219 relations: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system, ABM-1 Galosh, Agni (missile), Agni-V, Agni-VI, Anti-ballistic missile, Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Apollo program, Apsis, Arkady Ostashev, Arrow (Israeli missile), Astronaut, Atlas (rocket family), Atmospheric entry, Avangard (hypersonic glide vehicle), Ballistic missile, Ballistic missile flight phases, Bernard Adolph Schriever, Biological warfare, Bomber, Booster (rocketry), Boris Chertok, Chaff (countermeasure), Chemical warfare, China, China and weapons of mass destruction, Circular error probable, Composite material, Congressional Research Service, Cosmonautics Day, Counterforce, Countermeasure, Countervalue, Cryogenic fuel, Decoy, DEFCON, Dense Pack, DF-31, DF-4, DF-41, DF-5, Differential equation, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ellipse, Embedded system, Emergency Action Message, Encyclopædia Britannica, Epoxy, Federation of American Scientists, FLOPS, ..., Fractional Orbital Bombardment System, France, France and weapons of mass destruction, GAM-87 Skybolt, Geodesy, Government Accountability Office, Great circle, Ground-Based Midcourse Defense, Haaretz, Heavy ICBM, Henry H. Arnold, HGM-25A Titan I, High-alert nuclear weapon, Honeycomb structure, Human spaceflight, Hwasong-14, Hwasong-15, ICBM address, India, India and weapons of mass destruction, Integrated circuit, Intelligence agency, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Intermediate-range ballistic missile, Inverse-square law, Israel, Jane's Information Group, Jericho (missile), JL-1, JL-2, John F. Kennedy, KN-08, Korolyov, Moscow Oblast, Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2, Launch vehicle, LGM-118 Peacekeeper, LGM-25C Titan II, LGM-30 Minuteman, Library of Congress, Liquid oxygen, Liquid-propellant rocket, List of ICBMs, List of states with nuclear weapons, M45 (missile), M51 (missile), Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau, Maneuverable reentry vehicle, Medium-range ballistic missile, MGM-134 Midgetman, Missile defense, Missile guidance, Missile launch facility, Missile vehicle, Molodaya Gvardiya (publisher), MR-UR-100 Sotka, Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle, Mutual assured destruction, NATO reporting name, Nauka (publisher), Navigation, Nazi Germany, NBC News, North Korea, North Korea and weapons of mass destruction, Nuclear disarmament, Nuclear navy, Nuclear warfare, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapons delivery, Nuclear weapons of the United States, Operation Paperclip, Orbit, Payload, Penetration aid, Plesetsk Cosmodrome, Pre-emptive nuclear strike, Project Gemini, Project Mercury, Prompt Global Strike, Proton (rocket family), Pukkuksong-1, Pyrolytic carbon, R-16 (missile), R-26 (missile), R-29 Vysota, R-29RM Shtil, R-29RMU Sineva, R-29RMU2 Layner, R-36 (missile), R-39 Rif, R-7 (rocket family), R-7 Semyorka, R-9 Desna, Range (aeronautics), Redstone (rocket family), Reuters, Ronald Reagan, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, RS-24 Yars, RS-26 Rubezh, RS-28 Sarmat, RSM-56 Bulava, RT-2, RT-20P, RT-21 Temp 2S, RT-23 Molodets, RT-2PM Topol, RT-2PM2 Topol-M, RTV-A-2 Hiroc, Russia, Russia and weapons of mass destruction, Safeguard Program, Saturn (rocket family), Semi-major and semi-minor axes, Sergei Korolev, Shavit, Short-range ballistic missile, Sino-Soviet split, SM-65 Atlas, Solid-propellant rocket, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), Space Race, Sputnik 1, START I, START II, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, Strategic Defense Initiative, Strategic Missile Troops, Sub-orbital spaceflight, Submarine, Submarine-launched ballistic missile, Synthetic resin, Tactical ballistic missile, The Hindu, Theatre ballistic missile, Thermonuclear weapon, Three-dimensional quartz phenolic, Timeline of first orbital launches by country, Titan (rocket family), Trajectory, Type 092 submarine, UGM-133 Trident II, UGM-27 Polaris, UGM-96 Trident I, Underground Great Wall of China, Unha, United Kingdom, United Kingdom and weapons of mass destruction, United Nations Security Council, United States, United States Air Force, United States and weapons of mass destruction, United States European Command, United States national missile defense, United States Senate, Universal Rocket, Unternehmen Elster, UR-100, UR-100N, UR-200, V-2 rocket, Voskhod programme, Vostok (rocket family), Vostok programme, Warhead, Wernher von Braun, Xinhua News Agency, Yuri Gagarin. Expand index (169 more) » « Shrink index
The A-135 (NATO: ABM-3 Gorgon) anti-ballistic missile system is a Russian military complex deployed around Moscow to counter enemy missiles targeting the city or its surrounding areas.
The ABM-1 Galosh (Soviet designation A-350 GRAU 5V61) was a Soviet, nuclear-tipped surface-to-air anti-ballistic missile.
The Agni missile (Agnī, "fire"; also the Hindu God of Fire) is a family of medium to intercontinental range ballistic missiles developed by India, named after one of the five elements of nature.
Agni-V is an intercontinental ballistic missile developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) of India.
Agni-VI is an intercontinental ballistic missile being developed by the DRDO for the use of the Indian Armed Forces Strategic Forces Command.
An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a surface-to-air missile designed to counter ballistic missiles (see missile defense).
The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty or ABMT) (1972—2002) was an arms control treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against ballistic missile-delivered nuclear weapons.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
Arkady Ilyich Ostashev (Аркадий Ильич Осташев); September 30, 1925, village Maly Vasilyev, Noginsky District, Moscow Oblast, USSR – July 12, 1998, Moscow, Russian Federation was an engineer, Soviet, Russian scientist, participant in the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite and the first cosmonaut, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent, laureate of the Lenin and state prizes of the, senior test pilot of missiles and space-rocket complexes of OKB-1, the disciple and companion of Sergei Pavlovich Korolev.
The Arrow or Hetz (חֵץ) is a family of anti-ballistic missiles designed to fulfill an Israeli requirement for a missile defense system that would be more effective against ballistic missiles than the MIM-104 Patriot surface-to-air missile.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
Atlas is a family of American missiles and space launch vehicles.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
Avangard (also called Objekt 4202, Yu-71 and Yu-74) is a hypersonic glide vehicle developed by the Russian Federation using a Scramjet engine, that can be carried as a MIRV payload by UR-100UTTKh, RS-26 Rubezh and RS-28 Sarmat superheavy ICBM and can deliver both nuclear and conventional payloads.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
A ballistic missile goes through several distinct phases of flight that are common to almost all such designs.
General Bernard Adolph Schriever (September 14, 1910 – June 20, 2005), also known as Bennie Schriever, was a United States Air Force general.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), firing torpedoes and bullets or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
A booster rocket (or engine) is either the first stage of a multistage launch vehicle, or else a shorter-burning rocket used in parallel with longer-burning sustainer rockets to augment the space vehicle's takeoff thrust and payload capability.
Boris Evseyevich Chertok (Бори́с Евсе́евич Черто́к; 1 March 1912 – 14 December 2011) was a Russian electrical engineer and the control systems designer in the Soviet Union's space program, and later the Roscosmos.
Chaff, originally called Window by the British and Düppel by the Second World War era German Luftwaffe (from the Berlin suburb where it was first developed), is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallized glass fibre or plastic, which either appears as a cluster of primary targets on radar screens or swamps the screen with multiple returns.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The People's Republic of China has developed and possesses weapons of mass destruction, including chemical and nuclear weapons.
In the military science of ballistics, circular error probable (CEP) (also circular error probability or circle of equal probability) is a measure of a weapon system's precision.
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
Cosmonautics Day (День Космона́втики, Den Kosmonavtiki) is an anniversary celebrated in Russia and some other former USSR countries on 12 April.
In nuclear strategy, a counterforce target is one that has a military value, such as a launch silo for intercontinental ballistic missiles, an airbase at which nuclear-armed bombers are stationed, a homeport for ballistic missile submarines, or a command and control installation.
A countermeasure is a measure or action taken to counter or offset another one.
In military doctrine, countervalue is the targeting of an opponent's assets which are of value but not actually a military threat, such as cities and civilian populations.
Cryogenic fuels are fuels that require storage at extremely low temperatures in order to maintain them in a liquid state.
A decoy is usually a person, device, or event meant as a distraction, to hide what an individual or a group might be looking for.
The defense readiness condition (DEFCON) is an alert state used by the United States Armed Forces.
Dense Pack is a strategy for basing intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) for the purpose of maximizing their survivability in case of a surprise nuclear first strike on their silos conducted by a hostile foreign power.
The Dong Feng 31 (NATO reporting name CSS-09) is a long-range, road-mobile, three stage, solid-fuel rocket intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) in the Dongfeng missile series developed by the People's Republic of China.
The Dong Feng 4 or DF-4 (also known as the CSS-3) is a two-stage Chinese Intercontinental ballistic missile with liquid fuel (Nitric acid/Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine).
The Dongfeng-41 (DF-41, CSS-X-10), is a Chinese solid-fuelled road-mobile intercontinental ballistic missile.
The Dongfeng 5 or DF-5 is a two stage Chinese ICBM.
A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
In the U.S. military's strategic nuclear weapon nuclear command and control (NC2) system, an Emergency Action Message (EAM) is a preformatted message that directs nuclear-capable forces to execute specific Major Attack Options (MAOs) or Limited Attack Options (LAOs) in a nuclear war.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
In computing, floating point operations per second (FLOPS, flops or flop/s) is a measure of computer performance, useful in fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations.
The Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS) was a Soviet ICBM program in the 1960s that after launch would go into a low Earth orbit and would then de-orbit for an attack.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
France is one of the five "Nuclear Weapons States" under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, but is not known to possess or develop any chemical or biological weapons.
The Douglas GAM-87 Skybolt (AGM-48 under the 1962 Tri-service system) was an air-launched ballistic missile (ALBM) developed by the United States during the late 1950s.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
A great circle, also known as an orthodrome, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane that passes through the center point of the sphere.
Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) is the United States' anti-ballistic missile system for intercepting incoming warheads in space, during the midcourse phase of ballistic trajectory flight.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Heavy ICBM is a term that was created in the 1970s to describe a class of Soviet and Russian ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles).
Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an American general officer holding the grades of General of the Army and General of the Air Force.
The Martin Marietta SM-68A/HGM-25A Titan I was the United States' first multistage intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), in use from 1959 until 1965.
High-alert nuclear weapon(s) commonly refers to a launch-ready ballistic missile(s) armed with a nuclear warhead(s) whose launch can be ordered (through the National Command Authority) and executed (via a nuclear command and control system) within 15 minutes or less.
Honeycomb structures are natural or man-made structures that have the geometry of a honeycomb to allow the minimization of the amount of used material to reach minimal weight and minimal material cost.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
The Hwasong-14 (Chosŏn'gŭl: 화성 14호; hancha: 火星 14号, meaning Mars-14), also known under alternative US designation codename KN-20, is a mobile intercontinental ballistic missile developed by North Korea.
The Hwasong-15 is an intercontinental ballistic missile developed by North Korea.
ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) address or missile address is hacker slang for one's longitude and latitude (preferably to seconds-of-arc accuracy) when placed in a signature or another publicly available file.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Republic of India has developed and possesses weapons of mass destruction in the form of nuclear weapons.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
An intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of 3,000–5,500 km (1,864–3,418 miles), between a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) and an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jane's Information Group (often referred to as Jane's) is a British publishing company specialising in military, aerospace and transportation topics.
Jericho is a general designation given to a loosely related family of deployed ballistic missiles developed by Israel from the 1960s forward.
The Julang-1, also known as the JL-1 and in US nomenclature as the CSS-N-3, is China's first submarine-launched nuclear ballistic missile.
2007 estimated ranges of Chinese ballistic missiles; the JL-2 is in light green. The JL-2 (NATO reporting name CSS-N-14) is a Chinese second-generation intercontinental-range submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) slated for deployment aboard the People's Liberation Army Navy's Type 094 submarine.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
The KN-08, also known under the names Rodong-C missiles and Hwasong-13 (Chosŏn'gŭl: 화성-13호; Hancha: 火星-13号), is a road-mobile intercontinental ballistic missile believed to be under development by North Korea.
Korolyov or Korolev (p) is an industrial city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, well known as the cradle of Soviet and Russian space exploration.
Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 or Gwangmyeongseong-3 ho 2-hogi (English: Bright Star-3 Unit 2 or Lodestar-3 Unit 2) is the first satellite successfully launched from North Korea, an Earth observation spacecraft that was launched on 12 December 2012, 00:49 UTC, in order to replace the original Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3, which failed to reach orbit on 13 April 2012.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
The LGM-118 Peacekeeper, also known as the MX missile (for Missile-eXperimental), was a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986.
The Titan II was an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and space launcher developed by the Glenn L. Martin Company from the earlier Titan I missile.
The LGM-30 Minuteman is a U.S. land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), in service with the Air Force Global Strike Command.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.
This is a list of intercontinental ballistic missiles developed by various countries.
There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.
The M45 SLBM is a French Navy submarine-launched ballistic missile (In French terminology, the MSBS - Mer-Sol-Ballistique-Stratégique (Sea-ground-Strategic ballistic missile).) Forty-eight M45 are in commission in the Force océanique stratégique, the submarine nuclear deterrent component of the French Navy.
The M51 SLBM is a submarine-launched ballistic missile, built by Airbus Defence & Space, and deployed with the French Navy.
The Makeyev Design Bureau (ГРЦ Макеева, also known as Makeyev OKB) is a Russian missile design company located in Miass, Russia.
The maneuverable reentry vehicle (abbreviated MARV or MaRV) is a type of ballistic missile whose warhead is capable of autonomous tracking ground targets.
A medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) is a type of ballistic missile with medium range, this last classification depending on the standards of certain organizations.
The MGM-134A Midgetman, also known as the Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (SICBM), was an intercontinental ballistic missile developed by the United States Air Force.
Missile defense is a system, weapon, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception, and destruction of attacking missiles.
Missile guidance refers to a variety of methods of guiding a missile or a guided bomb to its intended target.
A missile launch facility, also known as an underground missile silo, launch facility (LF), or nuclear silo, is a vertical cylindrical structure constructed underground, for the storage and launching of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).
In the military, vehicles such as trucks or tractor units can be used to transport or launch missiles (rockets with warheads), essentially a form of rocket artillery.
Molodaya Gvardiya (Молодая гвардия, lit. Young Guard) is one of the oldest publishers in Russia, having been founded in 1922 during the Soviet era.
A multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) is a ballistic missile payload containing several thermonuclear warheads, each capable of being aimed to hit a different target.
Mutual assured destruction or mutually assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender (see pre-emptive nuclear strike and second strike).
NATO reporting names are code names for military equipment of Russia, China, and, historically, the former Eastern Bloc (Soviet Union and other nations of the Warsaw Pact).
Nauka (Наука, lit. trans.: Science) is a Russian publisher of academic books and journals.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
North Korea has a military nuclear weapons program and also has a significant quantity of chemical and biological weapons.
Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons.
Nuclear navy, or nuclear-powered navy consists of naval ships powered by relatively small onboard nuclear reactors known as naval reactors.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its target.
The United States was the first country to manufacture nuclear weapons and is the only country to have used them in combat, with the separate bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II.
Operation Paperclip was a secret program of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) largely carried out by Special Agents of Army CIC, in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team, were recruited in post-Nazi Germany and taken to the U.S. for government employment, primarily between 1945 and 1959.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
Payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle, usually measured in terms of weight.
A penetration aid (or "penaid") is a device or tactic used to increase an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) warhead's chances of penetrating a target's defenses.
Plesetsk Cosmodrome (p) is a Russian spaceport located in Mirny, Arkhangelsk Oblast, about 800 km north of Moscow and approximately 200 km south of Arkhangelsk, dates from 1957.
In nuclear strategy, a first strike is a preemptive surprise attack employing overwhelming force.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
Prompt Global Strike (PGS) is a United States military effort to develop a system that can deliver a precision-guided conventional weapon airstrike anywhere in the world within one hour, in a similar manner to a nuclear ICBM.
Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.
The Pukkŭksŏng-1 or Bukgeukseong-1 (Hangul: 북극성1호, Hanja: 北極星1号, literally Polaris-1), alternatively KN-11 in intelligence communities outside North Korea is a North Korean, submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) that was successfully flight tested on 24 August 2016 and is expected by South Korean military sources to reach operational deployment as early as 2017.
Pyrolytic carbon is a material similar to graphite, but with some covalent bonding between its graphene sheets as a result of imperfections in its production.
The R-16 was the first successful intercontinental ballistic missile deployed by the Soviet Union.
The R-26 was a second-generation intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) designed but not deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
R-29 Vysota Р-29 Высота (height, altitude) is a family of Soviet submarine-launched ballistic missiles, designed by Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau.
The R-29RM Shtil (Russian: Штиль, lit. "Calmness", NATO reporting name SS-N-23 Skiff) is a liquid propellant, submarine-launched ballistic missile in use by the Russian Navy.
The R-29RMU Sineva (Синева, lit. "blueness"), code RSM-54, is a Russian liquid-fueled submarine-launched ballistic missile with GRAU index 3M27, designation SS-N-23A Skiff.
The R-29RMU2 Layner (Р-29РМУ2 "Лайнер" meaning Liner) is a Russian liquid-fuelled submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) and the newest member of the R-29 (missile) missile family, developed by the Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau and produced by the Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant.
The R-36 (Р-36) is a family of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and space launch vehicles (Tsyklon) designed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The R-39 Rif (NATO reporting name: SS-NX-20 Sturgeon; bilateral arms control designation: RSM-52) was a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) that served with the Soviet Navy from its introduction in 1983 until 1991, after which it served with the Russian Navy until 2004.
The R-7 family of rockets (Р-7) is a series of rockets, derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka, the world's first ICBM.
The R-7 (Р-7 "Семёрка") was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile.
The R-9 (NATO reporting name: SS-8 Sasin) was a two-stage ICBM of the Soviet Union, in service from 1964 to 1976.
The maximal total range is the maximum distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft.
The Redstone rocket was named for the Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama where it was developed.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
(Российская газета, lit. Russian Gazette) is a Russian newspaper published by the Government of Russia.
The RS-24 Yars also known as RT-24 Yars or Topol'-MR (PC-24 «Ярс», NATO reporting name: SS-29 or SS-27 Mod 2) is a Russian MIRV-equipped, thermonuclear armed intercontinental ballistic missile first tested on May 29, 2007, after a secret military R&D project, to replace the older R-36 and UR-100N that have been in use for nearly 50 years.
The RS-26 Rubezh (in Russian: РС-26 Рубеж) (limit or boundary, also known under the name of its R&D program Avangard Авангард) SS-X-31 or SS-X-29B (another version of SS-27), is a Russian solid-fueled, maneuverable reentry vehicles (MARV)-equipped with MIRVs or Avangard hypersonic glide vehicles to bypass anti-ballistic missiles, thermonuclear intercontinental ballistic missile reportedly based on RS-24 Yars. After an initial failure in 2011, it was first test-launched successfully from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome on May 26, 2012, hitting its target at the Kura Range 5,800 km away minutes later. Further successful tests were performed from Kapustin Yar to Sary Shagan on October 24, 2012, and June 6, 2013. According to the commander of the Russian Strategic Missile Forces, Colonel-General Sergei Karakayev, the RS-26 Rubezh could become operational in 2016. The missile have been criticized by western defense observers for indirectly breaching the INF Treaty. The missile demonstrated, with a light or no payload, the ability to reach above the agreed 5500 km limit of the treaty. However all further testing have been flights with significantly shorter ranges. The RS-26 was twice tested at a distance of about 2000 km. The deployment of the missile is speculated to have the same strategic impact as the SS-20 Saber. While the RS-26 is technically an ICBM, its range falls just barely inside the ICBM category. In reality, the RS-26 is exactly the same concept and a direct replacement for the RDS-10 Pioneer—known to NATO as the SS-20 Saber—which was banned under the INF treaty. The RS-26 is designed to pose a strategic threat to European capitals and has the ability to target NATO forces in Western Europe. According to an article by Jeffrey Lewis entitled "The Problem With Russia's Missiles", the purpose of these weapons is to deter Western forces from coming to the aid of the NATO's newer eastern members that are located closer to Russia's borders. In March 2015 it was acknowledged that RS-26 Rubezh is a shorter version of the RS-24 Yars ICBM with one less stage, much similar to the SS-20 Saber being a shorter version of the SS-16 Sinner. In 2018, it was reported that the RS-26 was frozen until at least 2027 in favor of the Avangard hypersonic missile system.
The RS-28 Sarmat (Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 2 Feb 2015. named after the Sarmatians - NATO reporting name SS-X-30) is a Russian liquid-fueled, MIRV-equipped, superheavy thermonuclear armed intercontinental ballistic missile, in development by the Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau since 2009. It is intended to replace the old R-36M missile (SS-18 Satan). The Sarmat ICBM is one of the six new Russian strategic weapons unveiled by President Vladimir Putin on 1 March 2018.
The RSM-56 Bulava (Булава, lit. "mace", NATO reporting name SS-NX-30 or SS-N-32, GRAU index 3M30, 3K30) is a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) developed for the Russian Navy and deployed in 2013 on the new of ballistic missile nuclear submarines.
The RT-2 was an intercontinental ballistic missile deployed by the Soviet Union, which was in service from December 1968 until 1976.
The RT-20P was an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed but not deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The RT-21 Temp 2S was a mobile intercontinental ballistic missile developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The RT-23 (NATO reporting name SS-24 Scalpel) РТ-23 УТТХ «Мо́лодец» was a Soviet ICBM developed and produced before 1991 by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau in Dnipro, Ukraine (then part of the Soviet Union).
The RT-2PM Topol (РТ-2ПМ Тополь ("Poplar"); NATO reporting name SS-25 Sickle; GRAU designation: 15Ж58 ("15Zh58"); START I designation: RS-12M Topol) is a mobile intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union and in service with Russia's Strategic Missile Troops.
The RT-2PM2 «Topol-M» (РТ-2ПМ2 «Тополь-М», NATO reporting name: SS-27 "Sickle B", other designations: SS-27 Mod 1, RS-12M1, RS-12M2, formerly incorrectly RT-2UTTKh) is one of the most recent intercontinental ballistic missiles to be deployed by Russia (see RS-24), and the first to be developed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The RTV-A-2 Hiroc (high-altitude rocket) was the United States' first attempt at an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
According to the Federation of American Scientists, an organization that assesses nuclear weapon stockpiles, as of 2017, the Russian Federation possesses 7,300 total nuclear warheads, of which 4,500 are strategically operational.
The Safeguard Program was a U.S. Army anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system designed to protect the U.S. Air Force's Minuteman ICBM silos from attack, thus preserving the US's nuclear deterrent fleet.
The Saturn family of American rocket boosters was developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond.
In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.
Shavit (Hebrew: "comet" – שביט) is a small lift launch vehicle produced by Israel from 1982 onwards, to launch satellites into orbit.
A short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of about or less.
The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.
The SM-65 Atlas was the first operational intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed by the United States and the first member of the Atlas rocket family.
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) was a bilateral treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms.
START II (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) was a bilateral treaty between the United States of America and Russia on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms.
The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) were two rounds of bilateral conferences and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of arms control.
The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons (intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles).
The Strategic Missile Troops or Strategic Rocket Forces of the Russian Federation or RVSN RF are a military branch of the Russian Armed Forces that controls Russia's land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).
A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
A submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines.
A tactical ballistic missile (TBM) (or battlefield range ballistic missile (BRBM)) is a ballistic missile designed for short-range battlefield use.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
A theatre ballistic missile (TBM) is any ballistic missile with a range between and, used against targets "in-theatre".
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Three-dimensional quartz phenolic (3DQP) is a phenolic-based material composed of a quartz cloth material impregnated with a phenolic resin and hot-pressed.
This is a timeline of first orbital launches by country.
Titan is a family of United States expendable rockets used between 1959 and 2005.
A trajectory or flight path is the path that a massive object in motion follows through space as a function of time.
The Type 092 (Chinese designation: 09-II; NATO reporting name: Xia class) submarine was the first nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) deployed by the People's Liberation Army Navy Submarine Force, and the first SSBN designed and built in Asia.
The UGM-133A Trident II, or Trident D5 is a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM), built by Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Sunnyvale, California, and deployed with the American and British navies.
The UGM-27 Polaris missile was a two-stage solid-fueled nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile.
The UGM-96 Trident I, or Trident C4, was an American submarine-launched ballistic missile, built by Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Sunnyvale, California.
The Underground Great Wall of China is the informal name for the vast system of tunnels China uses to store and transport mobile intercontinental ballistic missiles.
The Unha or Eunha (은하, 銀河, "Galaxy") is a North Korean expendable carrier rocket, which partially utilizes the same delivery system as the Taepodong-2 long-range ballistic missile.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom possesses, or has possessed, a variety of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States is known to have possessed three types of weapons of mass destruction: nuclear weapons, chemical weapons, and biological weapons.
The United States European Command (EUCOM) is one of ten Unified Combatant Commands of the United States military, headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany.
National missile defense (NMD) is a generic term for a type of missile defense intended to shield an entire country against incoming missiles, such as intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBMs) or other ballistic missiles.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The Universal Rocket or UR family of missiles and carrier rockets is a Russian, previously Soviet rocket family.
Unternehmen Elster (Operation Magpie in English) was a German espionage mission intended to gather intelligence on U.S. military and technology facilities during World War II.
The UR-100 (УР-100) was an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed and deployed by the Soviet Union from 1966 to 1996. УР in its designation stands for " Универсальная Ракета" (Universal Rocket). It was known during the Cold War by the NATO reporting name SS-11 Sego and internally by the GRAU index 8K84. The Strela and Rokot carrier rockets are based on it. The similar designation UR-100MR actually refers to an entirely different missile, the MR-UR-100 Sotka (SS-17 Spanker).
The UR-100N, also known as RS-18A is an intercontinental ballistic missile in service with Soviet and Russian Strategic Missile Troops.
The UR-200 was an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed by OKB-52 of Vladimir Nikolaevich Chelomey in the Soviet Union.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
The Voskhod programme (Восхо́д,, Ascent or Dawn) was the second Soviet human spaceflight project.
Vostok (Russian: Восток, translated as "East") was a family of rockets derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme.
The Vostok programme (Восто́к,, Orient or East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely.
A warhead is the explosive or toxic material that is delivered by a missile, rocket, or torpedo.
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and, later, American) aerospace engineer and space architect.
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
Coast phase, Full range intercontinental ballistic missile, I.C.B.M., ICBM, ICBMs, Icbm, Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile, Inter-continental ballistic missile, Inter-continental ballistic missiles, InterContinental Ballistic Missile, Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, Intercontinental ballistic missiles, Intercontinental missile, Intercontinental range, Strategic missile.