162 relations: Adjective, Adverb, Affix, Affricate consonant, Africa, Agreement (linguistics), Alexander Gode, Alice Vanderbilt Morris, Alveolar consonant, André Martinet, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Back vowel, Bilabial consonant, Brazil, Brazilian Union for Interlingua, Calque, Carnegie Corporation of New York, Celtic languages, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Cognate, Columbia University, Comparison between Esperanto and Interlingua, Comparison between Ido and Interlingua, Compound (linguistics), Consonant, Czechoslovakia, Dave Hennen Morris, Diacritic, Diphthong, E. Clark Stillman, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Europe, Edward Sapir, Edward Thorndike, Eligibility of international words in Interlingua, England, English language, Esperanto, Esperanto II, Finnish language, Flag of Europe, Flap consonant, Ford Foundation, French language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Geneva, ..., German language, Germanic languages, Glottal consonant, Grammatica de Interlingua, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Grammatical particle, Greek language, Guugu Yimithirr language, Herbert N. Shenton, Hugh E. Blair, Ido language, Imperative mood, Indo-European languages, Interlanguage, Interlingua a Prime Vista, Interlingua dictionaries, Interlingua Division of Science Service, Interlingua, Instrumento Moderne de Communication International, Interlingua: A Grammar of the International Language, Interlingua–English Dictionary, Interlinguistics, International auxiliary language, International Auxiliary Language Association, International Organization for Standardization, International Phonetic Alphabet, International scientific vocabulary, Internationalism (linguistics), Irregularities and exceptions in Interlingua, ISO 639, ISO basic Latin alphabet, Italian language, Italic languages, Italy, Japanese language, Július Tomin (Interlingua), Labial–velar consonant, Labiodental consonant, Language, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin script, Latino sine flexione, Letter case, Lingua Franca Nova, Linguistics, Loanword, Lord's Prayer, Mexico, Morpheme, Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Morris Swadesh, Nasal consonant, New York City, Northern Europe, Novial, Occidental language, Open vowel, Otto Jespersen, Palatal consonant, Panorama in Interlingua, Personal pronoun, Phonemic orthography, Phonotactics, Portuguese language, Postalveolar consonant, Procrustes, Proto-Indo-European language, Realis mood, Republic of the Congo, Research Corporation, Ric Berger, Rockefeller Foundation, Romance languages, Rome, Root (linguistics), Russia, Russian language, Scandinavia, Semantic change, Sheffield, Slavic languages, Societate American pro Interlingua, Society for Science & the Public, Sound change, South America, Spain, Spanish language, Standard Average European, Stanley A. Mulaik, Stop consonant, Subject–verb–object, Subjunctive mood, Sweden, Swedish language, Swedish Society for Interlingua, Switzerland, Ukraine, Union Mundial pro Interlingua, University of Granada, Usenet, Velar consonant, Vocabulary, Vowel, Vulgar Latin, Washington, D.C., Wikipedia, Wiktionary, Willem Jacob Visser, William Edward Collinson, World War II. Expand index (112 more) » « Shrink index
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.
Alexander Gottfried Friedrich Gode-von Aesch, or simply Alexander Gode (October 30, 1906 – August 10, 1970), was a German-American linguist, translator and the driving force behind the creation of the auxiliary language Interlingua.
Alice Vanderbilt Shepard Morris (December 7, 1874 – August 15, 1950) was a member of the Vanderbilt family.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
André Martinet (Saint-Alban-des-Villards, 12 April 1908 – Châtenay-Malabry, 16 July 1999) was a French linguist, influential by his work on structural linguistics.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Brazilian Union for Interlingua (Portuguese: União Brasileira pro Interlingua, UBI) is the national Interlingua organization in Brazil.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Carnegie Corporation of New York was established by Andrew Carnegie during 1911 "to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding".
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Esperanto and Interlingua are two planned languages which have taken radically different approaches to the problem of providing an International auxiliary language (IAL).
Ido and Interlingua are two constructed languages created in the 20th century.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Dave Hennen Morris (April 24, 1872 – May 4, 1944) was an American lawyer, diplomat, and Thoroughbred racehorse owner who co-founded the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Ezra Clark Stillman (1907-1995) laid out the criteria for extracting and standardizing the vocabulary of Interlingua.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Edward Sapir (January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939) was a German anthropologist-linguist, who is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the early development of the discipline of linguistics.
Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 – August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist who spent nearly his entire career at Teachers College, Columbia University.
Words can be included in Interlingua in either of two ways: through regular derivation using roots and affixes or by establishing their eligibility as international words.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Esperanto II or Esperanto 2 was a reform of Esperanto proposed by René de Saussure in 1937, the last of a long series of such proposals beginning with a 1907 response to Ido later called Antido 1.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
The European Flag is an official symbol of two separate organisations—the Council of Europe (CoE) and the European Union (EU).
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
The Ford Foundation is a New York-headquartered, globally oriented private foundation with the mission of advancing human welfare.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The Grammatica de Interlingua, written by Karel Wilgenhof, is the first Interlingua grammar written entirely in Interlingua.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guugu Yimithirr, also rendered Guugu Yimidhirr, Guguyimidjir, and many other spellings, is an Australian Aboriginal language, the traditional language of the Guugu Yimithirr people of Far North Queensland.
Herbert Newhard Shenton (1884 – 1937) was a professor of Sociology at Columbia University and later at Syracuse University in New York.
Hugh Edward Blair (May 23, 1909 – January 28, 1967) was a linguist and artist.
Ido is a constructed language, derived from Reformed Esperanto, created to be a universal second language for speakers of diverse backgrounds.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
An interlanguage is an idiolect that has been developed by a learner of a second language (or L2) which preserves some features of their first language (or L1), and can also overgeneralize some L2 writing and speaking rules.
Interlingua a Prime Vista (Interlingua at First Sight; first published 1954) is a manual developed by Alexander Gode as a basic introduction to Interlingua.
Interlingua dictionaries are notable for their comprehensiveness; they tend to be larger than for other auxiliary languages.
The Society for Science and the Public founded its Interlingua Division in 1953.
Interlingua, Instrumento Moderne de Communication International by Ingvar Stenström is a popular Interlingua course.
Interlingua: A Grammar of the International Language, sometimes called the Interlingua Grammar, is the first grammar of Interlingua.
The Interlingua–English Dictionary (IED), developed by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) under the direction of Alexander Gode and published by Storm Publishers in 1951, is the first Interlingua dictionary.
Interlinguistics is the study of various aspects of linguistic communication.
An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common first language.
The International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) was founded in 1924 to "promote widespread study, discussion and publicity of all questions involved in the establishment of an auxiliary language, together with research and experiment that may hasten such establishment in an intelligent manner and on stable foundations." Although it was created to determine which auxiliary language of a wide field of contenders was best suited for international communication, it eventually determined that none of them was up to the task and developed its own language, Interlingua.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
International scientific vocabulary (ISV) comprises scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages (that is, translingually).
In linguistics, an internationalism or international word is a loanword that occurs in several languages (that is, translingually) with the same or at least similar meaning and etymology.
The term irregularities or exceptions in Interlingua refers to deviations from the logical rules in a few grammatical constructions in the international auxiliary language Interlingua.
ISO 639 is a set of standards by the International Organization for Standardization that is concerned with representation of names for languages and language groups.
The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Július Tomin (1915–2003) was a high school teacher and well-known author from Czechoslovakia.
Labial–velar consonants are doubly articulated at the velum and the lips, such as.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Latino sine flexione ("Latin without inflections"), Interlingua de Academia pro Interlingua (IL de ApI) or Peano’s Interlingua (abbreviated as IL), is an international auxiliary language compiled by the Academia pro Interlingua under chairmanship of the Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932) in 1887-1914.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
Lingua Franca Nova (abbreviated as LFN or Elefen) is an auxiliary constructed language originally created by C. George Boeree of Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The Lord's Prayer (also called the Our Father, Pater Noster, or the Model Prayer) is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Morris Swadesh (January 22, 1909 – July 20, 1967) was an American linguist who specialized in comparative and historical linguistics.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Novial is a constructed international auxiliary language (IAL) for universal communication between speakers of different native languages.
The language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned international auxiliary language created by the Balto-German naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl, and published in 1922.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
Jens Otto Harry Jespersen or Otto Jespersen (16 July 1860 – 30 April 1943) was a Danish linguist who specialized in the grammar of the English language.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Panorama in Interlingua is the primary periodical for the language Interlingua, published bimonthly.
Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
In Greek mythology, Procrustes (Προκρούστης Prokroustes) or "the stretcher ", also known as Prokoptas or Damastes (Δαμαστής, "subduer"), was a rogue smith and bandit from Attica who attacked people by stretching them or cutting off their legs, so as to force them to fit the size of an iron bed.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa.
Research Corporation for Science Advancement (RCSA) is an organization in the United States devoted to the advancement of science, funding research projects in the physical sciences.
Richard "Ric" Berger (1894–1984) was a Swiss professor of design, decoration, and art history.
The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Semantic change (also semantic shift, semantic progression, semantic development, or semantic drift) is the evolution of word usage—usually to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage.
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The Societate American pro Interlingua (SAI) is an Interlingua-speaking organization that covers the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Society for Science & the Public (SSP), formerly known as Science Service, is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization dedicated to the promotion of science, through its science education programs and publications, including the bi-weekly Science News magazine and the free-accessible online.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Standard Average European (SAE) is a concept introduced in 1939 by Benjamin Whorf to group the modern Indo-European languages of Europe.
Stanley Allen Mulaik (born April 9, 1935, in Edinburg, Texas) is Professor Emeritus (retired) at the School of Psychology at the Georgia Institute of Technology, as well as the head of the Societate American pro Interlingua.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
The Swedish Society for Interlingua (Societate Svedese pro Interlingua, SSI), founded January 1, 1964, is an agency that operates in Sweden to publicize Interlingua and encourage its active use.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Union Mundial pro Interlingua (UMI; World Interlingua Union) is a global organization that promotes Interlingua, an international auxiliary language (IAL) published in 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
The University of Granada (Universidad de Granada, UGR) is a public university located in the city of Granada, Spain, and founded in 1531 by Emperor Charles V. With approximately 80,000 students, it is the fourth largest university in Spain.
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content.
Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages.
Willem Jacob Visser (27 December 1914, Rotterdam – 16 May 1991, Zeist), Historia de Interlingua, 2001, revised 2006.
William Edward Collinson (4 January 1889 – 4 May 1969) was an eminent British linguist and, from 1914 to 1954, Chair of German at the University of Liverpool.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Development of Interlingua, IALA Interlingua, ISO 639:ia, ISO 639:ina, Interlingua (IALA), Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association), Interlingua alphabet, Interlingua de IALA, Interlingua language, Interlingua language (International Auxiliary Language Association), Interlingvo, Language of IALA, Lingua de IALA, Romanica, Romanica language.