153 relations: Aharonov–Bohm effect, Air conditioning, Angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry, Aperture synthesis, Astronomical interferometer, Astronomical optical interferometry, Astronomical seeing, Astronomy, Atom interferometer, Atomic clock, Beam splitter, Bright-field microscopy, Buckminsterfullerene, Cable television, Cardinal point (optics), Carrier frequency, Cell (biology), Central serous retinopathy, CHARA array, Charge-coupled device, Chemistry, Coaxial cable, Coherence (physics), Coherence length, Coherence scanning interferometry, Common-path interferometer, Detector (radio), Dichroic filter, Differential interference contrast microscopy, Doppler radar, Edwin Howard Armstrong, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron holography, Electron interferometer, Electron microscope, Electronic mixer, Electronic speckle pattern interferometry, Engineering, Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope, Extremely Large Telescope, Extremely large telescope, Fabry–Pérot interferometer, Fermion, Fiber-optic communication, Fibre optic gyroscope, Fine Guidance Sensor (HST), First observation of gravitational waves, Fizeau interferometer, Flow visualization, Fourier-transform spectroscopy, ..., Frequency, Frequency comb, Frequency mixer, Frequency multiplier, Frequency standard, Frequency-division multiplexing, General relativity, Geodesy, Geodetic control network, Gravitational wave, H-alpha, Heterodyne, Holographic interferometry, Holography, Homodyne detection, Interactome, Interferometric synthetic-aperture radar, Intermediate frequency, Laser, Lidar, Light, LIGO, Linnik interferometer, List of astronomical interferometers at visible and infrared wavelengths, List of types of interferometers, Lloyd's mirror, Local oscillator, Luminiferous aether, Lyot filter, Mach–Zehnder interferometer, Metrology, Michelson interferometer, Michelson–Morley experiment, Microfluidics, Micrometre, Mirau interferometer, Modulation, Moiré pattern, Neutron interferometer, Nuclear physics, Null corrector, Oceanography, Optical cavity, Optical coherence tomography, Optical fiber, Optical flat, Optical heterodyne detection, Optical path, Optical path length, Optical switch, Optometry, Particle physics, Path length, Pauli exclusion principle, Phase (waves), Phase-contrast microscopy, Phase-contrast X-ray imaging, Photonic integrated circuit, Piezoelectricity, Plasma (physics), Point diffraction interferometer, Q factor, Quantum entanglement, Quantum mechanics, Radio frequency, Radio telescope, Ramsey interferometry, Rayleigh interferometer, Refractive index, Remote sensing, RF modulator, Ring laser gyroscope, Sagnac effect, Seismic interferometry, Seismology, Shearing interferometer, Sideband, Special relativity, Speckle pattern, Spectroscopy, Staining, Standard baseline, Superheterodyne receiver, Superposition principle, Surface metrology, Synchrotron, Synthetic-aperture radar, Talbot effect, Telecommunication, Thin-film interference, Thirty Meter Telescope, Twyman–Green interferometer, Very Large Array, Very-long-baseline interferometry, Wave interference, Wave–particle duality, Waveguide, Wavelength-division multiplexing, White light interferometry, X-ray optics, Young's interference experiment, Yrjö Väisälä, Zero spacing flux. Expand index (103 more) » « Shrink index
The Aharonov–Bohm effect, sometimes called the Ehrenberg–Siday–Aharonov–Bohm effect, is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which an electrically charged particle is affected by an electromagnetic potential (V, A), despite being confined to a region in which both the magnetic field B and electric field E are zero.
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.
Angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry (a/LCI) is an emerging biomedical imaging technology which uses the properties of scattered light to measure the average size of cell structures, including cell nuclei.
Aperture synthesis or synthesis imaging is a type of interferometry that mixes signals from a collection of telescopes to produce images having the same angular resolution as an instrument the size of the entire collection.
An astronomical interferometer is an array of separate telescopes, mirror segments, or radio telescope antennas that work together as a single telescope to provide higher resolution images of astronomical objects such as stars, nebulas and galaxies by means of interferometry.
In optical astronomy, interferometry is used to combine signals from two or more telescopes to obtain measurements with higher resolution than could be obtained with either telescopes individually.
Astronomical seeing is the blurring and twinkling of astronomical objects like stars due to turbulent mixing in the Earth's atmosphere, causing variations of the optical refractive index.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
An atom interferometer is an interferometer which uses the wave character of atoms.
An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element.
A beam splitter is an optical device that splits a beam of light in two.
Bright-field microscopy is the simplest of all the optical microscopy illumination techniques.
Buckminsterfullerene is a type of fullerene with the formula C60.
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.
In Gaussian optics, the cardinal points consist of three pairs of points located on the optical axis of a rotationally symmetric, focal, optical system.
In telecommunication systems, Carrier frequency is a technical term used to indicate.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Central serous retinopathy (CSR), also known as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC or CSCR), is an eye disease which causes visual impairment, often temporary, usually in one eye.
The Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) is an optical interferometric array, owned by Georgia State University (GSU), and located on Mount Wilson, California.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Cross-sectional view of a coaxial cable Coaxial cable, or coax (pronounced), is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield.
In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.
In physics, coherence length is the propagation distance over which a coherent wave (e.g. an electromagnetic wave) maintains a specified degree of coherence.
Coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) refers to a class of optical surface measurement methods wherein the localization of interference fringes during a scan of optical path length provides a means to determine surface characteristics such as topography, transparent film structure, and optical properties.
A common-path interferometer is class of interferometers in which the reference beam and sample beams travel along the same path.
In radio, a detector is a device or circuit that extracts information from a modulated radio frequency current or voltage.
A dichroic filter, thin-film filter, or interference filter is a very accurate color filter used to selectively pass light of a small range of colors while reflecting other colors.
Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, also known as Nomarski interference contrast (NIC) or Nomarski microscopy, is an optical microscopy technique used to enhance the contrast in unstained, transparent samples.
A Doppler radar is a specialized radar that uses the Doppler effect to produce velocity data about objects at a distance.
Edwin Howard Armstrong (December 18, 1890 – February 1, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor, best known for developing FM (frequency modulation) radio and the superheterodyne receiver system.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electron holography is holography with electron waves.
An Electron interferometer is an interferometer based on exploiting the wave character of electrons.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
An electronic mixer is a device that combines two or more electrical or electronic signals into one or two composite output signals.
Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), also known as TV Holography, is a technique which uses laser light, together with video detection, recording and processing to visualise static and dynamic displacements of components with optically rough surfaces.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
The Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) is an instrument on the SOHO spacecraft used to obtain high-resolution images of the solar corona in the ultraviolet range.
The Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) is an astronomical observatory and the world's largest optical/near-infrared extremely large telescope now under construction.
An extremely large telescope (ELT) is an astronomical observatory featuring an optical telescope with an aperture for its primary mirror from 20 metres up to 100 metres across, when discussing reflecting telescopes of optical wavelengths including ultraviolet (UV), visible, and near infrared wavelengths.
In optics, a Fabry–Pérot interferometer (FPI) or etalon is typically made of a transparent plate with two reflecting surfaces, or two parallel highly reflecting mirrors.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber.
A fibre optic gyroscope (FOG) senses changes in orientation using the Sagnac effect, thus performing the function of a mechanical gyroscope.
Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) for the Hubble Space Telescope is a system of three instruments used for pointing the telescope in space, and also for astrometry and its related sciences.
The first observation of gravitational waves was made on 14 September 2015 and was announced by the LIGO and Virgo collaborations on 11 February 2016.
A Fizeau interferometer is an interferometric arrangement whereby two reflecting surfaces are placed facing each other.
Flow visualization or flow visualisation in fluid dynamics is used to make the flow patterns visible, in order to get qualitative or quantitative information on them.
Fourier-transform spectroscopy is a measurement technique whereby spectra are collected based on measurements of the coherence of a radiative source, using time-domain or space-domain measurements of the electromagnetic radiation or other type of radiation.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
An optical frequency comb is a laser source whose spectrum consists of a series of discrete, equally spaced frequency lines.
In electronics, a mixer, or frequency mixer, is a nonlinear electrical circuit that creates new frequencies from two signals applied to it.
In electronics, a frequency multiplier is an electronic circuit that generates an output signal whose output frequency is a harmonic (multiple) of its input frequency.
A frequency standard is a stable oscillator used for frequency calibration or reference.
In telecommunications, frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is a technique by which the total bandwidth available in a communication medium is divided into a series of non-overlapping frequency bands, each of which is used to carry a separate signal.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
A geodetic control network (also geodetic network, reference network, control point network, or control network) is a network, often of triangles, which are measured exactly by techniques of terrestrial surveying or by satellite geodesy.
Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.
H-alpha (Hα) is a specific deep-red visible spectral line in the Balmer series with a wavelength of 656.28 nm in air; it occurs when a hydrogen electron falls from its third to second lowest energy level.
Heterodyning is a signal processing technique invented in 1901 by Canadian inventor-engineer Reginald Fessenden that creates new frequencies by combining or mixing two frequencies.
Holographic interferometry (HI)Powell RL & Stetson KA, 1965, J. Opt.
Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.
Homodyne detection is a method of extracting information encoded as modulation of the phase and/or frequency of an oscillating signal, by comparing that signal with a standard oscillation that would be identical to the signal if it carried null information.
In molecular biology, an interactome is the whole set of molecular interactions in a particular cell.
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar, abbreviated InSAR (or deprecated IfSAR), is a radar technique used in geodesy and remote sensing.
In communications and electronic engineering, an intermediate frequency (IF) is a frequency to which a carrier wave is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or reception.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Lidar (also called LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is a large-scale physics experiment and observatory to detect cosmic gravitational waves and to develop gravitational-wave observations as an astronomical tool.
A Linnik interferometer is a two-beam interferometer used in microscopy and surface contour measurements or topography.
Here is a list of currently existing astronomical optical interferometers (i.e. operating from visible to mid-infrared wavelengths), and some parameters describing their performance.
Lloyd's mirror is a classic optics experiment that was first described in 1834 by Humphrey Lloyd in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy.
In electronics, a local oscillator (LO) is an electronic oscillator used with a mixer to change the frequency of a signal.
In the late 19th century, luminiferous aether or ether ("luminiferous", meaning "light-bearing"), was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.
A Lyot filter, named for its inventor Bernard Lyot, is a type of optical filter that uses birefringence to produce a narrow passband of transmitted wavelengths.
In physics, the Mach–Zehnder interferometer is a device used to determine the relative phase shift variations between two collimated beams derived by splitting light from a single source.
Metrology is the science of measurement.
The Michelson interferometer is a common configuration for optical interferometry and was invented by Albert Abraham Michelson.
The Michelson–Morley experiment was performed between April and July, 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and published in November of the same year.
Microfluidics deals with the behaviour, precise control and manipulation of fluids that are geometrically constrained to a small, typically sub-millimeter, scale at which capillary penetration governs mass transport.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A Mirau interferometer works on the same basic principle as a Michelson interferometer.
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
In mathematics, physics, and art, a moiré pattern or moiré fringes are large-scale interference patterns that can be produced when an opaque ruled pattern with transparent gaps is overlaid on another similar pattern.
In physics, a neutron interferometer is an interferometer capable of diffracting neutrons, allowing the wave-like nature of neutrons, and other related phenomena, to be explored.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
A null corrector is an optical device used in the testing of large aspheric mirrors.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
An optical cavity, resonating cavity or optical resonator is an arrangement of mirrors that forms a standing wave cavity resonator for light waves.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that uses coherent light to capture micrometer-resolution, two- and three-dimensional images from within optical scattering media (e.g., biological tissue).
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
An optical flat is an optical-grade piece of glass lapped and polished to be extremely flat on one or both sides, usually within a few tens of nanometres (billionths of a meter).
Optical heterodyne detection is a method of extracting information encoded as modulation of the phase and/or frequency (wavelength) of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength band of visible or infrared light.
The path that light takes in traversing an optical medium or system is often called the optical path.
In optics, optical path length (OPL) or optical distance is the product of the geometric length of the path light follows through the system, and the index of refraction of the medium through which it propagates(OP.
An optical switch is a device that enables optical signals to be selectively switched-on and -off or switched from one channel to another.
Optometry is a health care profession which involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
Path length can mean one of several related concepts.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.
Phase-contrast microscopy is an optical microscopy technique that converts phase shifts in light passing through a transparent specimen to brightness changes in the image.
Phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) or phase-sensitive X-ray imaging is a general term for different technical methods that use information concerning changes in the phase of an X-ray beam that passes through an object in order to create its images.
A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) or integrated optical circuit is a device that integrates multiple (at least two) photonic functions and as such is similar to an electronic integrated circuit.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
A point diffraction interferometer (PDI) is a type of common-path interferometer.
In physics and engineering the quality factor or Q factor is a dimensionless parameter that describes how underdamped an oscillator or resonator is, and characterizes a resonator's bandwidth relative to its centre frequency.
Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.
A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.
Ramsey interferometry, also known as Ramsey–Bordé interferometry or the separated oscillating fields method, is a form of atom interferometry that uses the phenomenon of magnetic resonance to measure transition frequencies of atoms.
The Rayleigh interferometer employs two beams of light from a single source, and determines the difference in optical path length between the two paths using interference between the two beams when they are recombined following traversal of the paths.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
An RF modulator (or radio frequency modulator) is an electronic device whose input is a baseband signal which is used to modulate a radio frequency source.
A ring laser gyroscope (RLG) consists of a ring laser having two independent counter-propagating resonant modes over the same path; the difference in the frequencies is used to detect rotation.
The Sagnac effect, also called Sagnac interference, named after French physicist Georges Sagnac, is a phenomenon encountered in interferometry that is elicited by rotation.
Interferometry examines the general interference phenomena between pairs of signals in order to gain useful information about the subsurface.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
The shearing interferometer is an extremely simple means to observe interference and to use this phenomenon to test the collimation of light beams, especially from laser sources which have a coherence length which is usually a lot longer than the thickness of the shear plate (see graphics) so that the basic condition for interference is fulfilled.
In radio communications, a sideband is a band of frequencies higher than or lower than the carrier frequency, containing power as a result of the modulation process.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
A speckle pattern is an intensity pattern produced by the mutual interference of a set of wavefronts.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
Standard baseline is a constant distance used to calibrate rangefinders.
A superheterodyne receiver, often shortened to superhet, is a type of radio receiver that uses frequency mixing to convert a received signal to a fixed intermediate frequency (IF) which can be more conveniently processed than the original carrier frequency.
In physics and systems theory, the superposition principle, also known as superposition property, states that, for all linear systems, the net response caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses that would have been caused by each stimulus individually.
Surface metrology is the measurement of small-scale features on surfaces, and is a branch of metrology.
A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path.
Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) is a form of radar that is used to create two- or three-dimensional images of objects, such as landscapes.
The Talbot effect is a near-field diffraction effect first observed in 1836 by Henry Fox Talbot.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Thin-film interference is a natural phenomenon in which light waves reflected by the upper and lower boundaries of a thin film interfere with one another, either enhancing or reducing the reflected light.
The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is a proposed astronomical observatory with an extremely large telescope (ELT) that has become the source of controversy over its planned location on Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii in the US state of Hawaii.
A Twyman–Green interferometer is a variant of the Michelson interferometer principally used to test optical components.
The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) is a centimeter-wavelength radio astronomy observatory located in central New Mexico on the Plains of San Agustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, ~50 miles (80 km) west of Socorro.
Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) is a type of astronomical interferometry used in radio astronomy.
In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.
Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.
A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting expansion to one dimension or two.
In fiber-optic communications, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths (i.e., colors) of laser light.
As described here, white light interferometry is a non-contact optical method for surface height measurement on 3-D structures with surface profiles varying between tens of nanometers and a few centimeters.
X-ray optics is the branch of optics that manipulates X-rays instead of visible light.
Young's interference experiment, also called Young's double-slit interferometer, was the original version of the modern double-slit experiment, performed at the beginning of the nineteenth century by Thomas Young.
Yrjö Väisälä (6 September 1891 in Utra, Kontiolahti, Grand Duchy of Finland – 21 July 1971 in Rymättylä, Finland) was a Finnish astronomer and physicist.
In interferometry, the zero spacing flux is the integrated flux density of the sources in the field of view.
Inferometer, Inferometry, Interfereometer, Interferometer, Interferometer telescope, Interferometric, Interferometrically, Optical Interferometer, Optical Interferometry, Optical interferometer, Optical interferometry, Radio Interferometer, Radio interferometer.