52 relations: Adaptive immune system, Allergy, Alpha helix, Alzheimer's disease, Antiparallel (biochemistry), Arginase, Asthma, Astrocytoma, B cell, Basophil, Beta sheet, Cell growth, Cellular differentiation, Cornell University, Cytokine, Dendritic cell, Disulfide, Ellen Vitetta, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, Fibrosis, Glioblastoma, Health On the Net Foundation, HIV/AIDS, Humoral immunity, Immunoglobulin class switching, Immunoglobulin E, Inflammation, Interferon gamma, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 12, Interleukin 13, Interleukin 13 receptor, alpha 1, Interleukin-4 receptor, Medulloblastoma, Meningioma, Metastasis, MHC class II, Mitogen, Naive T cell, Nucleotide, Plasma cell, Positive feedback, Proline, Protein folding, Rhabdomyosarcoma, STAT6, T cell, T helper cell, Transforming growth factor beta, ..., William E. Paul, Wound healing. Expand index (2 more) » « Shrink index
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
In biochemistry, two biopolymers are antiparallel if they run parallel to each other but with opposite alignments.
Arginase (arginine amidinase, canavanase, L-arginase, arginine transamidinase) is a manganese-containing enzyme.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Astrocytomas are a type of cancer of the brain.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
Basophils are a type of white blood cells.
The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.
Ellen S. Vitetta is the director of the Cancer Immunobiology Center at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is a transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), also known as basic fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fms-related tyrosine kinase-2 / Pfeiffer syndrome, and CD331, is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose ligands are specific members of the fibroblast growth factor family.
Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.
Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most aggressive cancer that begins within the brain.
Health On the Net Foundation (HON) is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 under the auspices of the Geneva Department of Employment, Social Affairs and Health and based in Geneva, Switzerland.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides.
Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a biological mechanism that changes a B cell's production of immunoglobulin (antibodies) from one type to another, such as from the isotype IgM to the isotype IgG.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.
Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an interleukin that is naturally produced by dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and human B-lymphoblastoid cells (NC-37) in response to antigenic stimulation.
Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL13 gene.
Interleukin 13 receptor, alpha 1, also known as IL13RA1 and CD213A1 (cluster of differentiation 213A1), is a human gene.
The interleukin 4 receptor is a type I cytokine receptor.
Medulloblastoma is the most common type of pediatric malignant primary brain tumor (cancer), originating in the part of the brain that is towards the back and the bottom, on the floor of the skull, in the cerebellum, or posterior fossa.
Meningioma, also known as meningeal tumor, is typically a slow-growing tumor that forms from the meninges, the membranous layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
MHC class II molecules are a class of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules normally found only on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes, some endothelial cells, thymic epithelial cells, and B cells.
A mitogen is a chemical substance that encourages a cell to commence cell division, triggering mitosis.
A naïve T cell (Th0 cell) is a T cell that has differentiated in bone marrow, and successfully undergone the positive and negative processes of central selection in the thymus.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.
Rhabdomyosarcoma, or RMS, is an aggressive and highly malignant form of cancer that develops from skeletal (striated) muscle cells that have failed to fully differentiate.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) is a human gene.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.
William Erwin Paul (June 12, 1936 – September 18, 2015) was an American immunologist.
Wound healing is an intricate process in which the skin repairs itself after injury.