128 relations: Abdominal obesity, Acanthosis nigricans, Acidosis, Adipocyte, Adipokine, Adipose tissue, Advanced glycation end-product, Amylomaize, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, Bariatric surgery, Beta cell, Biochemical Pharmacology (journal), Blood, Blood plasma, Blood sugar level, C-Jun N-terminal kinases, Carbohydrate, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Chronic Somogyi rebound, Chronic stress, Cushing's syndrome, Cytokine, Diabetes (journal), Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Digestion, Donohue syndrome, Duodenum, Dyslipidemia, Electron transport chain, Endocrinology, Exercise, Familial partial lipodystrophy, Fast food, Fasting, Fat, Fatty acid, Fibrinolysis, Fructose, Gastroparesis, Gestational diabetes, Glucocorticoid, Gluconeogenesis, Glucosamine, Glucose, Glucose clamp technique, Glucose tolerance test, Glucose transporter, GLUT4, ..., Glycation, Glycemic index, Glycogen, Gold standard (test), Growth hormone therapy, Harold Percival Himsworth, Hepatitis C, High-density lipoprotein, Homeostatic model assessment, Hydrolysis, Hyperglycemia, Hyperinsulinemia, Hypertriglyceridemia, Hypoglycemia, Impaired glucose tolerance, Infection, Insulin, Insulin receptor, Interleukin, Intravenous therapy, Iron overload, Isoniazid, Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults, Leptin, Lipogenesis, Lipotoxicity, Liver, LMNA, Logarithm, Management of HIV/AIDS, Medication, Metabolic syndrome, Metabolism, Metformin, Methadone, Minute, Mitochondrion, Monosaccharide, Mucous membrane, Muscle, NF-κB, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Obesity, Olanzapine, Omega-3 fatty acid, Pancreas, Pancreatic islets, Pathology, PDF, Peripheral vascular system, Phospholipid, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Polyunsaturated fat, Prediabetes, Progestogen, Protease inhibitor (pharmacology), Protein, Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, Reference ranges for blood tests, Resistant starch, Resistin, Rifampicin, Risk factor, Risperidone, Science Daily, Starch, Sucrose, Superoxide dismutase, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Thiazolidinedione, Thrombophilia, Triglyceride, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Uncoupling protein, Vitamin D, Weight loss, World Health Organization. Expand index (78 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.
Acanthosis nigricans is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin.
Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
The adipokines, or adipocytokines (Greek adipo-, fat; cytos-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are cytokines (cell signaling proteins) secreted by adipose tissue.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are proteins or lipids that become glycated as a result of exposure to sugars.
Amylomaize was a term coined in the late 1940s by Robert P. Bear of Bear Hybrids Corn Company in Decatur, Illinois to describe his discovery and commercial breeding of a cornstarch with high (>50%) amylose content, also called high amylose starch.
The Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal.
Bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have obesity.
Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
Biochemical Pharmacology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Elsevier.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), were originally identified as kinases that bind and phosphorylate c-Jun on Ser-63 and Ser-73 within its transcriptional activation domain.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Chronic Somogyi rebound is a contested explanation of phenomena of elevated blood sugars in the morning.
Chronic stress is the response to emotional pressure suffered for a prolonged period of time in which an individual perceives he or she has little or no control.
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Diabetes is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published since 1952 by the American Diabetes Association.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Donohue syndrome (also known as leprechaunism) is an extremely rare and severe genetic disorder.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPL), also known as Köbberling–Dunnigan syndrome, is a rare genetic metabolic condition characterized by the loss of subcutaneous fat.
Fast food is a mass-produced food that is typically prepared and served quicker than traditional foods.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fibrinolysis is a process that prevents blood clots from growing and becoming problematic.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Gastroparesis (GP also called delayed gastric emptying) is a medical condition consisting of a paresis (partial paralysis) of the stomach, resulting in food remaining in the stomach for an abnormally long time.
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glucose clamp technique is a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance.
The glucose tolerance test is a medical test in which glucose is given and blood samples taken afterward to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood.
Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose across the plasma membrane.
Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a protein encoded, in humans, by the SLC2A4 gene.
Glycation (sometimes called non-enzymatic glycosylation) is the result of the covalent bonding of a sugar molecule, such as glucose or fructose, to a protein or lipid molecule, without the controlling action of an enzyme.
The glycemic index or glycaemic index (GI) is a number associated with the carbohydrates in a particular type of food that indicates the effect of these carbohydrates on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
In medicine and statistics, gold standard test is usually diagnostic test or benchmark that is the best available under reasonable conditions.
Growth hormone therapy refers to the use of growth hormone (GH) as a prescription medication—it is one form of hormone therapy.
Sir Harold Percival (Harry) Himsworth, KCB, FRS (19 May 1905 – 1 November 1993) was a British scientist, best known for his medical research on diabetes mellitus.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) is a method used to quantify insulin resistance and beta-cell function.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hyperinsulinemia, or hyperinsulinaemia is a condition in which there are excess levels of insulin circulating in the blood relative to the level of glucose.
Hypertriglyceridemia denotes high (hyper-) blood levels (-emia) of triglycerides, the most abundant fatty molecule in most organisms.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
The insulin receptor (IR) is a transmembrane receptor that is activated by insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II and belongs to the large class of tyrosine kinase receptors.
Interleukins (ILs) are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes).
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Iron overload (variously known as haemochromatosis, hemochromatosis, hemochromocytosis, Celtic curse, Irish illness, British gene, Scottish sickness and bronzing diabetes) indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause.
Isoniazid, also known as isonicotinylhydrazide (INH), is an antibiotic used for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) is a form of diabetes mellitus type 1 that occurs in adulthood, often with a slower course of onset than type 1 diabetes diagnosed in juveniles.
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.
Lipogenesis is the process by which acetyl-CoA is converted to fatty acids.
Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lamin A/C also known as LMNA is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LMNA gene.
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
The minute is a unit of time or angle.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the types of fatty liver which occurs when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver due to causes other than excessive alcohol use.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The peripheral vascular system consists of the veins and arteries not in the chest or abdomen (i.e. in the arms, hands, legs and feet).
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is an intracellular signaling pathway important in regulating the cell cycle.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.
Polyunsaturated fats are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds.
Prediabetes is the precursor stage before diabetes mellitus in which not all of the symptoms required to diagnose diabetes are present, but blood sugar is abnormally high.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.g. HIV-1 protease) and blocking proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) is derived using the inverse of the sum of the logarithms of the fasting insulin and fasting glucose: This index correlates well with glucose clamp studies (r.
Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.
Resistant starch (RS) is starch, including its degradation products, that escapes from digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals.
Resistin also known as adipose tissue-specific secretory factor (ADSF) or C/EBP-epsilon-regulated myeloid-specific secreted cysteine-rich protein (XCP1) is a cysteine-rich adipose-derived peptide hormone that in humans is encoded by the RETN gene.
Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2&minus) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism is a peer-reviewed medical journal in the field of endocrinology and metabolism.
The thiazolidinediones, abbreviated as TZD, also known as glitazones after the prototypical drug ciglitazone, are a class of heterocyclic compounds consisting of a five-membered C3NS ring.
Thrombophilia (sometimes hypercoagulability or a prothrombotic state) is an abnormality of blood coagulation that increases the risk of thrombosis (blood clots in blood vessels).
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.
An uncoupling protein (UCP) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that is a regulated proton channel or transporter.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.