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Inter-Services Intelligence

Index Inter-Services Intelligence

The Inter-Services Intelligence (بین الخدماتی مخابرات, abbreviated as ISI) is the premier intelligence agency of Pakistan, operationally responsible for gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world. [1]

305 relations: Abbottabad, Abdul Ghani Baradar, Abu Zubaydah, Acoustical Intelligence, Afghan refugees, Afghan War documents leak, Afghanistan, Agent handling, Ahmad Shuja Pasha, Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh, Ahmed Rashid, Ahmed Ressam, Akbar Khan (Pakistani general), Akhtar Abdur Rahman, Al-Badr (East Pakistan), Al-Badr (Jammu and Kashmir), Al-Qaeda, Amnesty International, Amritsar, Arctic, Asad Durrani, Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, Associated Press, Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan), Azad Kashmir, Badaber uprising, Baitullah Mehsud, Bangladesh, Bank of Credit and Commerce International, Battle of Mosul (2016–2017), BBC, Biological warfare, Black bag operation, Black operation, Bojinka plot, Bosnian War, British Indian Army, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Central Asia, Central Intelligence Agency, Chabahar, Chad, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Chemical warfare, Chhota Shakeel, Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan), Chief of staff, China, China–Pakistan Economic Corridor, Cold War, ..., Colonel Imam, Commander, Concealment device, Counterintelligence, Covert Action Division, Covert operation, Cryptography, Czechoslovakia, Daniel Benjamin, Daniel Pearl, Dawood Ibrahim, Dead drop, Death of Osama bin Laden, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Diplomatic mission, Diplomatic rank, Diplomatic Security Service, Director of National Intelligence, Director-General of Inter-Services Intelligence, Directorate of Operations (CIA), Eavesdropping, Egypt, Ehsan ul Haq, Electromagnetic radiation, Electronic warfare, Espionage, Faisalabad, False flag, Federal Board of Revenue (Pakistan), Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Investigation Agency, Federal Public Service Commission, Federation of American Scientists, Financial intelligence, FN Five-seven, Foreign instrumentation signals intelligence, Fox News, France, French Riviera, Geospatial intelligence, Ghost Wars, Ghriba synagogue bombing, Ghulam Jilani Khan, Gilgit-Baltistan, Glacier, Glock, Government of Pakistan, Guantanamo Bay files leak, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, Gwadar, Hamid Gul, Haqqani network, Heckler & Koch USP, Hezbi Islami, Hillary Clinton, History of military technology, History of the Soviet Union (1982–91), Hizbul Mujahideen, Human intelligence, Human intelligence (intelligence gathering), Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, Idea, Imagery intelligence, Imtiaz Ahmed (brigadier), Indian Army, Indira Gandhi, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Intelligence agency, Intelligence assessment, Intelligence Bureau (Pakistan), Intelligence cycle management, Inter-Services Intelligence, Inter-Services Intelligence activities in Afghanistan, Inter-Services Public Relations, International Business Times, International Security Assistance Force, Interrogation, Iran, Islam in China, Islam in Pakistan, Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory, Islami Jamhoori Ittehad, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Jalaluddin Haqqani, Jamaat-e-Islami, Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan, James J.F. Forest, Jamestown Foundation, Jammu and Kashmir, Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front, Javed Ashraf Qazi, Javed Nasir, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joseph Dunford, Judiciary of Pakistan, Karachi, Kashmir, KGB, KHAD, Khalid Khawaja, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Khalistan movement, Khan Research Laboratories, Kulbhushan Jadhav, Lahore, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Law enforcement in Pakistan, Libya, Lieutenant general, List of designated terrorist groups, London School of Economics, Low intensity conflict, Mahmud Ahmed, Measurement and signature intelligence, Mehrangate, Michael Mullen, Militant, Military Intelligence (Pakistan), Ministry of Intelligence, Moscow, Mossad, Movement for the Restoration of Democracy, Muhammad Riaz Khan, Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, Mukti Bahini, Multinational corporation, Nadeem Taj, Naseem Rana, National Intelligence Directorate (Pakistan), National security, Naval Intelligence (Pakistan), Naveed Mukhtar, Naxalite, Nepal, Non-governmental organization, Non-official cover, North Korea, North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010), Northern Alliance, Northern Areas Transport Corporation, Numbers station, One-way voice link, Open-source intelligence, Operation Blue Star, Operation Cyclone, Operation Eagle Claw, Operation Fair Play, Operation Meghdoot, Operation Tupac, Operation Zarb-e-Azb, Osama bin Laden, Pakistan, Pakistan Air Force, Pakistan Armed Forces, Pakistan Army, Pakistan Communist Party, Pakistan Customs, Pakistan Navy, Pakistan Peoples Party, Pakistan Rangers, Pakistani general election, 1977, Pakistani general election, 1988, Pakistani general election, 1990, Pakistani intelligence community, Pakistani presidential election, 1965, Persian Gulf, Pervez Musharraf, Peshawar, Peter Tomsen, Philippines, Poland, President of Pakistan, Prime Minister of Pakistan, Private hospital, Proxy war, Psychological warfare, Punjab, India, Quetta Shura, Radiation intelligence, Ramzi bin al-Shibh, Ramzi Yousef, Rangin Dadfar Spanta, Rawalpindi, Raymond Allen Davis incident, Reconnaissance aircraft, Recruitment of spies, Research and Analysis Wing, Riaz Hussain (politician), Richard Nixon, Right-wing politics, Rizwan Akhtar, Robert Cawthome, Sabotage, Saleem Shahzad, Sarfraz Bugti, Sayeed Salahudeen, Secondment, Secret Intelligence Service, September 11 attacks, Shahnawaz Bhutto, Shakil Afridi, Shamsur Rahman Kallu, Siachen Glacier, Signals intelligence, Socialism in Pakistan, South Asia Analysis Group, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Special Activities Division, Special Service, Sri Lanka, State within a state, Steganography, Stephen P. Cohen, Steven Simon, Stratfor, Subversion, Surveillance, Syed Mohammad Ahsan, Syed Shahid Hamid, Taliban, Taliban insurgency, Technical intelligence, Tehran, Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, Telemetry intelligence, Tempest (codename), The Asian Age, The Guardian, Time (magazine), Tunisia, Turkey, U.S. Bank Tower (Los Angeles), United Kingdom, United States, United States diplomatic cables leak, United States National Security Council, USS Cole bombing, Uzair Baloch, War in Afghanistan (1978–present), War in Afghanistan (2001–present), War in North-West Pakistan, Xinjiang, Yahya Khan, Zaheer-ul-Islam, Ziauddin Butt, 1958 Pakistani coup d'état, 1993 World Trade Center bombing, 2000 millennium attack plots, 2001 shoe bomb attempt, 2002 Bali bombings, 2008 bombing of Indian embassy in Kabul, 2012–13 Stratfor email leak. Expand index (255 more) »


Abbottabad (Urdu, ایبٹ آباد) is the capital city of Abbottabad District in the Hazara region of eastern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

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Abdul Ghani Baradar

Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar (Persian: عبدالغنی برادر; born c. 1968), also called Mullah Baradar Akhund or Mullah Brother, is a co-founder of the Taliban movement in Afghanistan.

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Abu Zubaydah

Abu Zubaydah (Abū Zubaydah; born March 12, 1971, as Zayn al-Abidin Muhammad Husayn) is a Saudi Arabian citizen currently held by the U.S. in the Guantanamo Bay detention camp in Cuba.

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Acoustical Intelligence

Acoustical Intelligence (ACOUSTINT, sometimes ACINT) is an intelligence gathering discipline that collects and processes acoustic phenomena.

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Afghan refugees

Afghan refugees are nationals of Afghanistan who left their country as a result of major wars or persecution.

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Afghan War documents leak

The Afghan War documents leak, also called the Afghan War Diary, is the disclosure of a collection of internal U.S. military logs of the War in Afghanistan, which were published by WikiLeaks on 2010.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Agent handling

In intelligence organizations, agent handling is the management of so-called agents (called secret agents or spies in common parlance), principal agents, and agent networks (called "assets") by intelligence officers typically known as case officers.

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Ahmad Shuja Pasha

Lieutenant General Ahmad Shuja Pasha (احمد شجاع پاشا), HI(M) (born 18 March 1952) is retired three star rank army general of the Pakistan Army.He was the Director-General of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), the main intelligence service of Pakistan from October 2008 until March 2012.

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Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh

Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh (احمد عمر سعید شیخ) (sometimes known as Umar Sheikh, Sheikh Omar,Note that this term is more commonly used in reference to Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman Sheik Syed,Syed being an incorrect transliteration of سعید or by the alias "Mustafa Muhammad Ahmad"CNN.com October 6, 2001.) (born 23 December 1973) is a British terrorist of Pakistani descent with links to various Islamist militant organisations, including Jaish-e-Mohammed, Al-Qaeda, Harkat-ul-Mujahideen and the Taliban.

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Ahmed Rashid

Ahmed Rashid (Urdu:; born 1948 in Pakistan) is a journalist and best-selling foreign policy author of several books about Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Central Asia.

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Ahmed Ressam

Ahmed Ressam (احمد رسام; also Benni Noris or the Millennium Bomber; born May 9, 1967) is an Algerian al-Qaeda member who lived for a time in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Akbar Khan (Pakistani general)

Major General Akbar Khan, DSO (1912 - 1993), also known as Mohammed Akbar Khan, was a Pakistan Army officer who is most known as the Brigadier-in-Charge in Kashmir on the Pakistan side in Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.

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Akhtar Abdur Rahman

Akhtar Abdur Rahman Khan (Urdu: اختر عبد الرحمن‎; 11 June 1924 – 17 August 1988), was a Pakistani General who served as Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee of the Pakistan Armed Forces from 1987–1988 and as Director-General of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) from 1979-1987.

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Al-Badr (East Pakistan)

The Al-Badr (আল বদর) was a paramilitary force which operated in East Pakistan against the Bengali nationalist movement during the Bangladesh Liberation War, under the patronage of the Pakistani government.

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Al-Badr (Jammu and Kashmir)

Al-Badr (البدر, "the full moon") is an Islamic militant group operating in the Jammu Kashmir region.

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Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.

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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

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Asad Durrani

Lieutenant General Mohammad Asad Durrani (محمد اسد درانی; born 7 February 1941) is a retired 3-star rank general in the Pakistan Army and presently a commentator and speaker.

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Ashfaq Parvez Kayani

General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani (اشفاق پرویز کیانی; born 20 April 1952),, is a retired four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army who served as the Chief of Army Staff (COAS), being appointed on 29 November 2007 until 29 November 2013.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan)

Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.

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Azad Kashmir

Azad Jammu and Kashmir (آزاد جموں و کشمیر Āzād Jammū̃ o Kaśmīr, translation: Free Jammu and Kashmir), abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as Azad Kashmir, is a nominally self-governing polity administered by Pakistan.

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Badaber uprising

The Badaber uprising (26–27 April 1985, Badaber, Pakistan) was an armed rebellion by Soviet and Afghan prisoners of war who were being held at the Badaber fortress near Peshawar, Pakistan.

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Baitullah Mehsud

Baitullah Mehsud (Pashto,بیت اللہ محسود); c. 1972 – c. 5 August 2009) was a leading militant in Waziristan, Pakistan, and the leader of the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP). He formed the TTP from an alliance of about five militant groups in December 2007.Abbas, Hassan." ". CTC Sentinel 1 (2): 1–4. January 2008. He is thought by U.S. military analysts to have commanded up to 5,000 fighters and to have been behind numerous attacks in Pakistan including the assassination of Benazir Bhutto which he and others have denied. Disagreement exists over the exact date of the militant's death. Pakistani security officials initially announced that Baitullah Mehsud and his wife were killed on 5 August 2009 in a U.S. Central Intelligence Agency drone attack in the Zangar area of South Waziristan. Interior Minister Rehman Malik delayed giving official confirmation and asked for patience and an announcement by Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR) or other agencies. Kafayat Ullah, a TTP source, also announced the death of the militant in the strike, as did his deputy Faqir Mohammed. Later Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan commander Hakimullah Mehsud denied previous TTP announcements and said Mehsud was in good health. Major General Athar Abbas, ISPR spokesman, and Robert Gibbs of the White House said his death could not be confirmed, U.S. National Security Adviser James L. Jones also claimed that there was "pretty conclusive" evidence that proved Baitullah Mehsud had been killed and that he was 90% sure of it. On 23 August 2009, Hakimullah Mehsud and Wali-ur-Rehman telephoned the BBC to say that the Baitullah Mehsud had died on 23 August 2009 due to injuries sustained during the 5 August attack. On 30 September 2009, the BBC received a video that showed the body of Mehsud. Syed Saleem Shahzad, writing in the Asia Times, described Baitullah Mehsud as a physically small man, with diabetes.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Bank of Credit and Commerce International

The Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) was an international bank founded in 1972 by Agha Hasan Abedi, a Pakistani financier.

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Battle of Mosul (2016–2017)

The Battle of Mosul (2016–2017) (معركة الموصل, Ma‘rakat al-Mawṣil; شەڕی مووسڵ, Şeriy Mûsil) was a major military campaign launched by the Iraqi Government forces with allied militias, the Kurdistan Regional Government, and international forces to retake the city of Mosul from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), which had seized the city in June 2014.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Biological warfare

Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.

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Black bag operation

Black bag operations (or black bag jobs) are covert or clandestine entries into structures to obtain information for human intelligence operations.

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Black operation

A black operation (or black ops) is a covert operation by a government, a government agency, or a military organization.

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Bojinka plot

The Bojinka plot (بوجينكا; Oplan Bojinka) was a large-scale, three-phase attack planned by terrorists Ramzi Yousef and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed for January 1995.

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Bosnian War

The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.

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British Indian Army

The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.

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Center for Strategic and International Studies

The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., in the United States.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Chābahār (چابهار, چھبار-Čahbàr; meaning four springs or spring well; formerly Bandar Beheshtī) is a city and capital of Chah Bahar County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran.

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Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is, by U.S. law, the highest-ranking and senior-most military officer in the United States Armed Forces 10 USC 152.

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Chemical warfare

Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.

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Chhota Shakeel

Chhota Shakeel (born name Babu Miya Shaikh) is a key assistant of Dawood Ibrahim, the leader of the D-Company (Dawood Company), one of the biggest mafia in South Asian organized crime.

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Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan)

The Chief of Army Staff (سربراہ پاک فوج) (reporting name: COAS), is a military appointment and statutory office held by the four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.

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Chief of staff

The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China–Pakistan Economic Corridor

China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (پاكستان-چین اقتصادی راہداری; also known by the acronym CPEC) is a collection of infrastructure projects that are currently under construction throughout Pakistan.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Colonel Imam

Brigadier Sultan Amir Tarar (died January 2011), best known as Colonel Imam, was a one-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, and a diplomat who served as the Consul-General of Pakistan at Herat, Afghanistan.

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Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank.

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Concealment device

Concealment devices or diversion safes are used to hide things for the purpose of secrecy or security.

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Counterintelligence is "an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program against an opposition's intelligence service." It likewise refers to information gathered and activities conducted to counter espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.

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Covert Action Division

Covert Action Division (CAD) is generally considered the most secretive special operations force of Pakistan.

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Covert operation

A covert operation is a military operation that intended to conceal the identity of or allow plausible denial by the sponsor.

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Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

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Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

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Daniel Benjamin

Daniel Benjamin (born October 16, 1961) is an American diplomat and journalist, and was the Coordinator for Counterterrorism at the United States Department of State from 2009 to 2012, appointed by Secretary Clinton.

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Daniel Pearl

Daniel Pearl (October 10, 1963 – February 1, 2002) was a journalist for The Wall Street Journal with American and Israeli citizenship.

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Dawood Ibrahim

Dawood Ibrahim (born Dawood Ibrahim Kaskar 27 December 1955) is a criminal and a designated terrorist originally from Dongri in Mumbai, India.

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Dead drop

A dead drop or dead letter box is a method of espionage tradecraft used to pass items or information between two individuals (e.g., a case officer and an agent, or two agents) using a secret location, thus not requiring them to meet directly and thereby maintaining operational security.

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Death of Osama bin Laden

Osama bin Laden, the founder and first leader of the Islamist group Al-Qaeda, was killed in Pakistan on May 2, 2011 shortly after 1:00 am PKT (20:00 UTC, May 1) by United States Navy SEALs of the U.S. Naval Special Warfare Development Group (also known as DEVGRU or SEAL Team Six).

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Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان,; دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان;; د افغانستان جمهوریت), commonly known as Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), existed from 1978 to 1992 and covers the period when the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.

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Diplomatic mission

A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.

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Diplomatic rank

Diplomatic rank is a system of professional and social rank used in the world of diplomacy and international relations.

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Diplomatic Security Service

The United States Diplomatic Security Service (DSS or DS) is the federal law enforcement and security arm of the United States Department of State.

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Director of National Intelligence

The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government Cabinet-level official—subject to the authority, direction, and control of the President of the United States—required by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to.

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Director-General of Inter-Services Intelligence

The Director-General is head of the Inter-Services Intelligence, Pakistan's premier intelligence service, operationally responsible for providing critical national security and intelligence assessment to the Government of Pakistan.

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Directorate of Operations (CIA)

The Directorate of Operations (DO), less formally called the Clandestine Service,Central Intelligence Agency,, Retrieved:9 July 2015 is one of the smallest components of the US Central Intelligence Agency.

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Eavesdropping is secretly or stealthily listening to the private conversation or communications of others without their consent.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Ehsan ul Haq

General Ehsan ul Haq (احسان الحق; b. 22 September 1949),,,, is a retired four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army and the public official, served as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, appointed on October 2005 until his retirement in 2007.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electronic warfare

Electronic warfare (EW) is any action involving the use of the electromagnetic spectrum or directed energy to control the spectrum, attack of an enemy, or impede enemy assaults via the spectrum.

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Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.

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Faisalabad (فیصل آباد;; Lyallpur until 1979) is the third-most-populous city in Pakistan, and the second-largest in the eastern province of Punjab.

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False flag

A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.

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Federal Board of Revenue (Pakistan)

The Federal Board of Revenue (وفاقی آمدنی هيئت, abbreviated as FBR) is a top federal government body that investigates crimes related to taxation and money-laundering.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

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Federal Investigation Agency

The Federal Investigation Agency (وفاقی ادارۂ تحقیقات; reporting name: FIA) is a border control, counter-intelligence and security agency under the control of the Interior Secretary of Pakistan, tasked with investigative jurisdiction on undertaking operations against terrorism, espionage, federal crimes, fascism, smuggling as well as infringement and other specific crimes.

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Federal Public Service Commission

The Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC) is a federal agency of Government of Pakistan that is responsible for recruiting civil servants and bureaucrats for Government of Pakistan.

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Federation of American Scientists

The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.

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Financial intelligence

Financial intelligence (FININT) is the gathering of information about the financial affairs of entities of interest, to understand their nature and capabilities, and predict their intentions.

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FN Five-seven

The FN Five-seven, trademarked as the Five-seveN, is a semi-automatic pistol designed and manufactured by Fabrique Nationale d’Armes de Guerre-Herstal (FN Herstal) in Belgium.

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Foreign instrumentation signals intelligence

Foreign instrumentation signals intelligence, FISINT (Foreign Instrumentation Signals INTelligence) is intelligence from the interception of foreign electromagnetic emissions associated with the testing and operational deployment of foreign aerospace, surface, and subsurface systems.

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Fox News

Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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French Riviera

The French Riviera (known in French as the Côte d'Azur,; Còsta d'Azur; literal translation "Coast of Azure") is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France.

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Geospatial intelligence

In the United States, Geospatial intelligence, GEOINT (GEOspatial INTelligence) is intelligence about the human activity on earth derived from the exploitation and analysis of imagery and geospatial information that describes, assesses, and visually depicts physical features and geographically referenced activities on the Earth.

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Ghost Wars

Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001, abbreviated as Ghost Wars, is a book written by Steve Coll, published in 2004 by Penguin Press, won the 2005 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction.

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Ghriba synagogue bombing

The Ghriba synagogue bombing was a deadly bombing carried out by Niser bin Muhammad Nasr Nawar in Tunisia on the El Ghriba synagogue.

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Ghulam Jilani Khan

Ghulam Jilani Khan (1925–1999), غلام جيلانى خان, more widely known as Ghulam Jillani, was a three-star lieutenant general officer in the Pakistan Army who served as the fourteenth Governor of Punjab Province and eleventh Defence Secretary of Pakistan in the military government of President General Zia-ul-Haq.

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Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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The Glock pistol is a series of polymer-framed, short recoil-operated, locked-breech semi-automatic pistols designed and produced by Austrian Glock Ges.m.b.H..

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Government of Pakistan

The Government of Pakistan (حکومتِ پاکستان) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

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Guantanamo Bay files leak

The Guantánamo Bay files leak (also known as The Guantánamo Files, or colloquially, Gitmo Files) began on 25 April 2011, when WikiLeaks, along with several independent news organizations, began publishing 779 formerly secret documents relating to detainees at the United States' Guantánamo Bay detention camp established in 2002 after its invasion of Afghanistan in 2001.

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Gulbuddin Hekmatyar

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (ګلبدين حکمتيار; گلبدین حکمتیار; born 1 August, 1949) is an Afghan politician and former warlord.

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Gwadar (Balochi and گوادر) is a port city on the southwestern coast of Balochistan, Pakistan.

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Hamid Gul

Hamid Gul (حمید گل‎; 20 November 1936 – 15 August 2015) HI(M), SBt, was a three-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army and defence analyst.

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Haqqani network

The Haqqani network is an Afghan guerrilla insurgent group using asymmetric warfare to fight against US-led NATO forces and the government of Afghanistan.

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Heckler & Koch USP

The USP (Universelle Selbstladepistole or "universal self-loading pistol") is a semi-automatic pistol developed in Germany by Heckler & Koch GmbH (H&K) of Oberndorf am Neckar as a replacement for the P7 series of handguns.

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Hezbi Islami

Hezbi Islami (also Hezb-e Islami, Hezb-i-Islami, Hezbi-Islami, Hezb-e-Islami), meaning Islamic Party is an Islamist organization that was commonly known for fighting the Communist Government of Afghanistan and their close ally the Soviet Union.

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Hillary Clinton

Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.

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History of military technology

The military funding of science has had a powerful transformative effect on the practice and products of scientific research since the early 20th century.

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History of the Soviet Union (1982–91)

The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991 spans the period from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Hizbul Mujahideen

Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (حزب المجاھدین, Ḥizb al-Mujāhidīn, meaning "Party of Holy Warriors" or "Party of Mujahideen") is a Kashmiri separatist militant organization founded by Muhammad Ahsan Dar in September 1989.

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Human intelligence

Human intelligence is the intellectual prowess of humans, which is marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness.

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Human intelligence (intelligence gathering)

Human intelligence (frequently abbreviated HUMINT and sometimes pronounced as hyoo-mint) is intelligence gathered by means of interpersonal contact, as opposed to the more technical intelligence gathering disciplines such as signals intelligence (SIGINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT) and measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT).

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Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi

Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi (ALFB transliteration: Ḁbnʋ ălŞɑỉƈ alLibi; born Ali Mohamed Abdul Aziz al-Fakheri, 1963 – May 10, 2009) was a Libyan national captured in Afghanistan in November 2001 after the fall of the Taliban; he was interrogated by the American and Egyptian forces.

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In philosophy, ideas are usually taken as mental representational images of some object.

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Imagery intelligence

Imagery intelligence (IMINT) is an intelligence gathering discipline which collects information via satellite and aerial photography.

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Imtiaz Ahmed (brigadier)

Brigadier Imtiaz Ahmed (Urdu: امتياز احمد; b. 1935),, also known as Imtiaz Billa, is a retired engineering officer in the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers and a former spy who served as the Director-General of the Intelligence Bureau from 1990–93.

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Indian Army

The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.

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Indira Gandhi

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.

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Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".

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Intelligence agency

An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.

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Intelligence assessment

Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information.

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Intelligence Bureau (Pakistan)

The Intelligence Bureau (سراغرسانی کا دفتر; Reporting name: IB), is a civilian intelligence agency in Pakistan.

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Intelligence cycle management

Intelligence cycle management refers to the overall activity of guiding the intelligence cycle, which is a set of processes used to provide decision-useful information (intelligence) to leaders.

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Inter-Services Intelligence

The Inter-Services Intelligence (بین الخدماتی مخابرات, abbreviated as ISI) is the premier intelligence agency of Pakistan, operationally responsible for gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world.

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Inter-Services Intelligence activities in Afghanistan

The Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) intelligence agency of Pakistan has been heavily involved in covertly running military intelligence programs in Afghanistan since before the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979.

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Inter-Services Public Relations

The Inter-Services Public Relations (بین الخدماتی تعلقات عامہ; Reporting name:ISPR), is the media wing of the Pakistan Armed Forces which broadcasts and coordinates military news and information to the country's civilian media and the civic society.

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International Business Times

The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.

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International Security Assistance Force

The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.

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Interrogation (also called questioning) is interviewing as commonly employed by law enforcement officers, military personnel, and intelligence agencies with the goal of eliciting useful information.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Islam in China

Islam in China has existed through 1,400 years of continuous interaction with Chinese society.

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Islam in Pakistan

Islam is the largest and the state religion of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

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Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.

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Islamabad Capital Territory

Islamabad Capital Territory (وفاقی دارالحکومت, or ICT) is the one and only federal territory of Pakistan.

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Islami Jamhoori Ittehad

The Islami Jamhoori Ittehad (or IJI) English lit. Islamic Democratic Alliance, Acronym:(IDA, IJI) (اسلامی جمہوری اتحاد) was a right-wing conservative alliance formed in September 1988 to oppose the democratic socialist Pakistan Peoples Party in elections that year.

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Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.

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Jaish-e-Mohammed (جيش محمد, literally "The Army of Muhammad", abbreviated as JeM) is a Deobandi: "Deobandis like Masood Azhar, a graduate of Jamia Binouria who later set up a jihadist outfit named Jaish-e-Muhammad (JeM) in 2000, reportedly at the behest of Pakistan's military establishment." jihadist: "as soon as he was freed, Masood Azhar was back in Pakistan where he founded a new jihadist movement, Jai-sh e Mohd Shaikh, which became one of the jihadist groups the ISI used in Kashmir and elsewhere." group active in Kashmir.

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Jalaluddin Haqqani

Mawlawi Jalaluddin Haqqani (جلال الدين حقاني) (1939 – 2014) is the leader of the Haqqani network, an insurgent group fighting in guerilla warfare initially against US-led NATO forces, and the present government of Afghanistan they support.

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Jamaat-e-Islami (Urdu: جماعتِ اسلامی) is an Islamic political organisation and social conservative movement founded in 1941 in British India by the Islamist theologian and socio-political philosopher, Abul Ala Maududi.

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Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan

Jamaat-e-Islami, (Urdu:; meaning "Islamic Congress") abbreviated JI, is a socially conservative and Islamist political party based in Pakistan.

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James J.F. Forest

James J. F. Forest is an author and a professor and director of security studies at the University of Massachusetts Lowell.

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Jamestown Foundation

The Jamestown Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based institute for research and analysis, founded in 1984 as a platform to support Soviet defectors.

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Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.

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Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front

The Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) is a political organisation in Jammu & Kashmir founded by Amanullah Khan and Maqbool Bhat.

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Javed Ashraf Qazi

Lieutenant General Javed Ashraf Qazi (جاوید اشرف قاضی), HI(M), SBt, (born 4 September 1941) in City Gujrat (Chak Sada Village) is a Pakistani general and politician who is currently a Senator in the Parliament of Pakistan.

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Javed Nasir

Lieutenant-General Javed Nasir (Urdu: جاويد ناصر;b. 1936)), is a retired engineering officer in the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers, who served as the Director-General of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), appointed on 14 March 1992 until being forcefully removed from this assignment on 13 May 1993. An educator and engineer by profession, Nasir gained national prominence as his role of bringing the unscattered mass of Afghan Mujahideen to agree to the power-sharing formula to form Afghan administration under President Mojaddedi in Afghanistan in 1992–93. Later, he played an influential and decisive role in the Bosnian war when he oversaw the covert military intelligence program to support the Bosnian Army against the Serbs, while airlifting the thousands of Bosnian refugees in Pakistan.

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Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.

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Joseph Dunford

Joseph Francis Dunford Jr. (born December 8, 1955) is a United States Marine Corps General and the 19th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

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Judiciary of Pakistan

The judiciary of Pakistan (پاکستان کا عدلیہ) is a hierarchical system with two classes of courts: the superior (or higher) judiciary and the subordinate (or lower) judiciary.

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Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.

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Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

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The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.

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Khadamat-e Aetla'at-e Dawlati (Pashto/خدمات اطلاعات دولتی) translates directly to English as: "State Intelligence Agency".

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Khalid Khawaja

Squadron Leader Khalid Khawaja (1951–2010) was an Air Force officer, and the Air Force's intelligence officer of the Pakistan's Inter Services Intelligence agency.

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Khalid Sheikh Mohammed

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (sometimes also spelled Khalid Shaikh Mohammed; among at least fifty pseudonyms; born April 14, 1965) is a Pakistani Islamist militant held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp under terrorism-related charges.

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Khalistan movement

The Khalistan movement is a Sikh separatist movement, which seeks to create a separate country called Khalistān (ਖ਼ਾਲਿਸਤਾਨ, "The Land of the Pure") in the Punjab region of South Asia to serve as a homeland for Sikhs.

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Khan Research Laboratories

The Khan Research Laboratories, previously known at various times as Project-706, Engineering Research Laboratories, and Kahuta Research Laboratories, is a Pakistan Government's multi-program national research institute, managed and operated under the scrutiny of Pakistan Armed Forces, located in Kahuta, Punjab Province.

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Kulbhushan Jadhav

Kulbhushan Sudhir Jadhav (also spelled Kulbhushan Yadav, alleged alias Hussain Mubarak Patel) (born 16 April 1970) is an Indian national who was claimed by the Pakistani government that he was arrested in the Pakistani province of Balochistan on charges of terrorism and spying for India's intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing.

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Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.

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Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT, لشکر طیبہ; literally Army of the Good, translated as Army of the Righteous, or Army of the Pure and alternatively spelled as Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, Lashkar-e-Toiba; Lashkar-e-Taiba; Lashkar-i-Tayyeba) is one of the largest and most active Islamic terrorism militant organizations in South Asia, operating mainly from Pakistan.

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Law enforcement in Pakistan

Law enforcement in Pakistan (قانون نافذ کرنے والے ادارے) is one of the three main components of the criminal justice system of Pakistan, alongside the courts and the prisons.

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Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Lieutenant general

Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.

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List of designated terrorist groups

This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.

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London School of Economics

The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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Low intensity conflict

A low-intensity conflict (LIC) is a military conflict, usually localised, between two or more state or non-state groups which is below the intensity of conventional war.

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Mahmud Ahmed

Lieutenant-General Mahmud Ahmed (محمود احمد; b. 1944), is a retired three-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army who served as the Director-General of the Inter-Services Intelligence from 1999 until being terminated, following the terrorists attacks in the United States in 2001.

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Measurement and signature intelligence

Measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) is a technical branch of intelligence gathering, which serves to detect, track, identify or describe the signatures (distinctive characteristics) of fixed or dynamic target sources.

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Mehrangate, also known as the Mehran bank scandal, was a major political scandal in the history of Pakistan in which officers in the Pakistani Army and Inter-Services Intelligence conspired to prevent the re-election of Benazir Bhutto's government in the 1990 and 1993 general elections.

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Michael Mullen

Michael Glenn Mullen, AO, MSC (born October 4, 1946) is a retired United States Navy admiral, who served as the 17th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from October 1, 2007, to September 30, 2011.

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The English word militant is both an adjective and a noun, and is generally used to mean vigorously active, combative and aggressive, especially in support of a cause, as in "militant reformers".

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Military Intelligence (Pakistan)

The Directorate for Military Intelligence, known as "Military Intelligence" (MI), is the intelligence arm of the Pakistan Army.

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Ministry of Intelligence

The Ministry of Intelligence of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: وِزارَتِ اِطّلاعات جُمهوریِ اِسلامیِ ایران Vezarat-e Ettela'at Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran) is the primary intelligence agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran and a member of the Iran Intelligence Community.

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Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Mossad (הַמוֹסָד,; الموساد,,; literally meaning "the Institute"), short for (המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, meaning "Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations"), is the national intelligence agency of Israel.

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Movement for the Restoration of Democracy

The Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (اتحاد برائے بحالی جمہوریت; known as MRD), was a historically populist and massive left–wing political alliance formed to oppose and end the military government of President General Zia-ul-Haq.

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Muhammad Riaz Khan

Muhammad Riaz Khan (Urdu/محمد ریاض خان) was a Pakistan Army general who was the 6th Director-General of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), serving from 1977 to 1979.

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Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq

Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (12 August 1924 – 17 August 1988) was a Pakistani four-star general who served as the 6th President of Pakistan from 1978 until his death in 1988, after declaring martial law in 1977.

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Mukti Bahini

The Mukti Bahini (মুক্তি বাহিনী translates as 'Freedom Fighters', or Liberation Forces; also known as the Bangladesh Forces) is a popular Bengali term which refers to the guerrilla resistance movement formed by the Bangladeshi military, paramilitary and civilians during the War of Liberation that transformed East Pakistan into Bangladesh in 1971.

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Multinational corporation

A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.

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Nadeem Taj

Lieutenant General Nadeem Taj Arain, HI(M) (born 29 April 1953) is a retired three-star general in the Pakistan Army who served as its Adjutant General (AG) in the GHQ.

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Naseem Rana

Lieutenant-General Naseem Rana (Urdu: نسيم رانا; born 20 September 1942) is a retired three-star general in the Pakistan Army, who served as the director-general of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) from 1995 to October 1998.

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National Intelligence Directorate (Pakistan)

The National Intelligence Directorate (Urdu: نيشنل انٹلیجنس ڈائريكٹوريٹ; NID), is a national intelligence estimate authority to integrate foreign, military and domestic intelligence in the national interests of Pakistan.

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National security

National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.

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Naval Intelligence (Pakistan)

The Directorate for Naval Intelligence, known as "Naval Intelligence" and its acronym "NI", is the intelligence arm of the Pakistan Navy.

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Naveed Mukhtar

Naveed Mukhtar is a three-star rank Pakistan Army Lieutenant-General and the current Director-General of Inter-Services Intelligence, the premier intelligence agency of Pakistan.

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A Naxal or Naxalite is a member of the Communist Party of India (Maoist).

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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Non-governmental organization

Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.

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Non-official cover

In espionage, agents under non-official cover (NOC) are operatives who assume covert roles in organizations without official ties to the government for which they work.

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North Korea

North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010)

The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.

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Northern Alliance

The Afghan Northern Alliance, officially known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (جبهه متحد اسلامی ملی برای نجات افغانستان Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islāmi-yi Millī barāyi Nijāt-i Afghānistān), was a united military front that came to formation in late 1996 after the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban) took over Kabul.

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Northern Areas Transport Corporation

Northern Areas Transport Corporation or NATCO is the largest transport company in Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan and Karakoram Highway, throughout the Northern Areas.

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Numbers station

A numbers station is a shortwave radio station characterized by broadcasts of formatted numbers, which are believed to be addressed to intelligence officers operating in foreign countries.

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One-way voice link

A one-way voice link (OWVL) is typically a radio based communication method used by spy networks to communicate with agents in the field typically (but not exclusively) using shortwave radio frequencies.

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Open-source intelligence

Open-source intelligence (OSINT) is data collected from publicly available sources to be used in an intelligence context.

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Operation Blue Star

Operation Blue Star was an Indian military operation carried out between 1 and 8 June 1984, ordered by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to remove militant religious leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his armed followers from the buildings of the Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar, Punjab.

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Operation Cyclone

Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) program to arm and finance the mujahideen, in Afghanistan from 1979 to 1989, prior to and during the military intervention by the USSR in support of its client, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.

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Operation Eagle Claw

Operation Eagle Claw, known as Operation Tabas (عملیات طبس) in Iran, was a United States Armed Forces operation ordered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter to attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis by rescuing 52 embassy staff held captive at the Embassy of the United States, Tehran on 24 April 1980.

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Operation Fair Play

Operation Fair Play was the code name for the 5 July 1977 coup by Pakistan Chief of Army Staff General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, overthrowing the government of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.

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Operation Meghdoot

Operation Meghdoot (ऑपरेशन मेघदूत Ŏparēśan Meghdūt, lit. "Operation Cloud Messenger" after a famous Sanskrit poem by Kalidasa) was the code-name for the Indian Armed Forces operation to capture the Siachen Glacier in the Kashmir region, precipitating the Siachen Conflict.

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Operation Tupac

Operation Tupac is the existing codename of an ongoing cold war military intelligence contingency program run by the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency, active since the 1980s.

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Operation Zarb-e-Azb

Operation Zarb-e-Azb (Pashto/آپریشن ضربِ عضب ALA-LC) was a joint military offensive conducted by the Pakistan Armed Forces against various militant groups, including the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, al-Qaeda, Jundallah and the Haqqani network. The operation was launched on 15 June 2014 in North Waziristan along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border as a renewed effort against militancy in the wake of the 8 June attack on Jinnah International Airport in Karachi, for which the TTP and the IMU claimed responsibility. As of 14 July 2014, the operation internally displaced about 929,859 people belonging to 80,302 families from North Waziristan. Part of the war in North-West Pakistan, up to 30,000 Pakistani soldiers were involved in Zarb-e-Azb, described as a "comprehensive operation" to flush out all foreign and local militants hiding in North Waziristan. The operation has received widespread support from the Pakistani political, defence and civilian sectors. As a consequence, the overall security situation improved and terrorist attacks in Pakistan dropped to a six-year low since 2008. Zarb-e-Azb was followed by Operation Radd-ul-Fasaad which began in February 2017, following a resurgence in terrorist incidents.

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Osama bin Laden

Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pakistan Air Force

The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (پاک فِضائیہ—, or alternatively پاکیستان هاوایی فوج, reporting name: PAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, tasked primarily with the aerial defence of Pakistan, with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy.

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Pakistan Armed Forces

The Pakistan Armed Forces (پاکستان مُسَلّح افواج, Pākistān Musallah Afwāj) are the military forces of Pakistan.

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Pakistan Army

Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.

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Pakistan Communist Party

The Pakistan Communist Party was a short-lived splinter-group of the Communist Party of India, existing for three weeks in the summer of 1947.

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Pakistan Customs

Pakistan Customs (Urdu: رسوم پاکستان) is one of the elite cadres of the Civil Service of Pakistan.

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Pakistan Navy

The Pakistan Navy (rtl; Pɑkistan Bahri'a) (reporting name: PN) is the naval warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, responsible for Pakistan's of coastline along the Arabian Sea, and the defence of important civilian harbours and military bases.

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Pakistan Peoples Party

The Pakistan Peoples Party (پاکِستان پیپلز پارٹی, commonly referred to as the PPP) is a left-wing, socialist-progressive political party of Pakistan.

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Pakistan Rangers

The Pakistan Rangers (پاکستان رےنجرز) are a paramilitary law enforcement organization in Pakistan and have a primary mission of securing important sites such as Pakistan's International Border with India as well as employed in internal security operations, and providing assistance to the police in maintaining law and order.

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Pakistani general election, 1977

General elections were held in Pakistan on 7 March 1977 to elect the 200 parliamentarians to both houses (Senate and National Assembly) of the Parliament of Pakistan.

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Pakistani general election, 1988

General elections were held in Pakistan on 16 November 1988, electing the 336 members of the National Assembly and 100 members of the Senate.

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Pakistani general election, 1990

General elections were held in Pakistan on 24 October 1990 to elect 217 members of the National Assembly. They resulted in a surprise victory for Islami Jamhoori Ittehad (IJI), a conservative front led by Nawaz Sharif, which won 106 seats. The IJI had campaigned for privatisation and social conservative policies. Voter turnout was 45.5%.

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Pakistani intelligence community

The Pakistani intelligence community comprises the various intelligence agencies of Pakistan that work internally and externally to manage, research and collect intelligence necessary for national security.

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Pakistani presidential election, 1965

Pakistan's first ever Presidential Elections were held on January 2, 1965.

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Pervez Musharraf

Pervez Musharraf (پرویز مشرف; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician and a retired four-star army general who was the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until tendering resignation, to avoid impeachment, in 2008.

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Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

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Peter Tomsen

Peter Tomsen (born November 19, 1940), is a retired American diplomat and educator, serving as United States Special Envoy to Afghanistan from 1989 to 1992, and United States Ambassador to Armenia between 1995 and 1998.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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President of Pakistan

The President of Pakistan (صدر مملکت پاکستان —), is the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and a figurehead who represents the "unity of the Republic." in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.

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Prime Minister of Pakistan

The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".

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Private hospital

A private hospital is a hospital owned by a for-profit company or a non-profit organization and privately funded through payment for medical services by patients themselves, by insurers, Governments through national health insurance programs, or by foreign embassies.

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Proxy war

A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.

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Psychological warfare

Psychological warfare (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations (PSYOP), have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO, Psy Ops, political warfare, "Hearts and Minds", and propaganda.

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Punjab, India

Punjab is a state in northern India.

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Quetta Shura

The Quetta Shura is a militant organization which is composed of the leaders of the Afghan Taliban, and believed to be based, since about 2001, within the city of Quetta in the Balochistan province of Pakistan.

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Radiation intelligence

Radiation intelligence, or RINT, is military intelligence gathered and produced from unintentional radiation created as induction from electrical wiring, usually of computers, data connections and electricity networks.

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Ramzi bin al-Shibh

Ramzi bin al-Shibh (رمزي بن الشيبة,; also transliterated as bin al-Shaibah) (born May 1, 1972, with supporting conspirators, Ramzi bin al-Shibh and Mustafa al-Hawsawi. Filed in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia.) is a Yemeni citizen being held by the U.S. as an enemy combatant detainee at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba.

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Ramzi Yousef

Ramzi Yousef (رمزي يوسف; born 27 April 1968) is a convicted and incarcerated international terrorist who was one of the main perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, the bombing of Philippine Airlines Flight 434, and was a co-conspirator in the Bojinka plot.

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Rangin Dadfar Spanta


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Rawalpindi (Punjabi, راولپِنڈى), commonly known as Pindi (پِنڈی), is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

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Raymond Allen Davis incident

Raymond Allen Davis is a former United States Army soldier, private security firm employee, and contractor with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

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Reconnaissance aircraft

A reconnaissance aircraft is a military aircraft designed or adapted to perform aerial reconnaissance.

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Recruitment of spies

Clandestine HUMINT asset recruiting refers to the recruitment of human agents, commonly known as spies, who work for a foreign government, within a host country's government, or other targets of intelligence interest for the gathering of human intelligence.

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Research and Analysis Wing

The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW) (IAST: Anusaṃdhān Aur Viśleṣaṇ Viṃg) is the foreign intelligence agency of India.

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Riaz Hussain (politician)

Riaz Hussain was a serving lieutenant general in the Pakistan Army.

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Richard Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.

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Right-wing politics

Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.

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Rizwan Akhtar

Lieutenant-General Rizwan Akhtar () was a three-star rank Pakistan Army general.

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Robert Cawthome

Sir Robert Cawthome (رابرٹ کیتھوموم) was the founder of the Inter-Services Intelligence and Pakistan Army Corps of Signals.

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Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.

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Saleem Shahzad

Syed Saleem Shahzad (سید سلیم شہزاد, 3 November 1970 – 30 May 2011) was a Pakistani investigative journalist who wrote widely for leading European and Asian media.

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Sarfraz Bugti

Mir Sarfraz Bugti (Urdu, میر سرفراز بگٹی) (born June 1, 1980) is a Pakistani politician.

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Sayeed Salahudeen

Syed Mohammed Yusuf Shah, popularly known as Syed Salahudeen, is the head of Hizb-ul-Mujahideen, group operating in Kashmir, and head of an alliance of anti-India militant groups, the United Jihad Council, that works to annex the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir to Pakistan.

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Secondment is the assignment of a member of one organisation to another organisation for a temporary period.

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Secret Intelligence Service

The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Shahnawaz Bhutto

Shahnawaz Bhutto (November 21, 1958 – July 18, 1985; Sindhi: شاھنواز ڀٽو) was the son of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (President/Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1971 to 1977) and Begum Nusrat Bhutto, who was of Iranian Kurdish descent.

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Shakil Afridi

Shakil Afridi (شکیل آفریدی), or Shakeel Afridi, is a Pakistani physician who helped the CIA run a fake hepatitis vaccine program in Abbottabad, Pakistan, to confirm Osama bin Laden's presence in the city by obtaining DNA samples.

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Shamsur Rahman Kallu

Shamsur Rahman Kallue was the 9th Director General of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence who was in office from May 1989– August 1990.

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Siachen Glacier

The Siachen Glacier (Hindi: सियाचिन ग्लेशियर, Urdu: سیاچن گلیشیر) is a glacier located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalayas at about, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends.

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Signals intelligence

Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).

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Socialism in Pakistan

The influences of socialism and socialist movements in Pakistan have taken many different forms as a counterpart to political conservatism, from the groups like Lal Salam which is the Pakistani section of the International Marxist Tendency, The Struggle, to the Stalinist group like Communist Party through to the reformist electoral project enshrined in the birth of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) While capitalism has always held its sway, the prevalence of the socialist ideology has nevertheless continued to be found in a number of instances in Pakistan's political past and prominent personalities.

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South Asia Analysis Group

South Asia Analysis Group (SAAG) is a non-profit think tank based in India which conducts public interest and advocacy work.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Soviet–Afghan War

The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.

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Special Activities Division

The Special Activities Division (SAD) is a division of the United States Central Intelligence Agency responsible for covert operations.

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Special Service

"Special Service" is the sixty-fourth episode and the twenty-seventh episode of the third season (1988–89) of the television series The Twilight Zone.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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State within a state

A state within a state or a deep state is a political situation in a country when an internal organ ("deep state"), such as the armed forces or public authorities (intelligence agencies, police, secret police, administrative agencies, and branches of government bureaucracy), does not respond to the civilian political leadership.

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Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video.

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Stephen P. Cohen

Stephen Philip Cohen (born 1936) is an American political scientist and professor of security studies.

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Steven Simon

Steven Simon is a former United States National Security Council senior director for the Middle East and North Africa.

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Stratfor is an American geopolitical intelligence platform and publisher founded in 1996 in Austin, Texas, by George Friedman, who was the company's chairman.

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Subversion (Latin subvertere: overthrow) refers to a process by which the values and principles of a system in place are contradicted or reversed, an attempt to transform the established social order and its structures of power, authority, hierarchy, and norm (social).

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Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.

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Syed Mohammad Ahsan

Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan (ﺴﻴﺩ ﻣﺤﻣﺪ ﺍﺣﺴﻦ b. 1920 – d. 1989), often known as S. M. Ahsan, was a three-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, politician, and the Commander in Chief of the Pakistan Navy, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1966 until 1969.

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Syed Shahid Hamid

Major General Syed Shahid Hamid (سید شاہد حامد) HJ (17 September 1910 – 12 March 1993) was the 1st Director-General of Inter-Services Intelligence.

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The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.

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Taliban insurgency

The Taliban insurgency began shortly after the group's fall from power following the 2001 War in Afghanistan.

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Technical intelligence

In a pure military context, Technical Intelligence (TECHINT) is intelligence about weapons and equipment used by the armed forces of foreign nations (often referred to as foreign material).The related term, scientific and technical intelligence, addresses information collected at the strategic (i.e., national) level.

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Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan

Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP; تحریک طالبان پاکستان; "Taliban Movement of Pakistan"), alternatively referred to as the Taliban, is a terrorist group which is an umbrella organization of various militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan.

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Telemetry intelligence

Telemetry intelligence (TELINT) is a subdiscipline of FISINT which is concerned with missiles and other remotely monitored devices sending back continuous streams of data about their location, speed, engine status and other metrics.

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Tempest (codename)

TEMPEST is a National Security Agency specification and a NATO certification referring to spying on information systems through leaking emanations, including unintentional radio or electrical signals, sounds, and vibrations.

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The Asian Age

The Asian Age is an English-language Indian daily newspaper with editions published in Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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U.S. Bank Tower (Los Angeles)

U.S. Bank Tower, formerly Library Tower and First Interstate Bank World Center, is a skyscraper at 633 West Fifth Street in downtown Los Angeles, California, United States.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States diplomatic cables leak

The United States diplomatic cables leak, widely known as Cablegate, began on Sunday, 28 November 2010 when WikiLeaks—a non-profit organization that publishes submissions from anonymous whistleblowers—began releasing classified cables that had been sent to the U.S. State Department by 274 of its consulates, embassies, and diplomatic missions around the world.

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United States National Security Council

The White House National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the executive office of the president of the United States.

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USS Cole bombing

The USS Cole bombing was an attack against the United States Navy guided-missile destroyer on 12 October 2000, while it was being refueled in Yemen's Aden harbor.

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Uzair Baloch

Uzair Jan Baloch (Urdu/عزیر جان بلوچ) is a crime lord originally from Lyari in Karachi, Pakistan He is a key figurehead of Karachi's underworld and is long associated with the notorious gang war in his hometown, Lyari.

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War in Afghanistan (1978–present)

This article covers the history of Afghanistan since the communist military coup on 27 April 1978, known as the Saur Revolution, when the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) took power.

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War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.

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War in North-West Pakistan

The War in North-West Pakistan, also known as the War in Waziristan, is an armed conflict involving Pakistan, and armed militant groups such as the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Jundallah, Lashkar-e-Islam (LeI), TNSM, al-Qaeda, and their Central Asian allies such as the ISIL–Khorasan (ISIL), Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, East Turkistan Movement, Emirate of Caucasus, and elements of organized crime.

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Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Yahya Khan

Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.

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Lieutenant-General Zaheer-ul-Islam, HI (M), (ﻇﻬﻴﺮ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ) is a former Director-General of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI); he was appointed to the position on 9 March 2012.

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Ziauddin Butt

General Khawaja Ziauddin Abbasi (خواجہ ضیاء الدین عباسى), also known as Ziauddin Butt (ضیاء الدین بٹ), is a retired four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who served as the Chief of Army Staff (COAS), for a brief time, until Chairman joint chiefs General Pervez Musharraf reasserted the command and control of the military despite his termination on 12 October 1999.

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1958 Pakistani coup d'état

The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état refers to the events between October 7, when the President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution of Pakistan and declared martial law, and October 27, when Mirza himself was deposed by Gen.

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1993 World Trade Center bombing

The 1993 World Trade Center bombing was a terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, carried out on February 26, 1993, when a truck bomb detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City.

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2000 millennium attack plots

On or near January 1, 2000, a series of Islamist terrorist attacks linked to al-Qaeda were planned to occur in the context of millennium celebrations, including bombing plots against four tourist sites in Jordan, against the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) and the, and the hijacking of Indian Airlines Flight 814.

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2001 shoe bomb attempt

The 2001 shoe bomb attempt was a failed bombing attempt that occurred on December 22, 2001, on American Airlines Flight 63.

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2002 Bali bombings

The 2002 Bali bombings occurred on 12 October 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali.

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2008 bombing of Indian embassy in Kabul

The 2008 Indian embassy bombing in Kabul was a suicide bomb terror attack on the Indian embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan on 7 July 2008 at 8:30 AM local time.

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2012–13 Stratfor email leak

The 2012–13 Stratfor email leak is the public disclosure of a number of internal emails between geopolitical intelligence company Stratfor's employees and its clients, referred to by WikiLeaks as the Global Intelligence Files.

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Redirects here:

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inter-Services_Intelligence

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