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Intellectual disability

Index Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning. [1]

187 relations: Acquired brain injury, Activities of daily living, Adaptive behavior, Adolf Hitler, Adult, Age of Enlightenment, Alfred Binet, Alzheimer's disease, American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Antipsychotic, Arcuate fasciculus, Autism spectrum, Basic needs, BBC, Benzodiazepine, Best Buddies International, Birth defect, Borderline intellectual functioning, Caregiver, Celebrity Big Brother 7 (UK), Census, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cerebral palsy, China, Ciliopathy, Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act, Civitan International, Clinical psychology, Clouding of consciousness, Cognition, Cognitive deficit, Communication, Confusion, Congenital hypothyroidism, Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome, Congenital rubella syndrome, Deinstitutionalisation, Delirium, Dementia, Developmental coordination disorder, Developmental disability, Deviance (sociology), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DiGeorge syndrome, Dignity, Disabilities affecting intellectual abilities, Disease, Down syndrome, DSM-5, Dyscalculia, ..., Dyslexia, Edwards syndrome, Emil Kraepelin, Endemic (epidemiology), Epilepsy in children, Ethanol, Ethiopia, Eugenics, Euphemism, Family, Famine, Feeble-minded, Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Fetus, Flynn effect, Fragile X syndrome, Francis Galton, Future planning for disability care, Gene, Genetic disorder, Genetics, Goitre, Group home, Hallucination, Health care, Health insurance, Henry H. Goddard, Heredity, Hippocrates, History of psychiatric institutions, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Human development (biology), Humorism, Hygiene, ICD-10, Idiopathic disease, Idiot, Imbecile, Inclusion (education), India, Infection, Intellect, Intelligence quotient, Iodine deficiency, Iodised salt, IQ classification, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, John Langdon Down, Kazakhstan, Klinefelter syndrome, Lawsuit, Lead, Lead poisoning, Learning disability, Legal guardian, Lewis Terman, Mainstreaming (education), Major depressive disorder, Malnutrition, Measles, Medical model of disability, Medical sign, Mencap, Meningitis, Mens rea, Mental age, Mental disorder, Mental health, Mental Health Act 1983, Mercury (element), Mongolian People's Republic, Mongoloid, Moron (psychology), Mowat–Wilson syndrome, National Health Service, Neurodegeneration, Neurodevelopmental disorder, Neurofibromatosis, Normalization (people with disabilities), North America, Ofcom, On the Origin of Species, Oxygen, Pediatrics, Pejorative, Phenylketonuria, PHF8, Poison, Political correctness, Prader–Willi syndrome, Pregnancy, Primary and secondary gain, Psychiatry, Retard (pejorative), Russia, Schizophrenia, Scientific method, Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, Self-advocacy, Self-governance, Sheltered workshop, Slate (magazine), Social model of disability, Social skills, Social stigma, Social work, Spastic, Special education, Special Olympics, Speech delay, Standardized test, Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales, Stephen Dorrell, Strategy, Tetrasomy X, The Holocaust, The Lancet, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Theodor Meynert, Third World, Thomas Willis, Thought, Thyroid, Toxin, United Kingdom, Whooping cough, Williams syndrome, Wolf Wolfensberger, World Health Organization, X chromosome, X-linked intellectual disability, XYY syndrome, Y chromosome, 22q13 deletion syndrome, 49,XXXXX, 49,XXXXY. Expand index (137 more) »

Acquired brain injury

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is brain damage caused by events after birth, rather than as part of a genetic or congenital disorder such as fetal alcohol syndrome, perinatal illness or perinatal hypoxia.

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Activities of daily living

Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.

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Adaptive behavior

Adaptive behavior refers to behavior that enables a person (usually used in the context of children) to get along in his or her environment with greatest success and least conflict with others.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Adult

Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Alfred Binet

Alfred Binet (July 8, 1857 – October 18, 1911) was a French psychologist who invented the first practical IQ test, the Binet–Simon test.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) is an American non-profit professional organization concerned with intellectual disability and related developmental disabilities.

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Antipsychotic

Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Arcuate fasciculus

The arcuate fasciculus (curved bundle) is a bundle of axons that forms part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, an association fiber tract.

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Autism spectrum

Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.

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Basic needs

The basic needs approach is one of the major approaches to the measurement of absolute poverty in developing countries.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Benzodiazepine

Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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Best Buddies International

Best Buddies International is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Borderline intellectual functioning

Borderline intellectual functioning, also called borderline mental disability, is a categorization of intelligence wherein a person has below average cognitive ability (generally an IQ of 70–85), but the deficit is not as severe as intellectual disability (below 70).

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Caregiver

A caregiver or carer is an unpaid or paid member of a person's social network who helps them with activities of daily living.

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Celebrity Big Brother 7 (UK)

Celebrity Big Brother 2010, also known as Celebrity Big Brother 7, was the seventh series of the British reality television series Celebrity Big Brother and the final series aired on Channel 4 and E4.

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Census

A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Ciliopathy

A ciliopathy is a genetic disorder of the cellular cilia or the cilia anchoring structures, the basal bodies, or of ciliary function.

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Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act

The Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA) of 1980 is a United States federal law intended to protect the rights of people in state or local correctional facilities, nursing homes, mental health facilities and institutions for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

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Civitan International

Civitan International, based in Birmingham, Alabama, is an association of community service clubs founded in 1917.

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Clinical psychology

Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.

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Clouding of consciousness

Clouding of consciousness, also known as brain fog or mental fog, is a term used in medicine denoting an abnormality in the regulation of the overall level of consciousness that is mild and less severe than a delirium.

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Cognition

Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cognitive deficit

Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.

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Communication

Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.

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Confusion

Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.

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Congenital hypothyroidism

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a condition of thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth.

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Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome

Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome, previously known as Cretinism, is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth owing to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormone (congenital hypothyroidism) usually owing to maternal hypothyroidism.

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Congenital rubella syndrome

Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella, usually in the first trimester.

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Deinstitutionalisation

Deinstitutionalisation (or deinstitutionalization) is the process of replacing long-stay psychiatric hospitals with less isolated community mental health services for those diagnosed with a mental disorder or developmental disability.

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Delirium

Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.

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Dementia

Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Developmental coordination disorder

Developmental coordination disorder (DCD), also known as developmental dyspraxia or simply dyspraxia, is a chronic neurological disorder beginning in childhood.

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Developmental disability

Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood.

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Deviance (sociology)

In sociology, deviance describes an action or behavior that violates social norms, including a formally enacted rule (e.g., crime), as well as informal violations of social norms (e.g., rejecting folkways and mores).

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.

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DiGeorge syndrome

DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a syndrome caused by the deletion of a small segment of chromosome 22.

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Dignity

Dignity is the right of a person to be valued and respected for their own sake, and to be treated ethically.

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Disabilities affecting intellectual abilities

There are a variety of medical conditions affecting cognitive ability.

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Disease

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Down syndrome

Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.

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DSM-5

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

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Dyscalculia

Dyscalculia is difficulty in learning or comprehending arithmetic, such as difficulty in understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers, and learning facts in mathematics.

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Dyslexia

Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence.

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Edwards syndrome

Edwards syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all, or part of a third copy of chromosome 18.

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Emil Kraepelin

Emil Kraepelin (15 February 1856 – 7 October 1926) was a German psychiatrist.

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Endemic (epidemiology)

In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.

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Epilepsy in children

Epilepsy affects all ages groups.

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethiopia

Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Eugenics

Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.

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Euphemism

A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.

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Family

Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.

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Famine

A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.

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Feeble-minded

The term feeble-minded was used from the late nineteenth century in Europe, the United States and Australasia for disorders later referred to as illnesses or deficiencies of the mind.

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Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.

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Fetus

A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Flynn effect

The Flynn effect is the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world over the 20th century.

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Fragile X syndrome

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder.

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Francis Galton

Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.

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Future planning for disability care

For many elderly carers of a relative who has a learning or other disability, future planning is an issue.

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Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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Genetics

Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Goitre

A goitre or goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland.

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Group home

A group home is a private residence model of medical care for those with complex health needs.

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Hallucination

A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.

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Health care

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.

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Health insurance

Health insurance is insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons.

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Henry H. Goddard

Henry Herbert Goddard (August 14, 1866 – June 18, 1957) was a prominent American psychologist and eugenicist during the early 20th century.

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Heredity

Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Hippocrates

Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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History of psychiatric institutions

The rise of the lunatic asylum and its gradual transformation into, and eventual replacement by, the modern psychiatric hospital, explains the rise of organised, institutional psychiatry.

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Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.

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Human development (biology)

Human development is the process of growing to maturity.

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Humorism

Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.

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Hygiene

Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.

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ICD-10

ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).

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Idiopathic disease

An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.

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Idiot

Idiot was formerly a legal and psychiatric category of profound intellectual disability, where a person's mental age is two years or less, and he or she cannot guard himself or herself against common physical dangers.

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Imbecile

The term imbecile was once used by psychiatrists to denote a category of people with moderate to severe intellectual disability, as well as a type of criminal.

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Inclusion (education)

Inclusion, in education refers to the a model wherein special needs students spend most or all of their time with non-special (general education) needs students.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Infection

Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Intellect

Intellect is a term used in studies of the human mind, and refers to the ability of the mind to come to correct conclusions about what is true or real, and about how to solve problems.

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Intelligence quotient

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.

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Iodine deficiency

Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet.

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Iodised salt

Iodised salt (also spelled iodized salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of various salts of the element iodine.

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IQ classification

IQ classification is the practice by IQ test publishers of labeling IQ score ranges with category names such as "superior" or "average".

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Johann Friedrich Blumenbach

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (11 May 1752 – 22 January 1840) was a German physician, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist.

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John Langdon Down

John Langdon Haydon Down (18 November 1828 – 7 October 1896) was a British physician best known for his description of the genetic disorder now known as Down syndrome, which he originally classified in 1862.

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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Klinefelter syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosomes in males.

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Lawsuit

A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.

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Lead

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Lead poisoning

Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.

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Learning disability

Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.

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Legal guardian

A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward.

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Lewis Terman

Lewis Madison Terman (January 15, 1877 – December 21, 1956) was an American psychologist and author.

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Mainstreaming (education)

Mainstreaming, in the context of education, is the practice of placing students with special education services such as the individualized education program or 504 plan in a general education classroom during specific time periods based on their skills.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Malnutrition

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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Measles

Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.

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Medical model of disability

The medical model of disability, or medical model, arose from the biomedical perception of disability.

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Medical sign

A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.

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Mencap

The Royal Mencap Society is a charity based in the UK that works with people with a learning disability.

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Meningitis

Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.

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Mens rea

Mens rea (Law Latin for "guilty mind") is the mental element of a person's intention to commit a crime; or knowledge that one's action or lack of action would cause a crime to be committed.

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Mental age

Mental age is a concept related to intelligence.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Mental health

Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.

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Mental Health Act 1983

The Mental Health Act 1983 (c.20) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which applies to people in England and Wales.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Mongolian People's Republic

The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)), commonly known as Outer Mongolia, was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia.

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Mongoloid

Mongoloid is a grouping of all or some peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, South Asia, the Arctic, the Americas and the Pacific Islands.

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Moron (psychology)

Moron is a term once used in psychology and psychiatry to denote mild intellectual disability.

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Mowat–Wilson syndrome

Mowat–Wilson syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that was clinically delineated by Dr.

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National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.

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Neurodegeneration

Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.

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Neurodevelopmental disorder

Neurodevelopmental disorder is a mental disorder.

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Neurofibromatosis

Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a group of three conditions in which tumors grow in the nervous system.

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Normalization (people with disabilities)

"The normalization principle means making available to all people with disabilities patterns of life and conditions of everyday living which are as close as possible to the regular circumstances and ways of life or society." Normalization is a rigorous theory of human services that can be applied to disability services.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Ofcom

The Office of Communications (Y Swyddfa Gyfathrebiadau), commonly known as Ofcom, is the UK government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom.

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On the Origin of Species

On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Pediatrics

Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.

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Pejorative

A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.

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Phenylketonuria

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism that results in decreased metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine.

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PHF8

PHD finger protein 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PHF8 gene.

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Poison

In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.

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Political correctness

The term political correctness (adjectivally: politically correct; commonly abbreviated to PC or P.C.) is used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society.

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Prader–Willi syndrome

Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder due to loss of function of specific genes.

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Pregnancy

Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Primary and secondary gain

Primary morbid gain or secondary morbid gain are used in medicine to describe the significant subconscious psychological motivators patients may have when presenting with symptoms.

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Psychiatry

Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Retard (pejorative)

Retard when used as a noun is a pejorative word used to refer to people with mental disabilities.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Secretary of State for Health and Social Care

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Health and Social Care (Secretary of State for Health until 8 January 2018) is a UK cabinet position responsible for the National Health Service (NHS).

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Self-advocacy

Self-advocacy refers to the civil rights movement for people with developmental disabilities, also called cognitive or intellectual disabilities, and other disabilities.

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Self-governance

Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.

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Sheltered workshop

The term sheltered workshop refers to an organization or environment that employs people with disabilities separately from others.

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Slate (magazine)

Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.

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Social model of disability

The social model of disability is a reaction to the dominant medical model of disability which in itself is a functional analysis of the body as machine to be fixed in order to conform with normative values.

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Social skills

A social skill is any competence facilitating interaction and communication with others where social rules and relations are created, communicated, and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways.

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Social stigma

Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.

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Social work

Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.

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Spastic

Derived via Latin from the Greek spastikos ("drawing in", "tugging" or "shaking uncontrolably"), the word spastic refers to an alteration in muscle tone affected by the medical condition spasticity, which is seen in spastic diplegia and many other forms of cerebral palsy and also in terms such as "spastic colon".

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Special education

Special education (also known as special needs education, aided education, exceptional education or Special Ed) is the practice of educating students with an IEP or Section 504 in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs.

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Special Olympics

The Special Olympics is the world's largest sports organization for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, providing year-round training and competitions to 5 million athletes and Unified States Sports partners in 172 countries.

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Speech delay

Speech delay, also known as alalia, refers to a delay in the development or use of the mechanisms that produce speech.

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Standardized test

A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner.

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Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales

The Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales (or more commonly the Stanford–Binet) is an individually administered intelligence test that was revised from the original Binet–Simon Scale by Lewis M. Terman, a psychologist at Stanford University.

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Stephen Dorrell

Stephen James Dorrell (born 25 March 1952) is a former British Conservative politician.

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Strategy

Strategy (from Greek στρατηγία stratēgia, "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship") is a high-level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty.

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Tetrasomy X

Tetrasomy X (also called XXXX syndrome, quadruple X, or 48,XXXX) is an extremely rare chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of four X chromosomes instead of two X chromosomes.

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The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.

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The Lancet

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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Theodor Meynert

Theodor Hermann Meynert (15 June 1833 – 31 May 1892) was a German-Austrian psychiatrist, neuropathologist and anatomist born in Dresden.

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Third World

The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.

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Thomas Willis

Thomas Willis (27 January 1621 – 11 November 1675) was an English doctor who played an important part in the history of anatomy, neurology and psychiatry.

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Thought

Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to reality-oriented conclusion.” Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.

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Thyroid

The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.

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Toxin

A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Whooping cough

Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.

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Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder that affects many parts of the body.

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Wolf Wolfensberger

Wolf Peregrin Joachim Wolfensberger, Ph.D. (1934–2011) was a German-American academic who influenced disability policy and practice through his development of North American Normalization and social role valorization (SRV).

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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X chromosome

The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.

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X-linked intellectual disability

X-linked intellectual disability (previously known as X-linked mental retardation) refers to forms of intellectual disability which are specifically associated with X-linked recessive inheritance.

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XYY syndrome

XYY syndrome is a genetic condition in which a male has an extra Y chromosome.

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Y chromosome

The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.

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22q13 deletion syndrome

22q13 deletion syndrome (spoken as twenty-two q one three, see Locus (genetics)) is a genetic disorder caused by deletions or rearrangements on the q terminal end (long arm) of chromosome 22.

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49,XXXXX

49,XXXXX, also known as pentasomy X, is a chromosome abnormality where a female has five X chromosomes rather than the normal two.

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49,XXXXY

49,XXXXY syndrome is an extremely rare aneuploidic sex chromosomal abnormality.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intellectual_disability

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