29 relations: Adipocyte, Adipose tissue, Basophil, Cell nucleus, Cytokine, Dermatitis, Endometriosis, Endothelium, Eosinophil, Gene, Genome-wide association study, IL1RAP, IL1RL1, ILC2, Interleukin 13, Interleukin 4, Interleukin 5, Interleukin-1 family, Keratinocyte, Mast cell, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mucous membrane, NF-κB, Pathology, Protein, Receptor (biochemistry), SUV39H1, T helper cell, Venule.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Basophils are a type of white blood cells.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.
Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1RAP gene.
Interleukin 1 receptor-like 1, also known as IL1RL1 and ST2, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1RL1 gene.
ILC2 cells, or type 2 innate lymphoid cells are a type of innate lymphoid cell.
Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL13 gene.
The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells.
Interleukin 5 (IL5) is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells.
The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines that plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults.
A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase SUV39H1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SUV39H1 gene.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
A venule is a very small blood vessel in the microcirculation that allows blood to return from the capillary beds to drain into the larger blood vessels, the veins.