UDP-glucose-glycogen glucosyltransferase) is a key enzyme in glycogenesis, the conversion of glucose into glycogen.
Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
Glycosuria or glucosuria is the excretion of glucose into the urine.
Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates the addition of phosphate molecules onto serine and threonine amino acid residues.
Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HDAC1 gene.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Helmut Zahn (* June 13, 1916 in Erlangen; † November 14, 2004 in Aachen) was a German chemist who is often credited as the first to synthesize Insulin in 1963.
Herbert Wayne "Herb" Boyer (born July 10, 1936) is a researcher and entrepreneur in biotechnology.
Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HDAC2 gene.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypodermic needle features A hypodermic needle (from Greek ὑπο- (under-), and δέρμα (skin)), one of a category of medical tools which enter the skin, called sharps, is a very thin, hollow tube with a sharp tip that contains a small opening at the pointed end.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Iatrogenesis (from the Greek for "brought forth by the healer") refers to any effect on a person resulting from any activity of one or more persons acting as healthcare professionals or promoting products or services as beneficial to health that does not support a goal of the person affected.
The insulin-linked polymorphic region (ILPR) is a regulatory sequence on the insulin gene starting at position -363 upstream from the transcriptional start location of the 5' region and consists of multiple repeats of a ACA-GGGGT(G/C)(T/C)GGG consensus sequence.
Incretins are a group of metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in blood glucose levels.
Inhalable insulin is a powdered form of insulin, delivered with a nebulizer into the lungs where it is absorbed.
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Insulin is a protein hormone that is used as a medication to treat high blood glucose.
An insulin analog is an altered form of insulin, different from any occurring in nature, but still available to the human body for performing the same action as human insulin in terms of glycemic control.
Insulin aspart is a fast-acting insulin analog marketed by Novo Nordisk as NovoLog/NovoRapid.
Insulin detemir is a long-acting human insulin analogue for maintaining the basal level of insulin.
Insulin glargine, marketed under the names Lantus, among others, is a long-acting basal insulin analogue, given once daily to help control the blood sugar level of those with diabetes.
Insulin glulisine is a rapid-acting insulin analogue that differs from human insulin in that the amino acid asparagine at position B3 is replaced by lysine and the lysine in position B29 is replaced by glutamic acid.
Insulin lispro, sold under the brand name Humalog among others, is a fast acting insulin analog.
An insulin pen is used to inject insulin for the treatment of diabetes.
An insulin pump is a medical device used for the administration of insulin in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, also known as continuous subcutaneous insulin therapy.
The insulin receptor (IR) is a transmembrane receptor that is activated by insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II and belongs to the large class of tyrosine kinase receptors.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
The insulin transduction pathway is a biochemical pathway by which insulin increases the uptake of glucose into fat and muscle cells and reduces the synthesis of glucose in the liver and hence is involved in maintaining glucose homeostasis.
An insulin tolerance test (ITT) is a medical diagnostic procedure during which insulin is injected into a patient's vein, after which blood glucose is measured at regular intervals.
Insulin-degrading enzyme, also known as IDE, is an enzyme.
An insulinoma is a tumor of the pancreas that is derived from beta cells and secretes insulin.
Intensive insulin therapy or flexible insulin therapy is a therapeutic regimen for diabetes mellitus treatment.
The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) is a worldwide alliance of over 230 national diabetes associations in more than 160 countries, who have come together to enhance the lives of people with diabetes everywhere.
In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
Islet transplantation is the transplantation of isolated islets from a donor pancreas into another person.
Professor Israel Simon Kleiner (April 8, 1885 – June 15, 1966) was a biochemist whose work helped lead to the discovery of insulin.
James Bertram Collip, (November 20, 1892 – June 19, 1965) was a Candadian biochemist who was part of the Toronto group which isolated insulin.
James Dexter Havens (1900–1960) was a printmaker and painter in Rochester, New York, who is considered part of the color woodblock revival in America.
Prof John James Rickard Macleod, FRS FRSE LLD (6 September 1876 – 16 March 1935) was a Scottish biochemist and physiologist.
John Ralston Williams (December 27, 1874 – December 27, 1965)http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/summary/195/4/46-a was a Canadian-American physician who was an instrumental figure in the public health of Rochester, New York.
Josef, Baron von Mering (28 February 1849, in Cologne – 5 January 1908, at Halle an der Saale, Germany) was a German physician.
Keiichi Itakura (born February 18, 1942, Tokyo, Japan) is an organic chemist and a Professor in the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology at the Beckman Research Institute at City of Hope National Medical Center.
Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy.
Kir6.2 is a major subunit of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel, an inward-rectifier potassium ion channel.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leonard Thompson (1908–1935) is the first person to have received injection of insulin as a treatment for Type 1 diabetes.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Lipogenesis is the process by which acetyl-CoA is converted to fatty acids.
Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Transcription factor Maf also known as proto-oncogene c-Maf or V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the MAF gene.
Malonyl-CoA is a coenzyme A derivative of malonic acid.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Myristic acid (IUPAC systematic name: 1-tetradecanoic acid) is a common saturated fatty acid with the molecular formula CH3(CH2)12COOH.
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
Negative regulatory element (NRE) is a regulatory sequence for the insulin gene.
NeuroD, also called Beta2, is a basic helix loop helix transcription factor expressed in certain parts of brain, beta pancreatic cells and enteroendocrine cells.
Neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1), also called β2, is a transcription factor of the NeuroD-type.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Nicolae Constantin Paulescu (30 October 1869 (O.S.) – 17 July 1931) was a Romanian physiologist, professor of medicine, and politician, most famous for discovering insulin, who worked on pancreine (a pancreatic extract containing insulin).
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine—peptide N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, also known as O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase and O-GlcNAc transferase, OGT is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the OGT gene.
Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.
Oskar Minkowski (13 January 1858 – 18 July 1931) held a professorship at the University of Breslau and is most famous for his research on diabetes.
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Panayotis G. Katsoyannis is a biochemist who is often credited with being the first to synthesize insulin while leading a team at the University of Pittsburgh in the early 1960s.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Paul Langerhans (25 July 1847 – 20 July 1888) was a German pathologist, physiologist and biologist, credited with the discovery of the cells that secrete insulin, named after him as the islets of Langerhans.
Paired box gene 4, also known as PAX4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX4 gene.
PDX1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1), also known as insulin promoter factor 1, is a transcription factor necessary for pancreatic development, including β-cell maturation, and duodenal differentiation.
Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively.
Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), abbreviated PIP3, is the product of the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI 3-kinases) phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2).
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate or PtdIns(4,5)P2, also known simply as PIP2 or PI(4,5)P2, is a minor phospholipid component of cell membranes.
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI(3)Ks, PI-3Ks or by the HUGO official stem symbol for the gene family, PI3K(s)) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer.
A phospholipase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic substances.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Pico- (symbol p) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting one trillionth, a factor of 10−12.
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.
The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
Potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.
POU domain, class 2, transcription factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU2F1 gene.
Preproinsulin is the primary translational product of the INS gene.
Proinsulin is the prohormone precursor to insulin made in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, specialized regions of the pancreas.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Proprotein convertases are a family of proteins that activate other proteins.
Proprotein convertase 1, also known as prohormone convertase, prohormone convertase 3, or neuroendocrine convertase 1 and often abbreviated as PC1/3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCSK1 gene.
Proprotein convertase 2 (PC2) also known as prohormone convertase 2 or neuroendocrine convertase 2 (NEC2) is a serine protease and proprotein convertase PC2, like proprotein convertase 1 (PC1), is an enzyme responsible for the first step in the maturation of many neuroendocrine peptides from their precursors, such as the conversion of proinsulin to insulin intermediates.
Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.
Pulsatile intravenous insulin therapy, sometimes called metabolic activation therapy, or cellular activation therapy describes in a literal sense the intravenous injection of insulin in pulses versus continuous infusions.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase is the first component enzyme of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC).
A radioimmunoassay (RIA) is an immunoassay that uses radiolabeled molecules in a stepwise formation of immune complexes.
Reactive hypoglycemia, postprandial hypoglycemia, or sugar crash is a term describing recurrent episodes of symptomatic hypoglycemia occurring within 4 hours"Hypoglycemia." It can also be referred to as "sugar crash" or "glucose crash." National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, October 2008.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A regulatory sequence is a segment of a nucleic acid molecule which is capable of increasing or decreasing the expression of specific genes within an organism.
Ribbon diagrams, also known as Richardson diagrams, are 3D schematic representations of protein structure and are one of the most common methods of protein depiction used today.
Robert Bruce Merrifield (July 15, 1921 – May 14, 2006) was an American biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1984 for the invention of solid phase peptide synthesis.
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.
The Rockefeller University is a center for scientific research, primarily in the biological and medical sciences, that provides doctoral and postdoctoral education.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (July 19, 1921 – May 30, 2011) was an American medical physicist, and a co-winner of the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (together with Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally) for development of the radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique.
RWTH Aachen University or Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule AachenRWTH is the abbreviation of Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule, which translates into "Rheinish-Westphalian Technical University".
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
A signal peptide (sometimes referred to as signal sequence, targeting signal, localization signal, localization sequence, transit peptide, leader sequence or leader peptide) is a short peptide (usually 16-30 amino acids long) present at the N-terminus of the majority of newly synthesized proteins that are destined towards the secretory pathway.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
In genetics, a silencer is a DNA sequence capable of binding transcription regulation factors, called repressors.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.
Sulfonylureas (UK: sulphonylurea) are a class of organic compounds used in medicine and agriculture.
In the field of molecular biology, the sulfonylurea receptors (SUR) are membrane proteins which are the molecular targets of the sulfonylurea class of antidiabetic drugs whose mechanism of action is to promote insulin release from pancreatic beta cells.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
In 1965, Chinese scientists first synthesized crystalline bovine insulin, which was the first functional crystalline protein being fully synthesized in the world.
A syringe is a simple reciprocating pump consisting of a plunger (though in modern syringes it's actually a piston) that fits tightly within a cylindrical tube called a barrel.
Transcription factor 12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TCF12 gene.
Transcription factor 3 (E2A immunoglobulin enhancer-binding factors E12/E47), also known as TCF3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TCF3 gene.
The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
The Toronto General Hospital (TGH), is a major teaching hospital in downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and a part of the University Health Network.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Pittsburgh (commonly referred to as Pitt) is a state-related research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.
Upstream stimulatory factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the USF1 gene.
Upstream stimulatory factor 2 is a protein that in humans just encoded by the USF2 gene.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, of which pernicious anemia is a type, is a disease in which not enough red blood cells are produced due to a deficiency of vitamin B12.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
William Bosworth Castle (October 21, 1897 – August 9, 1990) was an American physician and physiologist who transformed hematology from a "descriptive art to a dynamic interdisciplinary science.".
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Z is a regulatory sequence for the insulin gene.
2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid, an endogenous agonist of the CB1 receptor and the primary endogenous ligand for the CB2 receptor.
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