486 relations: A Beautiful Planet, Activated carbon, Ad Astra Rocket Company, Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity, Aerosol, Air & Space/Smithsonian, Airlock, Albedo, Almaz, Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, Aluminium, Amateur radio, Amateur Radio on the International Space Station, Ammonia, Androgynous Peripheral Attach System, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Anousheh Ansari, Antares (rocket), Antenna (radio), Anti-satellite weapon, Antimatter, Apogee Books, Apollo 1, Apparent magnitude, Artificial gravity, Astrium, Astrobiology, Astronomy, Atlas V, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric entry, Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space, Attitude control, Aurora, Automated Transfer Vehicle, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 31, Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 81, BBC News, Beta angle, Bigelow Aerospace, Bigelow Expandable Activity Module, Biolab, Biology, Boeing, C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy), Canadian Space Agency, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 40, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41, ..., Cataract, Cell culture, Center for the Advancement of Science in Space, Centrifuge Accommodations Module, Ceremonial ship launching, CERN, Charles Bolden, Chemical oxygen generator, Chinese large modular space station, Chris Hadfield, Christopher C. Kraft Jr. Mission Control Center, Chromosome, Cinematographer, Cirque du Soleil, CNES, Collision avoidance (spacecraft), Columbus (ISS module), Columbus Control Centre, Commercial Crew Development, Commercial off-the-shelf, Commercial Resupply Services, Commercial use of space, Common Berthing Mechanism, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, Computer vision, Control moment gyroscope, Coordinated Universal Time, Coronal mass ejection, Cosmic dust, Cosmic ray, Cosmology, CST-100 Starliner, CubeSat, Cupola (ISS module), Cygnus (spacecraft), Cygnus CRS OA-10E, Cygnus CRS OA-11, Cygnus CRS OA-9E, Daniel C. Burbank, Daniel M. Tani, Dark matter, Data-rate units, David Bowie, Debian, Decompression sickness, Degree (angle), Dennis Tito, Destiny (ISS module), Dextre, Digital subscriber line, Direct current, Dmitri Kondratyev, Dmitry Rogozin, DNA, Douglas H. Wheelock, Dragon 2, Earth's shadow, Effect of spaceflight on the human body, Electric power, Electrolysis, Energia (corporation), English language, Ephemeris, Esperance, Western Australia, European Data Relay System, European Drawer Rack, European Physiology Modules, European Robotic Arm, European Space Agency, European Technology Exposure Facility, Expedition 1, Expedition 10, Expedition 11, Expedition 16, Expedition 19, Expedition 20, Expedition 30, Expedition 31, Expedition 32, Expedition 43, Expedition 44, Expedition 5, Expedition 50, Expedition 51, Expedition 52, Expedition 55, Expedition 56, Expedition 57, Expedition 8, Expedition 9, Exploded-view drawing, Exploration Gateway Platform, ExPRESS Logistics Carrier, External Active Thermal Control System, External stowage platform, Extra-low voltage, Extravehicular activity, Extravehicular Mobility Unit, Extremophile, Falcon 9, Falcon 9 Full Thrust, First Orbit, Fluid Science Laboratory, Free fall, Functional Cargo Block, Gagarin's Start, Genesis II, Gennady Padalka, Geocaching, Geostationary orbit, German Aerospace Center, Gimbal, Government Accountability Office, Grapple fixture, Gravity-gradient stabilization, Gregory Chamitoff, Guy Laliberté, H-II Transfer Vehicle, H-IIB, Habitation Module, Harmony (ISS module), Heavens-Above, High Definition Earth Viewing cameras, High voltage, Hope, Houston, HP ZBook, Hubble Space Telescope, Human biology, Human mission to Mars, Human spaceflight, Huntsville, Alabama, IBM, Immortality Drive, Immune system, Immunity (medical), Inflatable space habitat, Int-Ball, Integrated Truss Structure, Interim Control Module, International Docking Adapter, International Docking System Standard, International Space Station program, International Standard Payload Rack, Iridium satellite constellation, ISS ECLSS, ISS Propulsion Module, JAXA, Johnson Space Center, Kazakhstan, Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39, Kharkiv, Khartron, Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, Kibo (ISS module), Kinetic energy, Korolyov, Moscow Oblast, Kounotori 2, Kounotori 7, Kounotori 8, Ku band, Kurs (docking navigation system), Lagrangian point, Laser, Leland D. Melvin, Lenovo, Leonardo (ISS module), Lightsaber, Linux, Linux distribution, Lira (ISS), List of human spaceflights to the International Space Station, List of International Space Station expeditions, List of International Space Station spacewalks, List of International Space Station visitors, List of life sciences, List of space stations, Lithium-ion battery, Low Earth orbit, Luch (satellite), Luke Skywalker, Lymphocyte, Magnetic field, Magnetosphere, Mark Hamill, Mark Shuttleworth, Mars, MARS-500, Marshall Space Flight Center, Materials International Space Station Experiment, Materials science, MAXI (ISS Experiment), Meteorology, Metres above sea level, Michael Foale, Micro-g environment, Microgravity Science Glovebox, Micrometeoroid, Microsoft Windows, Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, Millennium Falcon, Mini-Research Module, Mir, Mir Docking Module, Mission control center, Mission Elapsed Time, Mobile Servicing System, Moon, Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, Muscle atrophy, Nadir, Naked eye, NanoRacks, NanoRacks CubeSat Deployer, NASA, NASA Docking System, NASASpaceFlight.com, National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Nauka (ISS module), Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer, Nickel–hydrogen battery, Night Glider mode, NPR, Oberpfaffenhofen, Oleg Kononenko, Orbital ATK, Orbital decay, Orbital inclination, Orbital Piloted Assembly and Experiment Complex, Orbital replacement unit, Orbital station-keeping, Orbiter Boom Sensor System, Origins of the International Space Station, Orlan space suit, Osteoporosis, Outer Space Treaty, Outline of physical science, Oxide, Ozone, Paolo Nespoli, Pascal (unit), Payload Operations and Integration Center, Peggy Whitson, Photovoltaic system, Photovoltaics, Physical Review Letters, Physics, Physiology, Pier, Pirs (ISS module), Poisk (ISS module), Popular Mechanics, Porch, Pounds per square inch, Pressurized Mating Adapter, Progress (spacecraft), Progress M-09M, Progress M-MIM2, Progress M-SO1, Progress MS-08, Progress MS-09, Progress MS-10, Progress MS-11, Progress MS-12, Protein crystallization, Proton, Proton (rocket family), Proton-K, Proton-M, Psychological stress, Psychosocial, Quantum mechanics, Quest Joint Airlock, Radar, Ralf Vandebergh, Rassvet (ISS module), Reaction wheel, Reinforced carbon–carbon, Remote sensing, Richard Garriott, Rigid body, Robotic Refueling Mission, Rocket engine, Roscosmos, RT (TV network), Russian language, Russian Orbital Segment, Russian Research Module, S band, Saint-Hubert, Quebec, Salyut 4, Salyut 5, Salyut 6, Salyut 7, Salyut programme, Satellite, Satellite flare, Science Power Platform, Science-Power Module-1, Scientific research on the International Space Station, Scott E. Parazynski, Sergey Volkov (cosmonaut), Sievert, Skylab, Smartphone, Société astronomique de France, SOLAR (ISS), Solar eclipse, Solar eclipse of August 21, 2017, Solar wind, Soyuz (rocket family), Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz MS-08, Soyuz MS-09, Soyuz MS-10, Soyuz MS-11, Soyuz MS-12, Soyuz MS-13, Soyuz MS-14, Soyuz TM-31, Soyuz TMA-20, Soyuz-2, Soyuz-FG, Soyuz-U, Space architecture, Space colonization, Space environment, Space flight participant, Space logistics, Space medicine, Space Oddity, Space rendezvous, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Atlantis, Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Space Shuttle program, Space station, Space Station 3D, Space Station Processing Facility, Space suit, Space toilet, Space tourism, Space Tourists, Space weather, Spaceflight osteopenia, SpaceX, SpaceX CRS-15, SpaceX CRS-16, SpaceX CRS-17, SpaceX CRS-18, SpaceX CRS-19, SpaceX CRS-8, SpaceX CRS-9, SpaceX Dragon, SpX-DM1, SpX-DM2, SSVP docking system, Star Wars (film), Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment, Strela (crane), STS-105, STS-114, STS-115, STS-116, STS-117, STS-118, STS-119, STS-120, STS-123, STS-124, STS-126, STS-127, STS-129, STS-130, STS-132, STS-133, STS-134, STS-74, STS-88, STS-92, STS-97, Superconductivity, Tanegashima Space Center, Tardigrade, Telemetry, Telerobotics, Thales Alenia Space, The New York Times, Thermosiphon, Thermosphere, Tidal force, TKS (spacecraft), Toulouse, Toulouse Space Center, Tracking and data relay satellite, Tranquility (ISS module), Transit (astronomy), Treadmill with Vibration Isolation Stabilization, Tsukuba Space Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Turin, Ubuntu (operating system), Ultra high frequency, United States, Unity (ISS module), Universal Docking Module, Unmanned spaceflights to the International Space Station, Urine diversion, US Orbital Segment, US-A, Uzlovoy Module, Valery Ryumin, Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket, Venus, Vika oxygen generator, Voice of Russia, Volt, Voskhod-M, Vostok 1, Water vapor, Wi-Fi, Wikipedia, Windows 10, Windows 2000, Windows 7, Windows 95, Windows XP, Wireless LAN, Wireless network, Yoshinobu Launch Complex, Yuri Gagarin, Yuri Semenov, Zarya, Zenith, Zvezda (ISS module). 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A Beautiful Planet is a 2016 American documentary film that explores Earth by showing IMAX footage that was recorded over the course of fifteen months by astronauts aboard the International Space Station.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
The Ad Astra Rocket Company is an American rocket propulsion company dedicated to the development of advanced plasma rocket propulsion technology.
The Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) project is a U.S. government-funded study investigating strategies for applying diagnostic telemedicine to space.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
Air & Space/Smithsonian magazine is a bimonthly magazine put out by the National Air and Space Museum.
An airlock is a device which permits the passage of people and objects between a pressure vessel and its surroundings while minimizing the change of pressure in the vessel and loss of air from it.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
The Almaz (Алмаз, "Diamond") program was a highly secretive Soviet military space station program, begun in the early 1960s.
The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, also designated AMS-02, is a particle physics experiment module that is mounted on the International Space Station (ISS).
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, describes the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communication.
Amateur-satellite service Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) - operating in the Amateur-satellite service - is a project sponsored by various entities and carried out by astronauts and cosmonauts on the International Space Station who also have an amateur radio license.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The terms Androgynous Peripheral Attach System (APAS), Androgynous Peripheral Assembly System (APAS) and Androgynous Peripheral Docking System (APDS), are used interchangeably to describe a family of spacecraft docking mechanisms, and are also sometimes used as a generic name for any docking system in that family.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
Anousheh Ansari (Anuŝe Ansāri; née Raissyan; born September 12, 1966) is an Iranian-American engineer and co-founder and chairwoman of Prodea Systems.
Antares, known during early development as Taurus II, is an expendable launch system developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation (now part of Northrop Grumman Innovation System after Northrop Grumman acquired Orbital ATK) and the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau to launch the Cygnus spacecraft to the International Space Station as part of NASA's COTS and CRS programs.
In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.
Anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) are space weapons designed to incapacitate or destroy satellites for strategic military purposes.
In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.
Apogee Books is an imprint of Canadian publishing house Collector's Guide Publishing.
Apollo 1, initially designated AS-204, was the first manned mission of the United States Apollo program, the program to land the first men on the Moon.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
Artificial gravity (sometimes referred to as pseudogravity) is the creation of an inertial force that mimics the effects of a gravitational force, usually by rotation.
Astrium was an aerospace manufacturer subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) that provided civil and military space systems and services from 2006 to 2013.
Astrobiology is a branch of biology concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Atlas V ("V" is pronounced "Five") is an expendable launch system in the Atlas rocket family.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) is a project led by the European Space Agency which will place ultra-stable atomic clocks on the International Space Station.
Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
The Automated Transfer Vehicle, originally Ariane Transfer Vehicle or ATV, was an expendable cargo spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency (ESA).
Baikonur Cosmodrome (translit; translit) is a spaceport located in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia.
Site 31/6 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, in Kazakhstan, is a launch site used by derivatives of the R-7 Semyorka missile.
Site 81 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome is a launch site used, along with Site 200, by Proton rockets.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The beta angle (\boldsymbol) is a measurement that is used most notably in spaceflight.
Bigelow Aerospace is an American space technology startup company based in North Las Vegas, Nevada, that manufactures and develops expandable space station modules.
The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) is an experimental expandable space station module developed by Bigelow Aerospace, under contract to NASA, for testing as a temporary module on the International Space Station (ISS) from 2016 to at least 2020.
Biolab (Biological Experiment Laboratory) is a single-rack multi-user science payload designed for use in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
Comet Lovejoy, formally designated C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy), is a long-period comet and Kreutz Sungrazer.
The Canadian Space Agency (CSA; Agence spatiale canadienne, ASC) was established by the Canadian Space Agency Act which received Royal Assent on May 10, 1990.
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) (known as Cape Kennedy Air Force Station from 1963 to 1973) is an installation of the United States Air Force Space Command's 45th Space Wing.
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 40 (SLC-40), previously Launch Complex 40 (LC-40) is a launch pad for rockets located at the north end of Cape Canaveral, Florida.
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41 (SLC-41), previously Launch Complex 41 (LC-41), is an active launch site at the north end of Cape Canaveral, Florida at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.
The Center for the Advancement of Science in Space, or CASIS, is a US government-funded national laboratory, with principal research facilities located in the United States portion of the International Space Station (ISS).
The Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM) is a cancelled element of the International Space Station.
Ceremonial ship launching is the process of transferring a vessel to the water.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
Charles Frank Bolden Jr. (born August 19, 1946) is a former Administrator of NASA, a retired United States Marine Corps Major General, and a former NASA astronaut.
A chemical oxygen generator is a device that releases oxygen via a chemical reaction.
Artist's impression of the station with the Shenzhou manned spacecraft (bottom) and Tianzhou cargo craft (top) docked The Chinese large modular space station, is a planned space station to be placed in Low Earth orbit.
Chris Austin Hadfield (born 29 August 1959) is a retired Canadian astronaut who was the first Canadian to walk in space.
NASA's Christopher C. Kraft Jr.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
A cinematographer or director of photography (sometimes shortened to DP or DOP) is the chief over the camera and light crews working on a film, television production or other live action piece and is responsible for making artistic and technical decisions related to the image.
Cirque du Soleil ("Circus of the Sun" or "Sun Circus") is a Canadian entertainment company.
The Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) (English: National Centre for Space Studies) is the French government space agency (administratively, a "public administration with industrial and commercial purpose").
In spaceflight, collision avoidance is the process of preventing a spacecraft from colliding with any other vehicle or object.
Columbus is a science laboratory that is part of the International Space Station (ISS) and is the largest single contribution to the ISS made by the European Space Agency (ESA).
The Columbus Control Centre is the Mission Control Center which is used to control the European ''Columbus'' research laboratory, which is part of the International Space Station (ISS).
Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) is a multiphase, space technology development program that is funded by the U.S. government and administered by NASA.
Commercial off-the-shelf or commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) satisfy the needs of the purchasing organization, without the need to commission custom-made, or bespoke, solutions.
Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) are a series of contracts awarded by NASA from 2008–2016 for delivery of cargo and supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) on commercially operated spacecraft.
Commercial use of space is the provision of goods or services of commercial value by using equipment sent into Earth orbit or outer space.
The Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) is a berthing mechanism primarily used to connect pressurized elements within the US Orbital Segment of the International Space Station.
The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was a space observatory detecting photons with energies from 20 keV to 30 GeV, in Earth orbit from 1991 to 2000.
Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.
A control moment gyroscope (CMG) is an attitude control device generally used in spacecraft attitude control systems.
A coronal mass ejection (CME) is a significant release of plasma and magnetic field from the solar corona.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
The CST-100 Starliner (Crew Space Transportation) crew capsule is a spacecraft design under construction by Boeing in collaboration with Bigelow Aerospace as their entry for NASA's Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program.
A CubeSat (U-class spacecraft) is a type of miniaturized satellite for space research that is made up of multiples of 10×10×10 cm cubic units.
The Cupola is an ESA-built observatory module of the International Space Station (ISS).
The Cygnus spacecraft is an American automated cargo spacecraft developed by Orbital ATK as part of NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) developmental program.
Cygnus CRS OA-10E, also known as Orbital ATK CRS Flight 10E, is the eleventh planned flight of the Orbital ATK' unmanned resupply spacecraft Cygnus and its tenth flight to the International Space Station under the Commercial Resupply Services contract with NASA.
Cygnus CRS OA-11, also known as Orbital ATK CRS-11, is the twelfth planned flight of the Orbital ATK unmanned resupply spacecraft Cygnus and its eleventh flight to the International Space Station under the Commercial Resupply Services contract with NASA.
Cygnus CRS OA-9E, also known as Orbital ATK OA-9E, is the tenth planned flight of the Orbital ATK uncrewed resupply spacecraft Cygnus and its ninth flight to the International Space Station under the Commercial Resupply Services contract with NASA.
Daniel Christopher Burbank (born July 27, 1961) is a retired American astronaut and a veteran of two Space Shuttle missions.
Daniel M. Tani (born February 1, 1961) is an American engineer and a NASA astronaut.
Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.
In telecommunications, data-transfer rate is the average number of bits (bitrate), characters or symbols (baudrate), or data blocks per unit time passing through a communication link in a data-transmission system.
David Robert Jones (8 January 1947 – 10 January 2016), known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer-songwriter and actor.
Debian is a Unix-like computer operating system that is composed entirely of free software, and packaged by a group of individuals participating in the Debian Project.
Decompression sickness (DCS; also known as divers' disease, the bends, aerobullosis, or caisson disease) describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurisation.
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
Dennis Anthony Tito (born August 8, 1940) is an American engineer and multimillionaire, most widely known as the first space tourist to fund his own trip into space.
The Destiny module, also known as the US Lab, is the primary operating facility for U.S. research payloads aboard the International Space Station (ISS).
Dextre, also known as the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), is a two armed robot, or telemanipulator, which is part of the Mobile Servicing System on the International Space Station (ISS), and does repairs otherwise requiring spacewalks.
Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
Dmitri Yur'yevich Kondrat'yev Дмитрий Юрьевич Кондратьев (born 25 May 1969 in Irkutsk, Russia) is a retired Russian cosmonaut.
Dmitry Olegovich Rogozin (Дми́трий Оле́гович Рого́зин; born 21 December 1963) is a Russian politician, currently serve as Director General of, Roscosmos.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Douglas Harry "Wheels" Wheelock (born May 5, 1960) is an American engineer and astronaut.
Dragon 2 (also Crew Dragon, Dragon V2, or formerly DragonRider) is the second version of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, which will be a human-rated vehicle.
Earth's shadow or Earth shadow is the shadow that Earth itself casts onto its atmosphere and into outer space, toward the antisolar point.
Humans venturing into the environment of space can have negative effects on the body.
Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
PAO S. P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya “Energiya” im.), also known as RSC Energia (РКК «Энергия», RKK “Energiya”), is a Russian manufacturer of ballistic missile, spacecraft and space station components.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In astronomy and celestial navigation, an ephemeris (plural: ephemerides) gives the positions of naturally occurring astronomical objects as well as artificial satellites in the sky at a given time or times.
Esperance is a town in the Goldfields-Esperance region of Western Australia, on the Southern Ocean coastline approximately east-southeast of the state capital, Perth.
The European Data Relay System (EDRS) system is a European constellation of state of the art GEO satellites that relay information and data between satellites, spacecraft, UAVs, and ground stations.
The European Drawer Rack (EDR) is a single, six-post International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) with seven Experiment Modules (EMs), each of which has separate access to power and cooling.
The European Physiology Module (EPM) is an International Standard Payload Rack for the Columbus Laboratory on board the International Space Station.
The European Robotic Arm (ERA) is a robotic arm to be attached to the Russian segment of the International Space Station.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
The European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) was a payload mounted on the exterior of the European ''Columbus'' laboratory, one of the modules of the International Space Station.
Expedition 1 was the first long-duration stay on the International Space Station (ISS).
Expedition 10 (2004–2005) was the tenth expedition to the International Space Station, using the Soyuz TMA-5, which stayed during the expedition for emergency evacuation.
Expedition 11 (2005) was the 11th expedition to the International Space Station, using the Soyuz TMA-6, which stayed during the expedition for emergency evacuation.
Expedition 16 was the 16th expedition to the International Space Station (ISS).
Expedition 19 was the 19th long-duration flight to the International Space Station.
Expedition 20 was the 20th long-duration flight to the International Space Station.
Expedition 30 was the 30th long-duration mission to the International Space Station (ISS).
Expedition 31 was the 31st long-duration expedition to the International Space Station (ISS).
Expedition 32 was the 32nd long-duration expedition to the International Space Station (ISS).
Expedition 43 was the 43rd expedition to the International Space Station.
Expedition 44 was the 44th expedition to the International Space Station.
Expedition 5 was the fifth long-duration stay on the International Space Station (ISS).
Expedition 50 was the 50th expedition to the International Space Station.
Expedition 51 was the 51st expedition to the International Space Station, which began upon the departure of Soyuz MS-02 on April 10, 2017 and concluded upon the departure of Soyuz MS-03 on June 2, 2017.
Expedition 52 is the 52nd expedition to the International Space Station.
Expedition 55 was the 55th expedition to the International Space Station, which began upon the departure of Soyuz MS-06 on February 27, 2018.
Expedition 56 is the 56th expedition to the International Space Station, which began on 1 June 2018 upon the departure of Soyuz MS-07.
Expedition 57 is the 57th expedition to the International Space Station, which is expected to begin in October 2018 upon the departure of Soyuz MS-08.
Expedition 8 was the eighth expedition to the International Space Station.
Expedition 9 (2004) was the ninth expedition to the International Space Station (21 April 2004 - 23 October 2004).
An exploded view drawing is a diagram, picture, schematic or technical drawing of an object, that shows the relationship or order of assembly of various parts.
The Exploration Gateway Platformhttp://www.nasa.gov/pdf/604659main_6%20-%20Panel%203_Raftery_Final.pdf was a design proposed by Boeing in December 2011 to drastically reduce the cost of Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), or Mars missions by using components already designed to construct a refueling depot and servicing station located at one of the Earth–Moon Lagrange points, L1 or L2.
An ExPRESS logistics carrier (ELC) is an unpressurized attached payload platform for the International Space Station (ISS) that provides mechanical mounting surfaces, electrical power, and command and data handling services for Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) as well as science experiments on the ISS.
The International Space Station (ISS) External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS) maintains an equilibrium when the ISS environment or heat loads exceed the capabilities of the Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS).
External stowage platforms (ESPs) are key components of the International Space Station (ISS).
Extra-low voltage (ELV) is an electricity supply voltage in a range which carries a low risk of dangerous electrical shock.
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.
The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is an independent anthropomorphic spacesuit that provides environmental protection, mobility, life support, and communications for astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA) in Earth orbit.
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
Falcon 9 is a family of two-stage-to-orbit medium lift launch vehicles, named for its use of nine Merlin first-stage engines, designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
Falcon 9 Full Thrust (also known as Falcon 9 v1.2, with Block 3, Block 4 and Block 5 variants) is a partially reusable medium-lift launch vehicle, designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
First Orbit is a feature-length, experimental documentary film about Vostok 1, the first manned space flight around the Earth.
The Fluid Science Laboratory is a European (ESA's) science payload designed for use in Columbus built by Alenia Spazio, OHB-System and.
In Newtonian physics, free fall is any motion of a body where gravity is the only force acting upon it.
The Functional Cargo Block or FGB (from the Russian "Функционально-грузовой блок", ФГБ, "Funktsionalno-gruzovoy blok", FGB, GRAU index 11F77) was part of the Soviet TKS spacecraft.
Gagarin's Start (Гагаринский старт, Gagarinskiy start) is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, used for the Soviet space program and now managed by Roscosmos State Corporation.
Genesis II is the second experimental space habitat designed and built by the private American firm Bigelow Aerospace, launched in 2007.
Gennady Ivanovich Padalka (Гeннадий Иванович Падалка; born 21 June 1958 in Krasnodar, Russia) is a Russian Air Force officer and an RKA cosmonaut.
Geocaching is an outdoor recreational activity, in which participants use a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver or mobile device and other navigational techniques to hide and seek containers, called "geocaches" or "caches", at specific locations marked by coordinates all over the world.
A geostationary orbit, often referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit above Earth's equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation.
The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.), abbreviated DLR, is the national center for aerospace, energy and transportation research of the Federal Republic of Germany.
A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
Grapple fixtures are used on spacecraft or other objects to provide a secure connection for a robotic arm.
Gravity-gradient stabilization (a.k.a. "tidal stabilization") is a method of stabilizing artificial satellites or space tethers in a fixed orientation using only the orbited body's mass distribution and gravitational field.
Gregory Errol Chamitoff (born 6 August 1962 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada) is an engineer and NASA astronaut.
Guy Laliberté, (born 2 September 1959) is a Canadian businessman, investor, poker player, and musician.
The H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV), also called, is an automated cargo spacecraft used to resupply the ''Kibō'' Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) and the International Space Station (ISS).
H-IIB (H2B) is an expendable launch system used to launch H-II Transfer Vehicles (HTV, or Kounotori) towards the International Space Station.
ISS Habitation module under construction in December 1997 The Habitation Module for the International Space Station was intended to be the Station's main living quarters designed with galley, toilet, shower, sleep stations and medical facilities.
Harmony, also known as Node 2, is the "utility hub" of the International Space Station.
Heavens-Above is a non-profit website developed and maintained by Chris Peat as Heavens-Above GmbH.
High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) cameras are a payload package delivered to the International Space Station on the SpaceX CRS-3 Mission, launched on April 18, 2014.
The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm on living organisms.
Hope is an optimistic state of mind that is based on an expectation of positive outcomes with respect to events and circumstances in one's life or the world at large.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
HP ZBook is a brand of mobile workstations made by Hewlett-Packard.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
Human biology is an interdisciplinary area of study that examines humans through the influences and interplay of many diverse fields such as genetics, evolution, physiology, anatomy, epidemiology, anthropology, ecology, nutrition, population genetics and sociocultural influences.
A human mission to Mars has been the subject of science fiction, aerospace engineering, and scientific proposals since the 19th century.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
Huntsville is a city located primarily in Madison County in the Appalachian region of northern Alabama.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The Immortality Drive is a large memory device which was taken to the International Space Station in a Soyuz spacecraft on October 12, 2008.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Inflatable habitats or expandable habitats are pressurized structures capable of supporting life in outer space whose internal volume increases after launch.
The Int-Ball, also known as the JEM Internal Ball Camera, is an experimental, autonomous, self-propelled, and maneuverable ball camera which is deployed in the Japanese Kibō module of the International Space Station.
The Integrated Truss Structure (ITS) of the International Space Station (ISS) consists of a linear arranged sequence of connected trusses on which various unpressurized components are mounted such as logistics carriers, radiators, solar arrays, and other equipment.
The Interim Control Module (ICM) is a NASA constructed module designed to serve as a temporary "tug" for the International Space Station in case the Zvezda service module was destroyed or not launched for an extended period of time.
The International Docking Adapter (IDA) is a spacecraft docking system adapter being developed to convert APAS-95 to the NASA Docking System (NDS)/ International Docking System Standard (IDSS).
The International Docking System Standard (IDSS), is an international standard for spacecraft docking adapters.
The International Space Station program is tied together by a complex set of legal, political and financial agreements between the fifteen nations involved in the project, governing ownership of the various components, rights to crewing and utilization, and responsibilities for crew rotation and station resupply.
The International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) has been adopted by the International Space Station (ISS) program to support efficient integration and interchangeability of payload hardware – and to maximize joint research among investigators.
The Iridium satellite constellation provides L-band voice and data coverage to satellite phones, pagers and integrated transceivers over the entire Earth surface.
The International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is a life support system that provides or controls atmospheric pressure, fire detection and suppression, oxygen levels, waste management and water supply.
The ISS Propulsion module was proposed as a backup to functions performed by the Zvezda Service Module and Progress spacecraft.
The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers.
Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) is a rocket launch site at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, United States.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
JSC "Khartron" (Hartron) (Ukrainian: Хартрон, formerly NPO "Electropribor", Russian: НПО "Электроприбор", means Scientific Production Association "Electrical device") is one of the leading design engineering bureaus of Commonwealth of Independent States (and the only in Ukraine), which develops and produces spacecraft and missile control systems.
Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (ГКНПЦ им. М. В. Хру́ничева in Russian) is a Moscow-based producer of spacecraft and space-launch systems, including the Proton and Rokot rockets.
The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), nicknamed, is a Japanese science module for the International Space Station (ISS) developed by JAXA.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Korolyov or Korolev (p) is an industrial city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, well known as the cradle of Soviet and Russian space exploration.
Kounotori 2 (こうのとり2号機, "white stork"), also known as HTV-2, was launched in January 2011 and was the second Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle to resupply the International Space Station (ISS).
, also known as HTV-7 will be the seventh flight of the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV), an unmanned cargo spacecraft set to launch on 16 August 2018 to resupply the International Space Station.
, also known as HTV-8 will be the 8th flight of the H-II Transfer Vehicle, an unmanned cargo spacecraft set to launch on February 2019 to resupply the International Space Station.
The Ku band is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 12 to 18 gigahertz (GHz).
Kurs (Ukrainian and translit) is a radio telemetry system used by the Soviet and later Russian space program.
In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large bodies, wherein a small object, affected only by the gravitational forces from the two larger objects, will maintain its position relative to them.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Leland Devon Melvin (born February 15, 1964 in Lynchburg, Virginia) is an American engineer and a former NASA astronaut.
Lenovo Group Ltd. or Lenovo PC International, often shortened to Lenovo (formerly stylized as lenovo), is a Chinese multinational technology company with headquarters in Beijing, China and Morrisville, North Carolina.
The Leonardo Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) is a module of the International Space Station.
A lightsaber is a fictional energy sword featured in the ''Star Wars'' universe.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
The Lira system (Лира) is a two-way communication system used between the International Space Station and Mission Control via the Russian ''Luch'' relay satellite constellation, also known as Altair.
This is a chronological list of spaceflights to the International Space Station (ISS), including long-term ISS crew, short term visitors, and mixed human/cargo missions.
This is a chronological list of expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS).
International Space Station spacewalks are major events in the building and maintaining of the orbital laboratory.
This is a list of all of the visitors to the International Space Station (ISS), including long-term crew, short-term visitors, and space tourists, in alphabetical order.
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
A space station is a manned satellite designed to remain in low Earth orbit for a long period of time.
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
The Luch (Луч; lit. Ray) Satellite Data Relay Network (SDRN), also referred to as Altair and Gelios, is a series of geosynchronous Russian relay satellites, used to transmit live TV images, communications and other telemetry from the Soviet/Russian space station Mir, the Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) of the International Space Station and other orbital spacecraft to the Earth, in a manner similar to that of the US Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System.
Luke Skywalker is a fictional character and the main protagonist of the original film trilogy of the ''Star Wars'' franchise created by George Lucas.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.
Mark Richard Hamill (born September 25, 1951) is an American stage, screen and voice actor.
Mark Richard Shuttleworth (born 18 September 1973) is a South African entrepreneur who is the founder and CEO of Canonical Ltd., the company behind the development of the Linux-based Ubuntu operating system.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The Mars-500 mission was a psychosocial isolation experiment conducted between 2007 and 2011 by Russia, the European Space Agency and China, in preparation for an unspecified future manned spaceflight to the planet Mars.
The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), located in Huntsville, Alabama, is the U.S. government's civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center.
The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is a series of experiments mounted externally on the International Space Station (ISS) that investigates the effects of long-term exposure of materials to the harsh space environment.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
The Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) is an X-ray slit camera aboard the International Space Station.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Colin Michael Foale (born 6 January 1957) is a British-American astrophysicist and former NASA astronaut.
The term micro-g environment (also µg, often referred to by the term microgravity) is more or less a synonym for weightlessness and zero-g, but indicates that g-forces are not quite zero—just very small.
The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a glovebox aboard the International Space Station.
A micrometeoroid is a tiny meteoroid; a small particle of rock in space, usually weighing less than a gram.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
The Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) is a commercial space launch facility located at the southern tip of NASA's Wallops Flight Facility on Wallops Island in Virginia, just east of the Delmarva Peninsula and south of Chincoteague, Virginia, United States.
The Millennium Falcon is a fictional starship in the Star Wars franchise.
International Space Station modules.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
The Stykovochnyy Otsek (стыковочный отсек, Docking compartment), GRAU index 316GK, otherwise known as the Mir docking module or SO, was the sixth module of the Russian space station Mir, launched in November 1995 aboard the.
A mission control center (MCC, sometimes called a flight control center or operations center) is a facility that manages space flights, usually from the point of launch until landing or the end of the mission.
Mission Elapsed Time (MET) is used by NASA during their space missions, most notably during their Space Shuttle missions.
The Mobile Servicing System (MSS), is a robotic system on board the International Space Station (ISS).
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
A Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) was a large pressurized container used on Space Shuttle missions to transfer cargo to and from the International Space Station (ISS).
Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement and/or confined to bed as when hospitalized.
The nadir (from نظير / ALA-LC: naẓīr, meaning "counterpart") is the direction pointing directly below a particular location; that is, it is one of two vertical directions at a specified location, orthogonal to a horizontal flat surface there.
Naked eye, also called bare eye or unaided eye, is the practice of engaging in visual perception unaided by a magnifying or light-collecting optical instrument, such as a telescope or microscope.
NanoRacks LLC is a private company that develops products and offers services for the commercial utilization of space.
The NanoRacks CubeSat Deployer (NRCSD) is a device to deploy CubeSats into orbit from the International Space Station.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The NASA Docking System (NDS) is a spacecraft docking and berthing mechanism being developed for future US human spaceflight vehicles, such as the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and the Commercial Crew vehicles.
NASASpaceFlight.com is a website that is devoted to manned and unmanned spaceflight news.
The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is a NASA-funded consortium of institutions studying the health risks related to long-duration spaceflight and developing solutions to reduce those risks.
Nauka (Нау́ка; lit. Science), also known as the Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM), (Russian: Многофункциональный лабораторный модуль, or МЛМ), is a component of the International Space Station (ISS) which has not yet been launched into space.
The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is a NASA Explorers program Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of the extraordinary gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear physics environments embodied by neutron stars, exploring the exotic states of matter where density and pressure are higher than in atomic nuclei.
A nickel–hydrogen battery (NiH2 or Ni–H2) is a rechargeable electrochemical power source based on nickel and hydrogen.
Night Glider mode (or "XVV Night Glider mode") is one of the procedures for orienting the solar arrays on the International Space Station.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
Oberpfaffenhofen is a village which is part of the municipality of Weßling in the district of Starnberg, Bavaria, Germany.
Oleg Dmitriyevich Kononenko (Олег Дмитриевич Кононенко) is a Russian cosmonaut.
Orbital ATK Inc. was an American aerospace manufacturer and defense industry company.
In orbital mechanics, decay is a process that leads to gradual decrease of the distance between two orbiting bodies at their closest approach (the periapsis) over many orbital periods.
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
The Orbital Piloted Assembly and Experiment Complex (Орбитальный Пилотируемый Сборочно-Экспериментальный Комплекс, Orbital'nyj Pilotirujemyj Sborochno-Eksperimental'nyj Kompleks) (ОПСЭК, OPSEK) is a Russian proposed third-generation modular space station in Low Earth orbit.
Orbital replacement units (or On-orbit Replaceable unit) (ORUs) are key elements of the International Space Station that can be readily replaced when the unit either passes its design life or fails.
In astrodynamics, the orbital maneuvers made by thruster burns that are needed to keep a spacecraft in a particular assigned orbit are called orbital station-keeping.
The Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS) was a 50-foot boom carried on board NASA's Space Shuttles.
Origins of the International Space Station covers the origins of ISS.
Cosmonaut Maksim Surayev next to two Orlan-MK models on the International Space Station The Orlan space suit (Орлан meaning sea eagle) is a series of semi-rigid one-piece space suit models designed and built by NPP Zvezda.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law.
Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Paolo Angelo Nespoli (Milan, 6 April 1957) is an Italian astronaut and engineer of the European Space Agency (ESA).
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Also known as Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) or Payload Operations Center, it is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facility that works in conjunction with the International Space Station and Space Shuttle Control Centers in Houston, Texas.
Peggy Annette Whitson (born February 9, 1960) is an American biochemistry researcher, retired NASA astronaut, and former NASA Chief Astronaut.
A photovoltaic system, also PV system or solar power system, is a power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaics.
Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Seaside pleasure pier in Brighton, England. The first seaside piers were built in England in the early 19th century. A pier is a raised structure in a body of water, typically supported by well-spaced piles or pillars.
Pirs (Пирс, meaning "pier") – also called "Stykovochny Otsek 1" ("SO-1") (Стыковочный отсек, "docking module" and DC-1 (docking compartment) – is a Russian module on the International Space Station (ISS). Pirs was launched in August 2001. It provides the ISS with one docking port for Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, and allows egress and ingress for spacewalks by cosmonauts using Russian Orlan space suits. A second docking compartment, "Stykovochniy Otsek 2" or SO-2, was planned with the same design. However, when the Russian segment of the ISS was redesigned in 2001, the new design no longer included the SO-2, and its construction was canceled. After another change of plans the SO-2 module finally evolved into the ''Poisk'' module, which was added to the ISS in 2009. Pirs was scheduled to be detached from the ISS and deorbited in 2017 by Progress MS-06, to make room for the Russian Multipurpose Laboratory Module ''Nauka'', however due to the repetitive delays with the laboratory module, this maneuver was postponed for Progress MS-09 in 2018.
Poisk (По́иск; lit. Search), also known as the Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM 2), Малый исследовательский модуль 2, or МИМ 2, is a docking module of the International Space Station.
Popular Mechanics is a classic magazine of popular science and technology.
A porch (from Old French porche, from Latin porticus "colonnade", from porta "passage") is a term used in architecture to describe a room or gallery located in front of the entrance of a building forming a low front, and placed in front of the facade of the building it commands.
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2; abbreviation: psi) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units.
The Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA) is a spacecraft adapter that converts the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) used on the US Orbital Segment to APAS-95 docking ports.
The Progress (Прогресс) is a Russian expendable cargo spacecraft.
Progress M-09M (italic), identified by NASA as Progress 41 or 41P, is a Progress spacecraft which was launched in 2011 to resupply the International Space Station.
Progress M-MIM2 (Прогресс М-МИМ2), or Progress M-MRM2, originally designated Progress M-SO2, was a modified Progress-M spacecraft which was used to deliver the Poisk module to the International Space Station.
Progress M-SO1 was a modified Progress spacecraft used to deliver the Pirs module to the International Space Station.
Progress MS-08, identified by NASA as Progress 69 or 69P, is a Progress spacecraft used by Roscosmos to resupply the International Space Station (ISS).
Progress MS-09, identified by NASA as Progress 70 or 70P, is a Progress spacecraft to be used by Roscosmos to resupply the International Space Station (ISS).
Progress MS-10, identified by NASA as Progress 71 or 71P, is a Progress spacecraft to be used by Roscosmos to resupply the International Space Station (ISS).
Progress MS-11, identified by NASA as Progress 72 or 72P, is a Progress spacecraft to be used by Roscosmos to resupply the International Space Station (ISS).
Progress MS-12, identified by NASA as Progress 73 or 73P, is a Progress spacecraft to be used by Roscosmos to resupply the International Space Station (ISS).
Protein crystallization is the process of formation of a protein crystal.
Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.
The Proton-K, also designated Proton 8K82K after its GRAU index, 8K82K, was a Russian, previously Soviet, carrier rocket derived from the earlier Proton.
The Proton-M, (Протон-М) GRAU index 8K82M or, is a Russian heavy-lift launch vehicle derived from the Soviet-developed Proton.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
The psychosocial approach looks at individuals in the context of the combined influence that psychological factors and the surrounding social environment have on their physical and mental wellness and their ability to function.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
The Quest Joint Airlock, previously known as the Joint Airlock Module, is the primary airlock for the International Space Station.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Ralf Vandebergh (born 1976) is a Dutch astronomer, professional photographer and veteran satellite spotter from.
Rassvet (Рассве́т; lit. "dawn"), also known as the Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) (Малый исследовательский модуль, МИМ 1) and formerly known as the Docking Cargo Module (DCM), is a component of the International Space Station (ISS).
A reaction wheel (RW) is a type of flywheel used primarily by spacecraft for three axis attitude control, which doesn't require rockets or external applicators of torque.
Carbon fibre reinforced carbon (CFRC), carbon–carbon (C/C), or reinforced carbon–carbon (RCC) is a composite material consisting of carbon fiber reinforcement in a matrix of graphite.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
Richard Garriott de Cayeux (born Richard Allen Garriott; July 4, 1961) is an English-American video game developer and entrepreneur.
In physics, a rigid body is a solid body in which deformation is zero or so small it can be neglected.
The Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM) is a NASA technology demonstration mission with equipment launches in both 2011 and 2013 to increase the technological maturity of in-space rocket propellant transfer technology by testing a wide variety of potential propellant transfer hardware, of both new and existing satellite designs.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.
RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) is the name given to the components of the International Space Station (ISS) constructed in Russia and operated by the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos).
The Russian Research Module (RM) was to be a Russian component of the International Space Station (ISS) that provided facilities for Russian science experiments and research.
The S band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for a part of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum covering frequencies from 2 to 4 gigahertz (GHz).
Salyut 4 (DOS 4) (Салют-4; English translation: Salute 4) was a Salyut space station launched on December 26, 1974 into an orbit with an apogee of 355 km, a perigee of 343 km and an orbital inclination of 51.6 degrees.
Salyut 5 (Салют-5 meaning Salute 5), also known as OPS-3, was a Soviet space station.
Salyut 6 (Салют-6; lit. Salute 6), DOS-5, was a Soviet orbital space station, the eighth flown as part of the Salyut programme.
Salyut 7 (Салют-7; Salute 7) (a.k.a. DOS-6) was a space station in low Earth orbit from April 1982 to February 1991.
The Salyut programme (Салю́т,, meaning "salute" or "fireworks") was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Satellite flare, also known as satellite glint, is the visible phenomenon caused by the reflective surfaces of passing satellites (such as antennas, SAR or solar panels), reflecting sunlight toward the Earth below and appearing as a brief, bright "flare".
The Science Power Platform (SPP) (Научно-Энергетическая Платформа, Sci-Energy Platform) was a planned Russian element of the International Space Station (ISS) that was intended to be delivered to the ISS by a Russian Proton rocket or Zenit rocket (it was originally designed to be part of Mir-2) but was shifted to launch by Space Shuttle as part as a tradeoff agreement on other parts of the ISS.
Science-Power Module-1 (SPM-1, also known as NEM-1) is a module scheduled to arrive at the international space station in December 2019.
Scientific research on the International Space Station is a collection of experiments that require one or more of the unusual conditions present in low Earth orbit.
Scott Edward Parazynski (born July 28, 1961 in Little Rock, Arkansas) is an American physician and a former NASA astronaut.
Sergey Aleksandrovich Volkov (Сергей Александрович Волков; born April 1, 1973, in Chuhuiv, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union) is a retired Russian cosmonaut and engineer.
The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Skylab was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
The Société astronomique de France (SAF), the French astronomical society, is a non-profit association in the public interest organized under French law (Association loi de 1901).
SOLAR is an ESA science observatory on the Columbus Laboratory, which is part of the International Space Station.
A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and when the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.
The solar eclipse of August 21, 2017, dubbed "The Great American Eclipse" by the media, was a total solar eclipse visible within a band that spanned the entire contiguous United States, passing from the Pacific to the Atlantic coasts.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
Soyuz (Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) is a family of expendable launch systems developed by OKB-1 and manufactured by Progress Rocket Space Centre in Samara, Russia.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
Soyuz MS-08 is a Soyuz spaceflight that launched on 21 March 2018.
Soyuz MS-09 is a Soyuz spaceflight which launched on June 6, 2018.
Soyuz MS-10 is a Soyuz spaceflight planned for October 2018.
Soyuz MS-11 is a Soyuz spaceflight planned for December 2018.
Soyuz MS-12 is a Soyuz spaceflight planned for April 2019.
Soyuz MS-13 is a Soyuz spaceflight planned for July 2019.
Soyuz MS-14 is a Soyuz spaceflight planned for November 2019.
Soyuz TM-31 was the first Soyuz spacecraft to dock with the International Space Station (ISS).
Soyuz TMA-20 was a human spaceflight to the International Space Station (ISS) and was part of the Soyuz programme.
Soyuz-2, GRAU index 14A14, is the collective designation for the new version of the Russian Soyuz rocket.
The Soyuz-FG launch vehicle is an improved version of the Soyuz-U from the R-7 family of rockets, designed and constructed by TsSKB-Progress in Samara.
The Soyuz-U launch vehicle was an improved version of the original Soyuz rocket.
Space architecture, in its simplest definition, is the theory and practice of designing and building inhabited environments in outer space.
Space colonization (also called space settlement, or extraterrestrial colonization) is permanent human habitation off the planet Earth.
Space environment is a branch of astronautics, aerospace engineering and space physics that seeks to understand and address conditions existing in space that affect the design and operation of spacecraft.
Space flight participant (Участник космического полёта, uchastnik kosmicheskogo polyota) is the term used by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA), and the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for people who travel into space, but who are not professional astronauts.
According to the AIAA Space Logistics Technical Committee, space logistics is However, this definition in its larger sense includes terrestrial logistics in support of space travel, including any additional "design and development, acquisition, storage, movement, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of space materiel", movement of people in space (both routine and for medical and other emergencies), and contracting and supplying any required support services for maintaining space travel.
Space medicine is the practice of medicine on astronauts in outer space whereas astronautical hygiene is the application of science and technology to the prevention or control of exposure to the hazards that may cause astronaut ill health.
"Space Oddity" is a song written and recorded by David Bowie.
A space rendezvous is an orbital maneuver during which two spacecraft, one of which is often a space station, arrive at the same orbit and approach to a very close distance (e.g. within visual contact).
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
Space Shuttle Atlantis (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV‑104) is a Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle belonging to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the spaceflight and space exploration agency of the United States.
On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members.
The Space Shuttle program was the fourth human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished routine transportation for Earth-to-orbit crew and cargo from 1981 to 2011.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
Space Station 3D (simply known as Space Station in 2D format) is a 2002 Canadian-American 3D short documentary film about the International Space Station written, produced, edited and directed by Toni Myers.
The Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) is a three-story, 42,500 m2 (457,000 square foot) industrial building located in the Kennedy Space Center industrial area, just east of the Operations and Checkout Building.
A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes.
A space toilet, or zero gravity toilet is a toilet that can be used in a weightless environment.
Space tourism is space travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes.
Space Tourists is a feature-length documentary of the Swiss director Christian Frei.
Space weather is a branch of space physics and aeronomy concerned with the time varying conditions within the Solar System, including the solar wind, emphasizing the space surrounding the Earth, including conditions in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.
Spaceflight osteopenia refers to the characteristic bone loss that occurs during spaceflight.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.
SpaceX CRS-15, also known as SpX-15, is a Commercial Resupply Service mission to the International Space Station launched June 29, 2018 aboard a Falcon 9 rocket.
SpaceX CRS-16, also known as SpX-16, is a Commercial Resupply Service mission to the International Space Station currently manifested to be launched in November 2018 aboard a Falcon 9 rocket.
SpaceX CRS-17, also known as SpX-17, is a Commercial Resupply Service mission to the International Space Station currently manifested to be launched in February 2019 aboard a Falcon 9 rocket.
SpaceX CRS-18, also known as SpX-18, is a Commercial Resupply Service mission to the International Space Station currently manifested to be launched in May 2019 aboard a Falcon 9 rocket.
SpaceX CRS-19, also known as SpX-19, is a Commercial Resupply Service mission to the International Space Station currently manifested to be launched on May 2019.
SpaceX CRS-8, also known as SpX-8, was a Commercial Resupply Service mission to the International Space Station (ISS) which was launched on April 8, 2016, at 20:43 UTC.
SpaceX CRS-9, also known as SpX-9, is a Commercial Resupply Service mission to the International Space Station which launched on 18 July 2016.
Dragon is a reusable spacecraft developed by SpaceX, an American private space transportation company based in Hawthorne, California.
SpX-DM1 will be the first orbital test of Dragon 2 as an uncrewed mission, and is scheduled for 16 September 2018.
SpX-DM2 is the mission designation of the first crewed test flight of Space X's Dragon 2 spacecraft.
Sistema Stykovki i Vnutrennego Perekhoda, SSVP (Система стыковки и внутреннего перехода, System for docking and internal transfer) is a docking standard used by Soviet and Russian spacecraft, sometimes called RDS for Russian Docking System.
Star Wars (later retitled Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope) is a 1977 American epic space opera film written and directed by George Lucas.
The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) is a series of remote sensing satellite instruments used to study the chemical composition of earth's atmosphere.
The Strela (Russian Стрела, means Arrow) cranes are four Russian built cargo cranes used during EVAs to move cosmonauts and components around the exterior of the Soviet/Russian space station Mir and the Russian Orbital Segment of the International Space Station.
STS-105 was a mission of the Space Shuttle Discovery to the International Space Station, launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, 10 August 2001.
STS-114 was the first "Return to Flight" Space Shuttle mission following the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.
STS-115 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by Space Shuttle '' Atlantis''.
STS-116 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by Space Shuttle '' Discovery''.
STS-117 (ISS assembly flight 13A) was a Space Shuttle mission flown by Space Shuttle ''Atlantis'', launched from pad 39A of the Kennedy Space Center on 8 June 2007.
STS-118 was a space shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by the orbiter Endeavour.
STS-119 (ISS assembly flight 15A) was a space shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) which was flown by Space Shuttle ''Discovery'' during March 2009.
STS-120 was a space shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) that launched on 23 October 2007 from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida.
STS-123 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) which was flown by Space Shuttle ''Endeavour''.
STS-124 was a Space Shuttle mission, flown by Space Shuttle ''Discovery'' to the International Space Station.
STS-126 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by Space Shuttle.
STS-127 (ISS assembly flight 2J/A) was a NASA Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS).
STS-129 (ISS assembly flight ULF3) was a NASA Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS).
STS-130 (ISS assembly flight 20A) was a NASA Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS).
STS-132 (ISS assembly flight ULF4) was a NASA Space Shuttle mission, during which Space Shuttle Atlantis docked with the International Space Station on 16 May 2010.
STS-133 (ISS assembly flight ULF5) was the 133rd mission in NASA's Space Shuttle program; during the mission, Space Shuttle ''Discovery'' docked with the International Space Station.
STS-134 (ISS assembly flight ULF6) was the penultimate mission of NASA's Space Shuttle program and the 25th and last spaceflight of.
STS-74 was the fourth mission of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program, and the second docking of the Space Shuttle with Mir.
STS-88 was the first Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS).
STS-92 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by Space Shuttle '' Discovery''.
STS-97 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by Space Shuttle '' Endeavour''.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
The (TNSC) is a Japanese space development facility.
Tardigrades (also known colloquially as water bears, or moss piglets) are water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals.
Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.
Telerobotics is the area of robotics concerned with the control of semi-autonomous robots from a distance, chiefly using Wireless network (like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, the Deep Space Network, and similar) or tethered connections.
Thales Alenia Space is a Franco-Italian aerospace manufacturer formed after the Thales Group bought the participation of Alcatel in the two joint-ventures between Alcatel and Leonardo, Alcatel Alenia Space and Telespazio.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermosiphon (or thermosyphon) is a method of passive heat exchange, based on natural convection, which circulates a fluid without the necessity of a mechanical pump.
The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere.
The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.
The TKS spacecraft (Транспортный корабль снабжения., Transportnyi Korabl’ Snabzheniia, Transport Supply Spacecraft, GRAU index 11F72) was a Soviet spacecraft conceived in the late 1960s for resupply flights to the military Almaz space station.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
The Toulouse Space Centre is a center for research and development relating to space travel.
A tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) is a type of communications satellite that forms part of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) used by NASA and other United States government agencies for communications to and from independent "User Platforms" such as satellites, balloons, aircraft, the International Space Station, and remote bases like the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station.
Tranquility, also known as Node 3, is a module of the International Space Station (ISS).
In astronomy, a transit or astronomical transit is the phenomenon of at least one celestial body appearing to move across the face of another celestial body, hiding a small part of it, as seen by an observer at some particular vantage point.
The Treadmill with Vibration Isolation Stabilization System, commonly abbreviated as TVIS, is a treadmill for use on board the International Space Station and is designed to allow astronauts to run without vibrating delicate microgravity science experiments in adjacent labs.
Tsukuba Space Center (TKSC) is the operations facility and headquarters for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) located in Tsukuba Science City in Ibaraki Prefecture.
is a city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Ubuntu (stylized as ubuntu) is a free and open source operating system and Linux distribution based on Debian.
Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The ''Unity'' module as seen in May 2011 The Unity connecting module, also known as Node 1, was the first U.S.-built component of the International Space Station.
The Universal Docking Module (UDM) (Универсальный стыковочный модуль), was a planned Russian docking module for the International Space Station, to be jointly built by RKK Energia and Khrunichev.
Uncrewed spaceflights to the International Space Station (ISS) are made primarily to deliver cargo, however several Russian modules have also docked to the outpost following uncrewed launches.
Urine diversion, also called urine separation or source separation, refers to the separate collection of human urine and feces at the point of their production, i.e. at the toilet or urinal.
The US Orbital Segment (USOS) is the name given to the components of the International Space Station (ISS) constructed and operated by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), European Space Agency (ESA), Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
Upravlyaemy Sputnik Aktivnyy (Управляемый Спутник Активный for Controlled Active Satellite), or US-A, also known in the west as Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite or RORSAT, was a series of Soviet reconnaissance satellites.
Uzlovoy Module ″Prichal″ also known as UM (Узловой Модуль ″Причал″, Nodal Module Berth) is a Russian spacecraft which will form part of the International Space Station, and later the proposed Russian OPSEK space station.
Valery Victorovich Ryumin (born August 16, 1939 in Komsomolsk-on-Amur) is a former Soviet cosmonaut.
The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) is an electromagnetic thruster under development for possible use in spacecraft propulsion.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Vika or TGK is an oxygen generating system for spaceflight.
The Voice of Russia (r), commonly abbreviated VOR, was the Russian government's international radio broadcasting service from 1993 until 2014, when it was reorganised as Radio Sputnik.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
The Voskhod-M (Восход-М) is an audio subsystem on the International Space Station (ISS) designed to provide radio communications between crewmembers and the ground or nearby Soyuz spacecraft.
Vostok 1 (Восто́к, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first manned spaceflight in history.
Wi-Fi or WiFi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.
Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content.
Windows 10 (codenamed Redstone, formerly Threshold) is a personal computer operating system developed and released by Microsoft, as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
Windows 2000 (codenamed NT 5.0) is an operating system for use on both client and server computers.
Windows 7 (codenamed Vienna, formerly Blackcomb) is a personal computer operating system developed by Microsoft.
Windows 95 (codenamed Chicago) is a consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft.
Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a wireless computer network that links two or more devices using wireless communication within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building.
A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes.
The Yoshinobu Launch Complex, also known as Launch Area Y, Area Y or LA-Y, is a launch complex at the Tanegashima Space Centre, located on Tanegashima, the Japanese island located 115 km south of Kyūshū.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
Yuriy Semenov (born September 5, 1929, in Sverdlovsk, USSR) - Soviet and Russian historian, philosopher, anthropologist, expert on the history of philosophy, history of primitive society, and the theory of knowledge.
Zarya (Dawn), also known as the Functional Cargo Block or FGB (from the Funktsionalno-gruzovoy blok or ФГБ), is the first module of the International Space Station to be launched.
The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere.
Zvezda (Звезда́, meaning "star"), DOS-8, also known as the Zvezda Service Module, is a component of the International Space Station (ISS).