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Integrated circuit

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An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. [1]

239 relations: Accelerometer, Active filter, Active pixel sensor, Adder (electronics), Aerospace, Airbag, Altera, Amiga, Amplifier, Analog-to-digital converter, Analogue electronics, Apollo Guidance Computer, Apollo program, Apple Inc., Application-specific integrated circuit, Ball grid array, Biodegradation, Bioelectronics, Bipolar junction transistor, Boolean algebra, British Leyland Motor Corp v Armstrong Patents Co, Busicom, Capacitor, Carbon nanotube field-effect transistor, Central processing unit, Charge-coupled device, Chemical element, Chip art, Chip carrier, Cleanroom, Clock rate, CMOS, Computer, Computer memory, Copper interconnect, Copper(I) oxide, Corrosion, Crystal, Crystal structure, De facto standard, Debugging, Demodulation, Dennard scaling, Design flow (EDA), Die (integrated circuit), Digital electronics, Digital Light Processing, Digital potentiometer, Digital signal processor, Digital-to-analog converter, ..., Doping (semiconductor), Dual in-line package, Electron microscope, Electronic circuit, Electronic component, Electronic design automation, Electronics, Fairchild Semiconductor, Federico Faggin, Field-programmable gate array, Flatpack (electronics), Flexible display, Flexible electronics, Flip chip, Flip-flop (electronics), Frank Wanlass, Frequency mixer, Frequency modulation, Gallium arsenide, Gallium nitride, Geoffrey Dummer, Germanium, GlobalFoundries, Gyrator, Hans Camenzind, HCMOS, Hearing aid, Home appliance, Home computer, Hybrid integrated circuit, IBM, IBM Personal Computer, IEEE 802.11, IEEE Xplore, Implant (medicine), Inductor, Industrial computed tomography, Industrial processes, Information society, Inkjet printing, Integrated circuit design, Integrated injection logic, Intel, Intel 4004, Intel 80286, Intel 80486, Intel 8080, Intel 8088, International Roadmap for Devices and Systems, International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, Ion implantation, Jack Kilby, JEDEC, Kilocore, Kurt Lehovec, Land grid array, Laser, LGM-30 Minuteman, Light-emitting diode, List of IEEE milestones, List of LM-series integrated circuits, Loewe 3NF, Logic gate, Logic level, Low-κ dielectric, Low-power electronics, Manufacturing cost, Marcian Hoff, Masatoshi Shima, Mass production, Microcontroller, Microelectromechanical systems, Micrometre, Microprocessor, Microwave oven, Millimetre, Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Mixed-signal integrated circuit, Mobile phone, Monocrystalline silicon, Monolithic microwave integrated circuit, Moore's law, Moore's second law, MOS Technology 6502, MOSFET, Motorola 6800, Motorola 68000, Motorola 88000, Multi-chip module, Multi-core processor, Multi-threshold CMOS, Multigate device, Multiplexer, Nanometre, NASA, National Medal of Technology and Innovation, NMOS logic, Nobel Prize, Non-recurring engineering, Operational amplifier, Optical computing, Organic field-effect transistor, Parallel computing, P–n junction isolation, PDP-11, Periodic table, Philips, Photographic film, Photolithography, Photomask, Photon, Photonic integrated circuit, Pin grid array, Planar process, Plessey, PMOS logic, Power management integrated circuit, Power network design (IC), Printed circuit board, Processor register, Programmable logic device, Programming tool, Quad Flat Package, Qualcomm Atheros, Random-access memory, Resistor, Robert C. Sprague, Robert Noyce, Rolf Landauer, Roll-away computer, Royal Radar Establishment, Rubylith, Samsung, Scientific American, Self-aligned gate, Semiconductor, Semiconductor Chip Protection Act of 1984, Semiconductor device fabrication, Semiconductor fabrication plant, Semiconductor memory, Sensor, SerDes, Siemens, Silicon, Silicon on insulator, Silicon on sapphire, Silicon-germanium, Small Outline Integrated Circuit, Solar cell, Solid-state electronics, Sound chip, SPICE, State (computer science), Strained silicon, Strained silicon directly on insulator, Substrate (printing), Surface-mount technology, System in package, System on a chip, Texas Instruments, Thermal design power, Thermosonic bonding, Thick-film technology, Thin Small Outline Package, Thin-film transistor, Three-dimensional integrated circuit, Through-silicon via, Transistor, Transistor–transistor logic, TRIPS Agreement, TSMC, Ultraviolet, United States Air Force, Vacuum tube, Very-large-scale integration, Vibrating structure gyroscope, Visible spectrum, Wafer (electronics), Wafer testing, Wafer-scale integration, Washington, D.C., Wave, Wi-Fi, Wire bonding, X10 (programming language), Zilog Z80, 4000 series, 555 timer IC, 7400 series. Expand index (189 more) »

Accelerometer

An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration.

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Active filter

An active filter is a type of analog circuit implementing an electronic filter using active components, typically an amplifier.

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Active pixel sensor

An active-pixel sensor (APS) is an image sensor where each picture element ("pixel") has a photodetector and an active amplifier.

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Adder (electronics)

An adder is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers.

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Aerospace

Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).

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Airbag

An airbag is a type of vehicle safety device and is an occupant restraint system.

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Altera

Altera Corporation is an American manufacturer of programmable logic devices (PLDs), reconfigurable complex digital circuits.

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Amiga

The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985.

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Amplifier

An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).

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Analog-to-digital converter

In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.

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Analogue electronics

Analogue electronics (also spelled analog electronics) are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels.

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Apollo Guidance Computer

The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was a digital computer produced for the Apollo program that was installed on board each Apollo Command Module (CM) and Lunar Module (LM).

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Apollo program

The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.

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Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.

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Application-specific integrated circuit

An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.

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Ball grid array

A ball grid array (BGA) is a type of surface-mount packaging (a chip carrier) used for integrated circuits.

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Biodegradation

Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.

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Bioelectronics

Bioelectronics is a field of research in the convergence of biology and electronics.

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Bipolar junction transistor

|- align.

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Boolean algebra

In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.

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British Leyland Motor Corp v Armstrong Patents Co

British Leyland Motor Corp.

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Busicom

Busicom was a Japanese company that owned the rights to Intel's first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, which they created in partnership with Intel in 1970.

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Capacitor

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

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Carbon nanotube field-effect transistor

A carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) refers to a field-effect transistor that utilizes a single carbon nanotube or an array of carbon nanotubes as the channel material instead of bulk silicon in the traditional MOSFET structure.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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Charge-coupled device

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chip art

Chip art, also known as silicon art, chip graffiti or silicon doodling, refers to microscopic artwork built into integrated circuits, also called chips or ICs.

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Chip carrier

In electronics, a chip carrier is one of several kinds of surface mount technology packages for integrated circuits (commonly called "chips").

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Cleanroom

A cleanroom or clean room is a situation, ordinarily utilized as a part of assembling, including of pharmaceutical items or logical research, and in addition aviation semiconductor building applications with a low level of natural toxins, for example, tiny, airborne organisms, vaporized particles, and concoction vapors.

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Clock rate

The clock rate typically refers to the frequency at which a chip like a central processing unit (CPU), one core of a multi-core processor, is running and is used as an indicator of the processor's speed.

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CMOS

Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.

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Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

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Copper interconnect

Copper-based chips are semiconductor integrated circuits which use copper for interconnections in the metalization layer, the BEOL.

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Copper(I) oxide

Copper(I) oxide or cuprous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Cu2O.

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Corrosion

Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.

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Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

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De facto standard

A standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (for example, by early entrance to the market).

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Debugging

Debugging is the process of finding and resolving defects or problems within a computer program that prevent correct operation of computer software or a system.

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Demodulation

Demodulation is extracting the original information-bearing signal from a carrier wave.

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Dennard scaling

Dennard scaling, also known as MOSFET scaling, is a scaling law based on a 1974 paper co-authored by Robert H. Dennard, after whom it is named.

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Design flow (EDA)

Design flows are the explicit combination of electronic design automation tools to accomplish the design of an integrated circuit.

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Die (integrated circuit)

A die (pronunciation: /daɪ/) in the context of integrated circuits is a small block of semiconducting material, on which a given functional circuit is fabricated.

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Digital electronics

Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.

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Digital Light Processing

Digital Light Processing (DLP) is a display device based on optical micro-electro-mechanical technology that uses a digital micromirror device.

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Digital potentiometer

A digital potentiometer (also called a resistive digital-to-analog converter, or informally a digipot) is a digitally-controlled electronic component that mimics the analog functions of a potentiometer.

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Digital signal processor

A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.

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Digital-to-analog converter

In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A, or D-to-A) is a system that converts a digital signal into an analog signal.

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Doping (semiconductor)

In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.

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Dual in-line package

In microelectronics, a dual in-line package (DIP or DIL), or dual in-line pin package (DIPP) is an electronic component package with a rectangular housing and two parallel rows of electrical connecting pins.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Electronic circuit

An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.

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Electronic component

An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.

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Electronic design automation

Electronic design automation (EDA), also referred to as electronic computer-aided design (ECAD), is a category of software tools for designing electronic systems such as integrated circuits and printed circuit boards.

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Electronics

Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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Fairchild Semiconductor

Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California.

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Federico Faggin

Federico Faggin (born 1 December 1941), is an Italian physicist, inventor and entrepreneur, widely known for designing the first commercial microprocessor.

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Field-programmable gate array

A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".

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Flatpack (electronics)

Flatpack is a US military standardized printed-circuit-board surface-mount-component package.

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Flexible display

A flexible display is an electronic visual display which is flexible in nature; as opposed to the more prevalent traditional flat screen displays used in most electronics devices.

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Flexible electronics

Flexible electronics, also known as flex circuits, is a technology for assembling electronic circuits by mounting electronic devices on flexible plastic substrates, such as polyimide, PEEK or transparent conductive polyester film.

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Flip chip

Flip chip, also known as controlled collapse chip connection or its abbreviation, C4, is a method for interconnecting semiconductor devices, such as IC chips and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), to external circuitry with solder bumps that have been deposited onto the chip pads.

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Flip-flop (electronics)

In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.

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Frank Wanlass

Dr.

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Frequency mixer

In electronics, a mixer, or frequency mixer, is a nonlinear electrical circuit that creates new frequencies from two signals applied to it.

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Frequency modulation

In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave.

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Gallium arsenide

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.

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Gallium nitride

Gallium nitride is a binary III/V direct bandgap semiconductor commonly used in light-emitting diodes since the 1990s.

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Geoffrey Dummer

*Not to be confused with serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer. Geoffrey William Arnold Dummer, MBE (1945), C.Eng., IEE Premium Award, FIEEE, MIEE, USA Medal of Freedom with Bronze Palm (25 February 1909 – 9 September 2002) was an English electronics engineer and consultant who is credited as being the first person to conceptualise and build a prototype of the integrated circuit, commonly called the microchip, in the late-1940s and early 1950s.

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Germanium

Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.

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GlobalFoundries

GlobalFoundries is an American semiconductor foundry headquartered in Santa Clara, California, United States.

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Gyrator

A gyrator is a passive, linear, lossless, two-port electrical network element proposed in 1948 by Bernard D. H. Tellegen as a hypothetical fifth linear element after the resistor, capacitor, inductor and ideal transformer.

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Hans Camenzind

Hans R. Camenzind (1 January 1934 – 8 August 2012) was a Swiss electronics engineer, famous for designing the 555 timer IC in 1971 under contract to Signetics.

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HCMOS

HCMOS, high-speed CMOS, is the set of specifications for electrical ratings and characteristics, forming the 74HC00 family, a part of the 7400 series of integrated circuits.

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Hearing aid

A hearing aid is a device designed to improve hearing by making sound audible to a person with hearing loss.

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Home appliance

Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking, cleaning, or food preservation.

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Home computer

Home computers were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s.

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Hybrid integrated circuit

A hybrid integrated circuit (HIC), hybrid microcircuit, hybrid circuit or simply hybrid is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of individual devices, such as semiconductor devices (e.g. transistors, diodes andor monolithic ICs) and passive components (e.g. resistors, inductors, transformers, and capacitors), bonded to a substrate or printed circuit board (PCB).

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IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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IBM Personal Computer

The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.

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IEEE 802.11

IEEE 802.11 is a set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 900 MHz and 2.4, 3.6, 5, and 60 GHz frequency bands.

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IEEE Xplore

IEEE Xplore is a research database for discovery and access to journal articles, conference proceedings, technical standards, and related materials on computer science, electrical engineering and electronics, and allied fields.

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Implant (medicine)

An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure.

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Inductor

An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.

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Industrial computed tomography

Industrial computed tomography (CT) scanning is any computer-aided tomographic process, usually X-ray computed tomography, that uses irradiation to produce three-dimensional internal and external representations of a scanned object.

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Industrial processes

Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical, physical, electrical or mechanical steps to aid in the manufacturing of an item or items, usually carried out on a very large scale.

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Information society

An information society is a society where the creation, distribution, use, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity.

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Inkjet printing

Inkjet printing is a type of computer printing that recreates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper, plastic, or other substrates.

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Integrated circuit design

Integrated circuit design, or IC design, is a subset of electronics engineering, encompassing the particular logic and circuit design techniques required to design integrated circuits, or ICs.

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Integrated injection logic

Integrated injection logic (IIL, I2L, or I2L) is a class of digital circuits built with multiple collector bipolar junction transistors (BJT).

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Intel

Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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Intel 4004

The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971.

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Intel 80286

The Intel 80286 (also marketed as the iAPX 286 and often called Intel 286) is a 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced on 1 February 1982.

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Intel 80486

The Intel 80486, also known as the i486 or 486, is a higher performance follow-up to the Intel 80386 microprocessor.

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Intel 8080

The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.

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Intel 8088

The Intel 8088 ("eighty-eighty-eight", also called iAPX 88) microprocessor is a variant of the Intel 8086.

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International Roadmap for Devices and Systems

The International Roadmap for Devices and Systems, or IRDS, is a set of predictions about likely developments in semiconductor devices and systems.

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International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors

The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) is a set of documents produced by a group of semiconductor industry experts.

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Ion implantation

Ion implantation is low-temperature process by which ions of one element are accelerated into a solid target, thereby changing the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the target.

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Jack Kilby

Jack St.

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JEDEC

The JEDEC Solid State Technology Association is an independent semiconductor engineering trade organization and standardization body.

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Kilocore

Kilocore, from Rapport Inc. and IBM, is a high-performance, low-power multi-core microprocessor that has 1,025 cores.

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Kurt Lehovec

Kurt Lehovec (June 12, 1918 – February 17, 2012) was one of the pioneers of the integrated circuit.

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Land grid array

The land grid array (LGA) is a type of surface-mount packaging for integrated circuits (ICs) that is notable for having the pins on the socket (when a socket is used) rather than the integrated circuit.

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Laser

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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LGM-30 Minuteman

The LGM-30 Minuteman is a U.S. land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), in service with the Air Force Global Strike Command.

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Light-emitting diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.

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List of IEEE milestones

This list of IEEE Milestones describes the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) milestones, representing key historical achievements in electrical and electronic engineering.

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List of LM-series integrated circuits

The following is a list of LM-series integrated circuits.

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Loewe 3NF

The Loewe 3NF was an early attempt to combine several functions in one electronic device.

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Logic gate

In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.

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Logic level

In digital circuits, a logic level is one of a finite number of states that a digital signal can inhabit.

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Low-κ dielectric

In semiconductor manufacturing, a low-κ is a material with a small dielectric constant relative to silicon dioxide.

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Low-power electronics

Low-power electronics are electronics, such as notebook processors, that have been designed to use less electric power.

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Manufacturing cost

Manufacturing cost is the sum of costs of all resources consumed in the process of making a product.

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Marcian Hoff

Marcian Edward "Ted" Hoff Jr. (born October 28, 1937 in Rochester, New York) is one of the inventors of the microprocessor.

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Masatoshi Shima

is a Japanese electronics engineer, who was one of the designers of the world's first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, along with Federico Faggin, Ted Hoff, and Stanley Mazor.

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Mass production

Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.

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Microcontroller

A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.

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Microelectromechanical systems

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, also written as micro-electro-mechanical, MicroElectroMechanical or microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems and the related micromechatronics) is the technology of microscopic devices, particularly those with moving parts.

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Micrometre

The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".

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Microprocessor

A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

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Microwave oven

A microwave oven (also commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range.

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Millimetre

The millimetre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI unit symbol mm) or millimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.

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Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)

The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.

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Mixed-signal integrated circuit

A mixed-signal integrated circuit is any integrated circuit that has both analog circuits and digital circuits on a single semiconductor die.

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Mobile phone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

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Monocrystalline silicon

Monocrystalline silicon (also called "single-crystal silicon", "single-crystal Si", "mono c-Si", or mono-Si) is the base material for silicon chips used in virtually all electronic equipment today.

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Monolithic microwave integrated circuit

A Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit, or MMIC (sometimes pronounced "mimic"), is a type of integrated circuit (IC) device that operates at microwave frequencies (300 MHz to 300 GHz).

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Moore's law

Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.

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Moore's second law

Rock's law or Moore's second law, named for Arthur Rock or Gordon Moore, says that the cost of a semiconductor chip fabrication plant doubles every four years.

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MOS Technology 6502

The MOS Technology 6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".

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MOSFET

MOSFET showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (white). surface-mount packages. Operating as switches, each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120nbspvolts in the ''off'' state, and can conduct a continuous current of 30 amperes in the ''on'' state, dissipating up to about 100 watts and controlling a load of over 2000 watts. A matchstick is pictured for scale. A cross-section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage ''V''GS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the terminals drain and source; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an ''n''-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the ''n''-doped terminals; the switch is on. Simulation result for formation of inversion channel (electron density) and attainment of threshold voltage (IV) in a nanowire MOSFET. Note that the threshold voltage for this device lies around 0.45 V The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon.

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Motorola 6800

The 6800 ("sixty-eight hundred") is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola in 1974.

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Motorola 68000

The Motorola 68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the m68k or Motorola 68k, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit instruction set, with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus, but with a 16-bit data ALU and two 16-bit arithmetic ALUs and a 16-bit external data bus, designed and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector.

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Motorola 88000

The 88000 (m88k for short) is a RISC instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Motorola.

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Multi-chip module

A multi-chip module (MCM) is generically an electronic assembly (such as a package with a number of conductor terminals or "pins") where multiple integrated circuits (ICs or "chips"), semiconductor dies and/or other discrete components are integrated, usually onto a unifying substrate, so that in use it is treated as if it were a single component (as though a larger IC).

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Multi-core processor

A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent processing units called cores, which read and execute program instructions.

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Multi-threshold CMOS

Multi-threshold CMOS (MTCMOS) is a variation of CMOS chip technology which has transistors with multiple threshold voltages (Vth) in order to optimize delay or power.

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Multigate device

A multigate device or multiple-gate field-effect transistor (MuGFET) refers to a MOSFET (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor) that incorporates more than one gate into a single device.

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Multiplexer

In electronics, a multiplexer (or mux) is a device that selects one of several analog or digital input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line.

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Nanometre

The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Medal of Technology and Innovation

The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (formerly the National Medal of Technology) is an honor granted by the President of the United States to American inventors and innovators who have made significant contributions to the development of new and important technology.

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NMOS logic

N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses n-type field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Non-recurring engineering

Non-recurring engineering (NRE) refers to the one-time cost to research, design, develop and test a new product or product enhancement.

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Operational amplifier

An operational amplifier (often op-amp or opamp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output.

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Optical computing

Optical or photonic computing uses photons produced by lasers or diodes for computation.

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Organic field-effect transistor

An organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is a field-effect transistor using an organic semiconductor in its channel.

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Parallel computing

Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.

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P–n junction isolation

p–n junction isolation is a method used to electrically isolate electronic components, such as transistors, on an integrated circuit (IC) by surrounding the components with reverse biased p–n junctions.

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PDP-11

The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.

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Philips

Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam currently focused in the area of healthcare.

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Photographic film

Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.

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Photolithography

Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate.

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Photomask

A photomask is an opaque plate with holes or transparencies that allow light to shine through in a defined pattern.

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Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Photonic integrated circuit

A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) or integrated optical circuit is a device that integrates multiple (at least two) photonic functions and as such is similar to an electronic integrated circuit.

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Pin grid array

A pin grid array, often abbreviated PGA, is a type of integrated circuit packaging.

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Planar process

The planar process is a manufacturing process used in the semiconductor industry to build individual components of a transistor, and in turn, connect those transistors together.

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Plessey

The Plessey Company plc was a British-based international electronics, defence and telecommunications company.

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PMOS logic

P-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.

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Power management integrated circuit

Power management integrated circuits (power management ICs or PMICs or PMU as unit) are integrated circuits (or a system block in a system-on-a-chip device) for managing power requirements of the host system.

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Power network design (IC)

In integrated circuits, electrical power is distributed to the components of the chip over a network of conductors on the chip.

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Printed circuit board

A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.

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Processor register

In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Programmable logic device

A programmable logic device (PLD) is an electronic component used to build reconfigurable digital circuits.

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Programming tool

A programming tool or software development tool is a computer program that software developers use to create, debug, maintain, or otherwise support other programs and applications.

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Quad Flat Package

A QFP or Quad Flat Package is a surface mount integrated circuit package with "gull wing" leads extending from each of the four sides.

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Qualcomm Atheros

Qualcomm Atheros is a developer of semiconductors for network communications, particularly wireless chipsets.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Resistor

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

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Robert C. Sprague

Robert C. Sprague (August 2, 1900 – September 27, 1991) was the son of Frank J. Sprague and Harriet Sprague.

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Robert Noyce

Robert Norton Noyce (December 12, 1927 – June 3, 1990), nicknamed "the Mayor of Silicon Valley," was an American physicist who co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel Corporation in 1968.

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Rolf Landauer

Rolf William Landauer (February 4, 1927 – April 28, 1999) was a German-American physicist who made important contributions in diverse areas of the thermodynamics of information processing, condensed matter physics, and the conductivity of disordered media.

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Roll-away computer

A roll-away computer is an idea introduced as part of a series by Toshiba in 2000, which aimed to predict the trends in personal computing five years into the future.

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Royal Radar Establishment

The Royal Radar Establishment is a research center in Malvern, Worcestershire in the United Kingdom.

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Rubylith

Rolls of lithographer's tape (these rolls are made by 3M). The roll in the back is 1/4 inch, the one in the front, 1/2 inch width. These products are often called "Rubylith" tape because Rubylith has become a generic term for coloured masking films. Rubylith is a brand of masking film, invented and trademarked by the Ulano Corporation.

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Samsung

Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Self-aligned gate

In electronics, a self-aligned gate is a transistor manufacturing feature whereby a refractory gate electrode region of a MOSFET transistor is used as a mask for the doping of the source and drain regions.

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Semiconductor

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Semiconductor Chip Protection Act of 1984

The Semiconductor Chip Protection Act of 1984 (or SCPA) is an act of the US Congress that makes the layouts of integrated circuits legally protected upon registration, and hence illegal to copy without permission.

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Semiconductor device fabrication

Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices.

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Semiconductor fabrication plant

In the microelectronics industry a semiconductor fabrication plant (commonly called a fab; sometimes foundry) is a factory where devices such as integrated circuits are manufactured.

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Semiconductor memory

Semiconductor memory is a digital electronic data storage device, often used as computer memory, implemented with semiconductor electronic devices on an integrated circuit (IC).

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Sensor

In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.

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SerDes

A Serializer/Deserializer (SerDes pronounced sir-deez or sir-dez) is a pair of functional blocks commonly used in high speed communications to compensate for limited input/output.

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Siemens

Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

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Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Silicon on insulator

Silicon on insulator (SOI) technology refers to the use of a layered silicon–insulator–silicon substrate in place of conventional silicon substrates in semiconductor manufacturing, especially microelectronics, to reduce parasitic device capacitance, thereby improving performance.

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Silicon on sapphire

Silicon on sapphire (SOS) is a hetero-epitaxial process for integrated circuit manufacturing that consists of a thin layer (typically thinner than 0.6 µm) of silicon grown on a sapphire (Al2O3) wafer.

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Silicon-germanium

SiGe, or silicon-germanium, is an alloy with any molar ratio of silicon and germanium, i.e. with a molecular formula of the form Si1−xGex.

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Small Outline Integrated Circuit

A Small Outline Integrated Circuit (SOIC) is a surface-mounted integrated circuit (IC) package which occupies an area about 30 to 50 % less than an equivalent dual in-line package (DIP), with a typical thickness that is 70 % less.

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Solar cell

A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.

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Solid-state electronics

Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).

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Sound chip

A sound chip is an integrated circuit (i.e. "chip") designed to produce sound.

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SPICE

SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis)Nagel, L. W, and Pederson, D. O., SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis), Memorandum No.

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State (computer science)

In information technology and computer science, a program is described as stateful if it is designed to remember preceding events or user interactions; the remembered information is called the state of the system.

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Strained silicon

Strained silicon is a layer of silicon in which the silicon atoms are stretched beyond their normal interatomic distance.

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Strained silicon directly on insulator

Strained silicon directly on insulator (SSDOI) is a procedure developed by IBM which removes the silicon germanium layer in the strained silicon process leaving the strained silicon directly on the insulator.

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Substrate (printing)

Substrate is used in a converting process such as printing or coating to generally describe the base material onto which, e.g. images, will be printed.

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Surface-mount technology

Surface-mount technology (SMT) is a method for producing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs).

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System in package

A system in package (SiP) or system-in-a-package is a number of integrated circuits enclosed in a single module (package).

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System on a chip

A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (also known as an "IC" or "chip") that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems.

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Texas Instruments

Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.

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Thermal design power

The thermal design power (TDP), sometimes called thermal design point, is the maximum amount of heat generated by a computer chip or component (often the CPU or GPU) that the cooling system in a computer is designed to dissipate under any workload.

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Thermosonic bonding

Thermosonic bonding is widely used to wire bond silicon integrated circuits into computers.

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Thick-film technology

Thick-film technology is used to produce electronic devices such as surface mount devices, hybrid integrated circuits and sensors.

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Thin Small Outline Package

Thin Small Outline Package, or TSOP is a type of surface mount IC package.

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Thin-film transistor

A thin-film transistor (TFT) is a special kind of field-effect transistor made by depositing thin films of an active semiconductor layer as well as the dielectric layer and metallic contacts over a supporting (but non-conducting) substrate.

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Three-dimensional integrated circuit

In microelectronics, a three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC) is an integrated circuit manufactured by stacking silicon wafers or dies and interconnecting them vertically using, for instance, through-silicon vias (TSVs) or Cu-Cu connections, so that they behave as a single device to achieve performance improvements at reduced power and smaller footprint than conventional two dimensional processes.

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Through-silicon via

In electronic engineering, a through-silicon via (TSV) or through-chip via is a vertical electrical connection (via) that passes completely through a silicon wafer or die.

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Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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Transistor–transistor logic

Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors.

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TRIPS Agreement

The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international legal agreement between all the member nations of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

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TSMC

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Limited (TSMC), also known as Taiwan Semiconductor, is the world's largest dedicated independent (pure-play) semiconductor foundry, with its headquarters and main operations located in the Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park in Hsinchu, Taiwan.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United States Air Force

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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Vacuum tube

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.

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Very-large-scale integration

Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining hundreds of thousands of transistors or devices into a single chip.

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Vibrating structure gyroscope

A vibrating structure gyroscope, defined by the IEEE as a Coriolis vibratory gyroscope (CVG), is a gyroscope that uses a vibrating structure to determine the rate of rotation.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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Wafer (electronics)

A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells.

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Wafer testing

Wafer testing is a step performed during semiconductor device fabrication.

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Wafer-scale integration

Wafer-scale integration, WSI for short, is a rarely used system of building very-large integrated circuit networks that use an entire silicon wafer to produce a single "super-chip".

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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Wave

In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.

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Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi or WiFi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.

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Wire bonding

Wire bonding is the method of making interconnections (ATJ) between an integrated circuit (IC) or other semiconductor device and its packaging during semiconductor device fabrication.

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X10 (programming language)

X10 is a programming language being developed by IBM at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center as part of the Productive, Easy-to-use, Reliable Computing System (PERCS) project funded by DARPA's High Productivity Computing Systems (HPCS) program.

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Zilog Z80

The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor.

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4000 series

The 4000 series is a family of integrated circuits (ICs) first introduced in 1968.

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555 timer IC

The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator applications.

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7400 series

The 7400 series of transistor–transistor logic (TTL) integrated circuits are the most popular family of TTL integrated circuit logic.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_circuit

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