154 relations: Abecedarian Early Intervention Project, Alan S. Kaufman, Alexander Luria, Alfred Binet, American Enterprise Institute, American Psychological Association, American Psychologist, Ann Brown, Arthur Jensen, Autism spectrum, Borderline intellectual functioning, Cambridge University Press, Cattell Culture Fair III, Charles Spearman, Cohort (statistics), Comprehensive school, Conduct disorder, Correlation and dependence, Creativity, Daniel Schacter, Daniel Seligman, Das–Naglieri cognitive assessment system, David Brooks (commentator), David C. Rowe, David Wechsler, Differential Ability Scales, Disease, DUF1220, Dynamic assessment, Dysgenics, Educational Testing Service, Eleven-plus, Elsevier, Environment (biophysical), Explained variation, Factor analysis, Feedback, Fluid and crystallized intelligence, Flynn effect, Francis Galton, Free Press (publisher), G factor (psychometrics), General Certificate of Secondary Education, Genotype, German language, Griggs v. Duke Power Co., Guilford Press, Hans Eysenck, Head Start (program), Henry H. Goddard, ..., Heredity, Heritability, Heritability of IQ, Howard Gardner, Human intelligence, Immigration Act of 1924, Income, Intellectual disability, Intelligence, Intelligence quotient, Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns, International Society for Intelligence Research, IQ and Global Inequality, Item response theory, J. P. Guilford, James Flynn (academic), Job analysis, Job performance, John Bissell Carroll, John D. Bransford, John L. Horn, John Wiley & Sons, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Keith Stanovich, Latent variable, Latent variable model, Lead, Lev Vygotsky, Lewis Terman, Logistic regression, Louis Leon Thurstone, Median, Mensa International, Mental age, Mental chronometry, Mental Rotations Test, Mercury (element), Monotonic function, Mortality rate, Multidimensional Aptitude Battery II, Nathan Brody, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Nature versus nurture, Neurotoxin, Nicholas Mackintosh, Open access, Ordinal data, Oxford University Press, Paleontology, Performance rating (work measurement), Peter Schönemann, Phenotypic trait, Prentice Hall, Psychological research, Psychologist, Psychometrics, Public policy doctrine, Raven's Progressive Matrices, Raymond Cattell, Reflex, Reliability (statistics), Reuven Feuerstein, Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales, Robert Sternberg, Robert Yerkes, SAGE Publications, SAT, Science (journal), Scientific racism, Social intelligence, Socioeconomic status, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard deviation, Standard error, Standardized test, Stanford University, Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales, Stephen Jay Gould, Stereotype threat, Théodore Simon, The Bell Curve, The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability, The IQ Controversy, the Media and Public Policy (book), The Mismeasure of Man, The New York Times, Theory, Theory of mind, Theory of multiple intelligences, Three-stratum theory, Transaction Publishers, Triple Nine Society, University of Wrocław, Validity (statistics), Variance, Volkmar Weiss, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, What Is Intelligence?, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, William Stern (psychologist), Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Working memory, Working memory training, Zone of proximal development. Expand index (104 more) » « Shrink index
The Carolina Abecedarian Project was a controlled experiment that was conducted in 1972 in North Carolina, United States, by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute to study the potential benefits of early childhood education for poor children to enhance school readiness.
Alan S. Kaufman (born April 1944) is an American psychology professor known for his work on intelligence testing.
Alexander Romanovich Luria (p; 16 July 1902 – 14 August 1977) was a notable neuropsychologist, often credited as a father of modern neuropsychological assessment.
Alfred Binet (July 8, 1857 – October 18, 1911) was a French psychologist who invented the first practical IQ test, the Binet–Simon test.
The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a conservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. which researches government, politics, economics and social welfare.
The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.
American Psychologist is the official peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Psychological Association.
Ann Leslie Brown (1943–1999) was an educational psychologist who developed methods for teaching children to be better learners.
Arthur Robert Jensen (August 24, 1923 – October 22, 2012) was an American psychologist and author.
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.
Borderline intellectual functioning, also called borderline mental disability, is a categorization of intelligence wherein a person has below average cognitive ability (generally an IQ of 70–85), but the deficit is not as severe as intellectual disability (below 70).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT) was constructed by Raymond B. Cattell, PhD, DSc in an attempt to produce a measure of cognitive abilities that accurately estimated intelligence devoid of sociocultural and environmental influences.
Charles Edward Spearman, FRS (10 September 1863 – 17 September 1945) was an English psychologist known for work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis, and for Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.
In statistics, marketing and demography, a cohort is a group of subjects who share a defining characteristic (typically subjects who experienced a common event in a selected time period, such as birth or graduation).
A comprehensive school is a secondary school that is a state school and does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, in contrast to the selective school system, where admission is restricted on the basis of selection criteria.
Conduct disorder (CD) is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated.
In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.
Daniel Lawrence Schacter (born June 17, 1952) is an American psychologist.
Daniel Seligman (September 25, 1924 – January 31, 2009) was an editor and columnist at Fortune magazine from 1950 to 1997.
The Das–Naglieri cognitive assessment system (CAS) test is an individually administered test of cognitive functioning for children and adolescents ranging from 5 through 17 years of age that was designed to assess the planning, attention, simultaneous and successive cognitive processes as described in the.
David Brooks (born August 11, 1961) is an American author and conservative political and cultural commentator who writes for The New York Times.
David C. Rowe (27 September 1949 – 2 February 2003) was an American psychology professor known for his work studying genetic and environmental influences on adolescent onset behaviors such as delinquency and smoking.
David "Weshy" Wechsler (January 12, 1896 – May 2, 1981) was a Romanian-American psychologist.
The Differential Ability Scales (DAS) is a nationally normed (in the US), and individually administered battery of cognitive and achievement tests.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
DUF1220 is a protein domain that shows a striking human lineage-specific (HLS) increase in copy number and may be important to human brain evolution.
Dynamic assessment is a kind of interactive assessment used in education and the helping professions.
Dysgenics (rarely cacogenics) is the study of factors producing the accumulation and perpetuation of defective or disadvantageous genes and traits in offspring of a particular population or species.
Educational Testing Service (ETS), founded in 1947, is the world's largest private nonprofit educational testing and assessment organization.
The eleven-plus (11-plus) is an examination administered to some students in England and Northern Ireland in their last year of primary education, which governs admission to grammar schools and other secondary schools which use academic selection.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
In statistics, explained variation measures the proportion to which a mathematical model accounts for the variation (dispersion) of a given data set.
Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
In psychology, fluid and crystallized intelligence (respectively abbreviated Gf and Gc) are factors of general intelligence, originally identified by Raymond Cattell.
The Flynn effect is the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world over the 20th century.
Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.
Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon & Schuster.
The g factor (also known as general intelligence, general mental ability or general intelligence factor) is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities and human intelligence.
The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification, generally taken in a number of subjects by pupils in secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Griggs v Duke Power Co, (1971), was a court case argued before the Supreme Court of the United States on December 14, 1970.
Guilford Publications, Inc. is a New York City-based independent publisher founded in 1973 that specializes in publishing books, journals, and DVDs in psychology, psychiatry, the behavioral sciences, education, and geography.
Hans Jürgen Eysenck, PhD, DSc (4 March 1916 – 4 September 1997) was a German-born English psychologist who spent his professional career in Great Britain.
Head Start is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.
Henry Herbert Goddard (August 14, 1866 – June 18, 1957) was a prominent American psychologist and eugenicist during the early 20th century.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.
Research on heritability of IQ implies, from the similarity of IQ in closely related persons, the proportion of variance of IQ among individuals in a study population that is associated with genetic variation within that population.
Howard Earl Gardner (born July 11, 1943) is an American developmental psychologist and the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education at Harvard University.
Human intelligence is the intellectual prowess of humans, which is marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness.
The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson–Reed Act, including the National Origins Act, and Asian Exclusion Act, was a United States federal law that set quotas on the number of immigrants from certain countries while providing funding and an enforcement mechanism to carry out the longstanding (but hitherto unenforced) ban on other non-white immigrants.
Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns is a report issued in 1995 by a task force created by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association (APA).
The International Society for Intelligence Research (ISIR) is a scientific society for researchers in human intelligence.
IQ and Global Inequality is a 2006 book by psychologist Richard Lynn and political scientist Tatu Vanhanen.
In psychometrics, item response theory (IRT) (also known as latent trait theory, strong true score theory, or modern mental test theory) is a paradigm for the design, analysis, and scoring of tests, questionnaires, and similar instruments measuring abilities, attitudes, or other variables.
Joy Paul Guilford (March 7, 1897 – November 26, 1987) was an American psychologist best remembered for his psychometric study of human intelligence, including the distinction between convergent and divergent production.
James Robert Flynn FRSNZ (born 1934) is a New Zealand intelligence researcher.
Job analysis (also known as work analysis) is a family of procedures to identify the content of a job in terms of activities involved and attributes or job requirements needed to perform the activities.
Job performance assesses whether a person performs a job well.
John Bissell Carroll (June 5, 1916 – July 1, 2003) was an American psychologist known for his contributions to psychology, educational linguistics and psychometrics.
John D. Bransford holds the Shauna C. LarsonUniversity Professor of Education and Psychology at the University of Washington in Seattle.
John Leonard Horn (September 7, 1928 – August 18, 2006) was a scholar, cognitive psychologist and a pioneer in developing theories of multiple intelligence.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC) is a clinical instrument (psychological diagnostic test) for assessing cognitive development.
Keith E. Stanovich is Emeritus Professor of Applied Psychology and Human Development, University of Toronto and former Canada Research Chair of Applied Cognitive Science.
In statistics, latent variables (from Latin: present participle of lateo (“lie hidden”), as opposed to observable variables), are variables that are not directly observed but are rather inferred (through a mathematical model) from other variables that are observed (directly measured).
A latent variable model is a statistical model that relates a set of observable variables (so-called manifest variables) to a set of latent variables.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (p; – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet psychologist, the founder of an unfinished theory of human cultural and bio-social development commonly referred to as cultural-historical psychology, a prominent advocate for a new theory of consciousness, the "psychology of superman", and leader of the Vygotsky Circle (also referred to as "Vygotsky-Luria Circle").
Lewis Madison Terman (January 15, 1877 – December 21, 1956) was an American psychologist and author.
In statistics, the logistic model (or logit model) is a statistical model that is usually taken to apply to a binary dependent variable.
Louis Leon Thurstone (29 May 1887 – 30 September 1955) was a U.S. pioneer in the fields of psychometrics and psychophysics.
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
Mensa is the largest and oldest high IQ society in the world.
Mental age is a concept related to intelligence.
Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations.
The Mental Rotations Test is a test of spatial ability by Steven G. Vandenberg and Allan R. Kuse, first published in 1978.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
In mathematics, a monotonic function (or monotone function) is a function between ordered sets that preserves or reverses the given order.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
The Multidimensional Aptitude Battery II is a group-administered intelligence test created by Canadian psychologist Douglas N. Jackson which is supposed to measure Verbal, Performance and Full Scale IQ.
Nathan Brody is an American psychology professor Emeritus known for his work on intelligence and personality.
The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
Nicholas John Seymour Mackintosh, (9 July 1935 – 8 February 2015) was a British experimental psychologist and author, specialising in intelligence, psychometrics and animal learning.
Open access (OA) refers to research outputs which are distributed online and free of cost or other barriers, and possibly with the addition of a Creative Commons license to promote reuse.
Ordinal data is a categorical, statistical data type where the variables have natural, ordered categories and the distances between the categories is not known.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Performance rating is the step in the work measurement in which the analyst observes the worker's performance and records a value representing that performance relative to the analyst's concept of standard performance.
Peter H. Schönemann (July 15, 1929 – April 7, 2010) was a German born psychometrician and statistical expert.
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
Leon Festinger, Henry W. Riecken, & Stanley Schachter, When Prophecy Fails: A Social and Psychological Study of a Modern Group that Predicted the End of the World (University of Minnesota Press, 1956).
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.
Psychometrics is a field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.
In private international law, the public policy doctrine or ordre public (lit. Fr. "public order") concerns the body of principles that underpin the operation of legal systems in each state.
Raven's Progressive Matrices (often referred to simply as Raven's Matrices) or RPM is a nonverbal group test typically used in educational settings.
Raymond Bernard Cattell (20 March 1905 – 2 February 1998) was a British and American psychologist, known for his psychometric research into intrapersonal psychological structure.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
Reliability in statistics and psychometrics is the overall consistency of a measure.
Reuven Feuerstein (Hebrew: ראובן פוירשטיין; August 21, 1921 – April 29, 2014) was an Israeli clinical, developmental, and cognitive psychologist, known for his theory of intelligence which states “it is not ‘fixed’, but rather modifiable”.
The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) is an individually administered test of intelligence that includes a co-normed, supplemental measure of memory.
Robert Sternberg (born December 8, 1949) is an American psychologist and psychometrician.
Robert Mearns Yerkes (May 26, 1876 – February 3, 1956) was an American psychologist, ethologist, eugenicist and primatologist best known for his work in intelligence testing and in the field of comparative psychology.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
The SAT is a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the United States.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific racism (sometimes referred to as race biology, racial biology, or race realism) is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority.
Social intelligence, the capacity to know oneself and to know others, is as inalienable a part of the human condition as is the capacity to know objects or sounds, and it deserves to be investigated no less than these other "less charged" forms.
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.
The standard error (SE) of a statistic (usually an estimate of a parameter) is the standard deviation of its sampling distribution or an estimate of that standard deviation.
A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
The Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales (or more commonly the Stanford–Binet) is an individually administered intelligence test that was revised from the original Binet–Simon Scale by Lewis M. Terman, a psychologist at Stanford University.
Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science.
Stereotype threat is a situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of conforming to stereotypes about their social group.
Théodore Simon (10 July 1872 – 4 September 1961) was a French psychologist who worked with Alfred Binet to develop the Binet-Simon scale, one of the most widely used scales in the world for measuring intelligence.
The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life is a 1994 book by psychologist Richard J. Herrnstein and political scientist Charles Murray, in which the authors argue that human intelligence is substantially influenced by both inherited and environmental factors and that it is a better predictor of many personal dynamics, including financial income, job performance, birth out of wedlock, and involvement in crime than are an individual's parental socioeconomic status.
The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability is a 1998 book by psychologist Arthur Jensen.
The IQ Controversy, the Media and Public Policy is a book published by Smith College professor emeritus Stanley Rothman and Harvard researcher Mark Snyderman in 1988.
The Mismeasure of Man is a 1981 book by paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.
Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc.—to oneself, and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.
The theory of multiple intelligences differentiates human intelligence into specific 'modalities', rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability.
The three-stratum theory is a theory of cognitive ability proposed by the American psychologist John Carroll in 1993.
Transaction Publishers was a New Jersey–based publishing house that specialized in social science books.
The Triple Nine Society (TNS) is an international high IQ society for adults whose score on a standardised test demonstrates an IQ at or above the 99.9th percentile of the human population.
The University of Wrocław (UWr; Uniwersytet Wrocławski; Universität Breslau; Universitas Wratislaviensis) is a public research university located in Wrocław, Poland.
Validity is the extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and likely corresponds accurately to the real world based on probability.
In probability theory and statistics, variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean.
Volkmar Weiss (born 23 May 1944 in Zwickau, Saxony) is a German scientist and writer, primarily interested in the field of IQ research.
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is an IQ test designed to measure intelligence and cognitive ability in adults and older adolescents.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), developed by David Wechsler, is an individually administered intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16.
What Is Intelligence?: Beyond the Flynn Effect is a book by psychologist James R. Flynn which outlines his model for an explanation of the eponymous Flynn effect.
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science (WIREs Cognitive Science) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering cognitive science.
William Stern (29 April 1871 – 27 March 1938), born Ludwig Wilhelm Stern, was a German psychologist and philosopher noted as a pioneer in the field of the psychology of personality and intelligence.
The Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities is a set of intelligence tests first developed in 1977 by Richard Woodcock and Mary E. Bonner Johnson.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
Working memory training is intended to improve a person's working memory.
The zone of proximal development, often abbreviated as ZPD, is the difference between what a learner can do without help, and what they can't do.
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