151 relations: Academy of sciences, Acid rain, Adenine, Alanine, Alcohol, Allies of World War II, American Chemical Society, Amine, Amino acid, Analyte, Antarctica, Anthropology, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Assay, August Kekulé, Calorimetry, CAS Registry Number, Catenation, Chemical & Engineering News, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical industry, Chemical nomenclature, Chemical weapon, Chemical Weapons Convention, Chemistry, Chlorate, Chlorine, Chlorophyll, Coefficient, Colloid, Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights, Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature, Curriculum, Cyclic compound, Cyclohexanol, Cysteine, Cytosine, Diffusion equation, DNA, East Germany, Ecoregion, Ecosystem, Ecotoxicology, English language, Environment (biophysical), Environmental science, European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences, ..., European Polymer Federation, Flocculation, Fractal, Global warming, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Guanine, Heavy metals, Histidine, Homology (biology), Humic acid, Inorganic compound, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, International, International Chemical Identifier, International Conference on Green Chemistry, International Council for Science, International non-governmental organization, International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, International Year of Chemistry, Ion, Isoleucine, IUPAC books, IUPAC Inorganic Chemistry Division, IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry, IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, Ketone, Leucine, List of chemical elements naming controversies, List of chemistry societies, Lysine, Methionine, Microtechnology, National adhering organizations, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Nazi Germany, Nomenclature, North Carolina, Nucleotide, Organic compound, Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, Organism, Pacific Ocean, Parameter, Particle, Periodic table, Phenylalanine, Photochemistry, Potassium, Potassium chlorate, Proline, Protein, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Purine, Pyrimidine, Pyrrolysine, Queen Mary University of London, Research Triangle Park, Rheometer, Risk assessment, RNA, Scattering, Selenocysteine, Serine, Simplified molecular-input line-entry system, Society of Polymer Science, Spectroscopy, Standards organization, Substituent, Surface tension, Switzerland, Syrian Civil War, Terrestrial animal, Thermal analysis, Thermal conductivity, Thermodynamic state, Threonine, Thymine, Toxicology, Trace metal, Tryptophan, Turin, Tyrosine, UNESCO, United States, Uracil, Valine, Van der Waals equation, Victor Gold (chemist), Virial theorem, West Germany, Wiley-Blackwell, Working group, World, World War I, World War II, XML, Zürich, Zhou Qifeng. Expand index (101 more) » « Shrink index
An academy of sciences is a type of learned society or academy (as special scientific institution) dedicated to sciences that may or may not be state funded.
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An analyte, component (in clinical chemistry), or chemical species is a substance or chemical constituent that is of interest in an analytical procedure.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Asparagine (symbol Asn or N), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).
Friedrich August Kekulé, later Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz (7 September 1829 – 13 July 1896), was a German organic chemist.
Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints.
A CAS Registry Number, also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).
In chemistry, catenation is the bonding of atoms of the same element into a series, called a chain.
Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN) is a weekly trade magazine published by the American Chemical Society, providing professional and technical information in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
The chlorate anion has the formula.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of a polynomial, a series or any expression; it is usually a number, but may be any expression.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW) is an international scientific committee of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) under its Division of Inorganic Chemistry.
The Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature is a book published by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) containing internationally accepted definitions for terms in analytical chemistry.
In education, a curriculum (plural: curricula or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process.
A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.
Cyclohexanol is the organic compound with the formula HOCH(CH2)5.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
The diffusion equation is a partial differential equation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Ecotoxicology is the study of the effects of toxic chemicals on biological organisms, especially at the population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere levels.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
The European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS) is a European non-profit organisation which promotes collaboration between non-profit scientific and technical societies in the field of chemistry.
The European Polymer Federation (EPF), established in 1986, is an umbrella organization of national polymer societies and groups in Europe.
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.
In mathematics, a fractal is an abstract object used to describe and simulate naturally occurring objects.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Humic acids are the result of a severe chemical extraction from the soil organic matter, and recently their natural existence was jeopardized, since it is a product of the chemical procedure.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), located in Geel, Belgium, is one of the seven institutes of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate-General of the European Commission (EC).
International mostly means something (a company, language, or organization) involving more than a single country.
The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI or) is a textual identifier for chemical substances, designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web.
The International IUPAC Conferences on Green Chemistry (ICGCs) gather several hundreds scientists, technologists, and experts from all over the world with the aim to exchange and disseminate new ideas, discoveries, and projects on green chemistry and a sustainable development.
The International Council for Science (ICSU, after its former name, International Council of Scientific Unions) is an international organization devoted to international cooperation in the advancement of science.
An international non-governmental organization (INGO) has the same mission as a non-governmental organization (NGO), but it is international in scope and has outposts around the world to deal with specific issues in many countries.
The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) is an international non-governmental organisation concerned with biochemistry and molecular biology.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) is an international non-governmental organization whose mission is to assist in the worldwide development of physics, to foster international cooperation in physics, and to help in the application of physics toward solving problems of concern to humanity.
The International Year of Chemistry 2011 (IYC 2011) was a year-long commemorative event for the achievements of chemistry and its contributions to humankind.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Isoleucine (symbol Ile or I) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry publishes many books, which contain its complete list of definitions.
The Inorganic Chemistry Division of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), also known as Division II, deals with all aspects of inorganic chemistry, including materials and bioinorganic chemistry, and also with isotopes, atomic weights and the periodic table.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.
In chemical nomenclature, the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The currently accepted names and symbols of the chemical elements are determined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), usually following recommendations by the recognized discoverers of each element.
The following is a list of chemistry societies.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
Microtechnology is technology with features near one micrometre (one millionth of a metre, or 10−6 metre, or 1μm).
National Adhering Organizations in chemistry are the organizations that work as the authoritative power over chemistry in an individual country.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an intergovernmental organisation and the implementing body for the Chemical Weapons Convention, which entered into force on 29 April 1997.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
A parameter (from the Ancient Greek παρά, para: "beside", "subsidiary"; and μέτρον, metron: "measure"), generally, is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a particular system (meaning an event, project, object, situation, etc.). That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or critical, when identifying the system, or when evaluating its performance, status, condition, etc.
In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen atoms, with the molecular formula KClO3.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
Pyrrolysine (symbol Pyl or O; encoded by the 'amber' stop codon UAG) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins in some methanogenic archaea and bacteria; it is not present in humans.
Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The Research Triangle Park (RTP) is one of the largest research parks in the world.
A rheometer is a laboratory device used to measure the way in which a liquid, suspension or slurry flows in response to applied forces.
Risk assessment is the determination of quantitative or qualitative estimate of risk related to a well-defined situation and a recognized threat (also called hazard).
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
Selenocysteine (symbol Sec or U, in older publications also as Se-Cys) is the 21st proteinogenic amino acid.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings.
The Society of Polymer Science is a Japanese non-profit organization that studies polymer science with a focus on Japan but also internationally.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of a group of affected adopters.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, spiders), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or newts).
Thermal analysis is a branch of materials science where the properties of materials are studied as they change with temperature.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
For thermodynamics, a thermodynamic state of a system is its condition at a specific time, that is fully identified by values of a suitable set of parameters known as state variables, state parameters or thermodynamic variables.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
Trace metals are the metals subset of trace elements; that is, metals normally present in small but measurable amounts in animal and plant cells and tissues and that are a necessary part of nutrition and physiology.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The van der Waals equation (or van der Waals equation of state; named after Johannes Diderik van der Waals) is based on plausible reasons that real gases do not follow the ideal gas law.
Victor Gold FRS FRSC (29 June 1922 – 29 September 1985) was a chemist who served on the faculty of King's College, London.
In mechanics, the virial theorem provides a general equation that relates the average over time of the total kinetic energy, \left\langle T \right\rangle, of a stable system consisting of N particles, bound by potential forces, with that of the total potential energy, \left\langle V_\text \right\rangle, where angle brackets represent the average over time of the enclosed quantity.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
A working group or working party is a group of experts working together to achieve specified goals.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
Zhou Qifeng (born October 1947) is a Chinese chemist and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
I.u.p.a.c, I.u.p.a.c., IUCAP, IUPAC, IUPAC Macromolecular Division, IUPAC Subcommittee on Structure and Properties of Commercial Polymers, IUPAC spelling, International Congress of Applied Chemistry, International Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry, International union of pure and applied chemistry, Iupac, L.u.p.a.c, L.u.p.a.c..