146 relations: Academia pro Interlingua, Africa, Afrihili, Akkadian language, Alexander Gode, Alice Vanderbilt Morris, Ancient Greek, André Martinet, Aramaic language, Artistic language, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'í Faith and auxiliary language, Basic English, Blissymbols, Characteristica universalis, Church Slavonic language, Circuit diagram, Compound (linguistics), Constructed language, Cyrillic script, Delegation for the Adoption of an International Auxiliary Language, Edgar de Wahl, Edward Sapir, Encyclopédie, Energy Systems Language, Engineered language, English language, Esperantido, Esperanto, Esperanto culture, Esperanto orthography, Esperanto vocabulary, Esperantujo, Failure Magazine, First language, Folkspraak, Foreign language, François Sudre (1787–1862), French language, Germanic languages, Giuseppe Peano, Global language system, Globish (Nerrière), Glosa, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Grammar, Greek language, Hearing loss, History of Esperanto, History of Interlingua, ..., Iconicity, Ideogram, Idiom Neutral, Ido language, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Inter-Parliamentary Union, Interglossa, Interlingua, Interlingua–English Dictionary, Interlinguistics, International Association of Academies, International Auxiliary Language Association, International English, International Language Review, International scientific vocabulary, International Sign, International Volapük Academy, Interslavic language, ISO/IEC 646, Joachim Faiguet de Villeneuve, Johann Martin Schleyer, Juraj Križanić, King James Version, Koiné language, Kotava, L. L. Zamenhof, Language, Language death, Language education, Language planning, Latin, Latin script, Latino sine flexione, Léopold Leau, Leopold Pfaundler, Lingua franca, Lingua Franca Nova, Lingwa de planeta, List of mathematical symbols, Loglan, Lojban, Lord's Prayer, Louis Couturat, Mediterranean Lingua Franca, Modern Standard Arabic, Morpheme, Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Mundolinco, Munich, Novial, Occidental language, Oligosynthetic language, Otto Jespersen, Pan-Slavic language, Panorama in Interlingua, Pasigraphy, Philosophical language, Phonology, Phonotactics, Pidgin, Plains Indian Sign Language, Polish language, Portuguese language, Ro (artificial language), Romance languages, Romanid, Romantic nationalism, Russian language, Sambahsa, Schematic, Second-language acquisition, Serbo-Croatian, Solresol, Sona language (artificial), Southern Chakavian, Spanish language, Special English, Spokil, Standard Chinese, Symbol (chemistry), Systems ecology, Toki Pona, Tutonish, Union Mundial pro Interlingua, United Nations, Universal language, Uropi, Volapük, Waldemar Rosenberger, Western Asia, Western Europe, World Esperanto Congress, World language, Written Chinese, Zonal constructed language. Expand index (96 more) » « Shrink index
The Academia pro Interlingua was an organization dedicated to the promotion of international auxiliary languages, and is associated in particular with Prof.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Afrihili (Ni Afrihili Oluga 'the Afrihili language') is a constructed language designed in 1970 by Ghanaian historian K. A. Kumi Attobrah (Kumi Atɔbra) to be used as a lingua franca in all of Africa.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alexander Gottfried Friedrich Gode-von Aesch, or simply Alexander Gode (October 30, 1906 – August 10, 1970), was a German-American linguist, translator and the driving force behind the creation of the auxiliary language Interlingua.
Alice Vanderbilt Shepard Morris (December 7, 1874 – August 15, 1950) was a member of the Vanderbilt family.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
André Martinet (Saint-Alban-des-Villards, 12 April 1908 – Châtenay-Malabry, 16 July 1999) was a French linguist, influential by his work on structural linguistics.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
An artistic language, or artlang, is a constructed language designed for aesthetic pleasure.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Bahá'í Faith teaches that the world should adopt an international auxiliary language, which people would use in addition to their mother tongue.
Basic English is an English-based controlled language created by linguist and philosopher Charles Kay Ogden as an international auxiliary language, and as an aid for teaching English as a second language.
Blissymbols or Blissymbolics was conceived as an ideographic writing system called Semantography consisting of several hundred basic symbols, each representing a concept, which can be composed together to generate new symbols that represent new concepts.
The Latin term characteristica universalis, commonly interpreted as universal characteristic, or universal character in English, is a universal and formal language imagined by the German polymathic genius, mathematician, scientist and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz able to express mathematical, scientific, and metaphysical concepts.
Church Slavonic, also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine.
A circuit diagram (electrical diagram, elementary diagram, electronic schematic) is a graphical representation of an electrical circuit.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The Delegation for the Adoption of an International Auxiliary Language (French: Délégation pour l'Adoption d'une Langue Auxiliaire Internationale) was a body of academics convened in the early part of the 1900s (decade) to decide on the issue of which international auxiliary language should be chosen for international use.
Edgar von Wahl or Edgar de Wahl (23 August 1867 – 9 March 1948) was a Ukrainian-born Estonian teacher, mathematician and linguist.
Edward Sapir (January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939) was a German anthropologist-linguist, who is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the early development of the discipline of linguistics.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.
The Energy Systems Language, also referred to as Energese, Energy Circuit Language, or Generic Systems Symbols, was developed by the ecologist Howard T. Odum and colleagues in the 1950s during studies of the tropical forests funded by the United States Atomic Energy Commission.
Engineered languages (often abbreviated to engelangs, or, less commonly, engilangs) are constructed languages devised to test or prove some hypotheses about how languages work or might work.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An Esperantido is a constructed language derived from Esperanto.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Esperanto speakers have their own culture, on top of being a "gateway" to the culture of the entire world (inherently more-so than most other dominant languages are).
Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case.
Esperanto vocabulary was originally defined in Unua Libro, published by L. L. Zamenhof in 1887.
Esperantujo or Esperantio (Esperanto-land) is the community of speakers of the Esperanto and their culture, as well the places and institutions where the language is used.
Failure Magazine is an online magazine which features stories about failure.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Folkspraak (also Folksprák and Folksprak; from folk 'people' and spraak 'language', meaning "the language of the people") is an incompletely developed at Langmaker zonal constructed language based on Germanic languages and intended to be easy to learn for any native speaker of a Germanic language, making it suitable to be a sort of lingua franca amongst the Germanic languages community.
A foreign language is a language originally from another country.
Jean-François Sudre (15 August 1787 – 3 October 1862) was a violinist, composer and music teacher who invented a musical language called la Langue musicale universelle or Solrésol.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Giuseppe Peano (27 August 1858 – 20 April 1932) was an Italian mathematician and glottologist.
The global language system is the "ingenious pattern of connections between language groups".
Globish is a trademarked name for a subset of the English language formalized by Jean-Paul Nerrière.
Glosa is an international auxiliary language based on a previous draft auxiliary called Interglossa.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.
L. L. Zamenhof developed Esperanto in the 1870s and 80s and published the first publication about it, Unua Libro, in 1887.
The history of Interlingua comprises the formation of the language itself as well as its community of speakers.
In functional-cognitive linguistics, as well as in semiotics, iconicity is the conceived similarity or analogy between the form of a sign (linguistic or otherwise) and its meaning, as opposed to arbitrariness.
An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek ἰδέα idéa "idea" and γράφω gráphō "to write") is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases.
Idiom Neutral is an international auxiliary language, published in 1902 by the International Academy of the Universal Language (Akademi Internasional de Lingu Universal) under the leadership of Waldemar Rosenberger, a St. Petersburg engineer.
Ido is a constructed language, derived from Reformed Esperanto, created to be a universal second language for speakers of diverse backgrounds.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU; Union Interparlementaire) is a global inter-parliamentary institution established in 1889 by Frédéric Passy (France) and William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom).
Interglossa is a constructed language devised by biologist Lancelot Hogben during World War II, as an attempt to put the international lexicon of science and technology, mainly of Greek and Latin origin, into a language with a purely isolating grammar.
Interlingua (ISO 639 language codes ia, ina) is an Italic international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
The Interlingua–English Dictionary (IED), developed by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) under the direction of Alexander Gode and published by Storm Publishers in 1951, is the first Interlingua dictionary.
Interlinguistics is the study of various aspects of linguistic communication.
The International Association of Academies (1899–1913) was an academy designed for the purpose of linking the various Academies around the world, of which the first meeting was held in Paris, France, in 1900.
The International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) was founded in 1924 to "promote widespread study, discussion and publicity of all questions involved in the establishment of an auxiliary language, together with research and experiment that may hasten such establishment in an intelligent manner and on stable foundations." Although it was created to determine which auxiliary language of a wide field of contenders was best suited for international communication, it eventually determined that none of them was up to the task and developed its own language, Interlingua.
International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and also the movement towards an international standard for the language.
The International Language Review (A Clearing House for Facts, Theories and Fancies on the History, Science and Bibliography of International Language Movement, ILR) was a magazine which was intended as a forum for proponents of the various international language projects to discuss and develop their ideas, started in 1955 by Floyd and Evelyn Hardin from Denver, Colorado, and published in 50 issues until 1968 (some other sources state the year to be 1966).
International scientific vocabulary (ISV) comprises scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages (that is, translingually).
International Sign (IS) is a contact variety of sign language used in a variety of different contexts, particularly at international meetings such as the World Federation of the Deaf (WFD) congress, events such as the Deaflympics, in video clips produced by Deaf people and watched by other Deaf people from around the world, and informally when travelling and socialising.
The International Academy of Volapük (Kadem bevünetik volapüka) was a ruling body established at the second Volapük congress in Munich in August 1887 with the goal of preserving and improving Volapük.
Interslavic is a zonal constructed language based on the Slavic languages.
ISO/IEC 646 is the name of a set of ISO standards, described as Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange and developed in cooperation with ASCII at least since 1964.
Joachim Faiguet de Villeneuve (16 October 1703, Moncontour – 10 November 1781, Néris-les-Bains, Allier) was an 18th-century French economist.
Martin Schleyer (18 July 1831 – 16 August 1912) was a German Catholic priest who invented the constructed language Volapük.
Juraj Križanić (c. 1618 – 12 September 1683), also known as Yuriy Krizhanich or Iurii Krizhanich (Крижанич, Юрий), was a Croatian Catholic missionary who is often regarded as the earliest recorded pan-Slavist.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
Kotava is a proposed international auxiliary language (IAL) that focuses especially on the principle of cultural neutrality.
Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof; –), credited as L. L. Zamenhof and sometimes as the pseudonymous Dr.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
Language education refers to the process and practice of acquiring a second or foreign language.
Language planning is a deliberate effort to influence the function, structure, or acquisition of languages or language variety within a speech community.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Latino sine flexione ("Latin without inflections"), Interlingua de Academia pro Interlingua (IL de ApI) or Peano’s Interlingua (abbreviated as IL), is an international auxiliary language compiled by the Academia pro Interlingua under chairmanship of the Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932) in 1887-1914.
Léopold Leau (1868-1943) was a French mathematician, primarily known for his ties to international auxiliary languages.
Leopold Pfaundler von Hadermur (14 February 1839 – 6 May 1920) was an Austrian physicist and chemist born in Innsbruck.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Lingua Franca Nova (abbreviated as LFN or Elefen) is an auxiliary constructed language originally created by C. George Boeree of Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania.
Lingwa de planeta (also Lidepla or LdP) is a constructed international auxiliary language based on the most widely spoken languages of the world, including Arabic, Chinese, English, Spanish, German, Hindi, Persian, Portuguese, Russian and French.
This is a list of symbols used in all branches of mathematics to express a formula or to represent a constant.
Loglan is a constructed language originally designed for linguistic research, particularly for investigating the Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis.
Lojban (pronounced) is a constructed, syntactically unambiguous human language, succeeding the Loglan project.
The Lord's Prayer (also called the Our Father, Pater Noster, or the Model Prayer) is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".
Louis Couturat (17 January 1868 – 3 August 1914) was a French logician, mathematician, philosopher, and linguist.
The Mediterranean Lingua Franca or Sabir was a pidgin language used as a lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th century.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Mundolinco is a constructed language created by the Dutch author J. Braakman in 1888.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Novial is a constructed international auxiliary language (IAL) for universal communication between speakers of different native languages.
The language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned international auxiliary language created by the Balto-German naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl, and published in 1922.
An oligosynthetic language (from the Greek ὀλίγος, meaning "few" or "little") is any language using very few morphemes, perhaps only a hundred, which combine synthetically to form statements.
Jens Otto Harry Jespersen or Otto Jespersen (16 July 1860 – 30 April 1943) was a Danish linguist who specialized in the grammar of the English language.
A pan-Slavic language is a zonal constructed language for communication among Slavic people.
Panorama in Interlingua is the primary periodical for the language Interlingua, published bimonthly.
A pasigraphy (from Greek πᾶσι pasi "to all" and γράφω grapho "to write") is a writing system where each written symbol represents a concept (rather than a word or sound or series of sounds in a spoken language).
A philosophical language is any constructed language that is constructed from first principles, like a logical language, but may entail a strong claim of absolute perfection or transcendent or even mystical truth rather than satisfaction of pragmatic goals.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL), also known as Plains Sign Talk, Plains Sign Language and First Nation Sign Language, is a trade language (or international auxiliary language), formerly trade pidgin, that was once the lingua franca across central Canada, central and western United States and northern Mexico, used among the various Plains Nations.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Ro is an a priori constructed language created by Rev. Edward Powell Foster beginning in 1904.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanid is a zonal constructed language for speakers of Romance languages, intended to be understandable by speakers of the Romance languages without prior study.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Sambahsa or Sambahsa-Mundialect is an international auxiliary language (IAL) devised by French Dr.
A schematic, or schematic diagram, is a representation of the elements of a system using abstract, graphic symbols rather than realistic pictures.
Second-language acquisition (SLA), second-language learning, or L2 (language 2) acquisition, is the process by which people learn a second language.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Solresol (Solfège: Sol-Re-Sol) is a constructed language devised by François Sudre, beginning in 1827.
Sona is a worldlang created by Kenneth Searight and described in a book he published in 1935.
Southern Chakavian (južnočakavski dijalekt) or Ikavian Chakavian is a subdialect of the Chakavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Special English is a controlled version of the English language first used on 19 October 1959, and still presented daily by the United States broadcasting service Voice of America (VOA).
Spokil is a constructed language, created by the Frenchman Adolphe Nicolas.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
In relation to the chemical elements, a symbol is a code for a chemical element.
Systems ecology is an interdisciplinary field of ecology, a subset of Earth system science, that takes a holistic approach to the study of ecological systems, especially ecosystems.
Toki Pona is an oligoisolating constructed language, first published as draft on the web in 2001 and then as a complete book and e-book Toki Pona: The Language of Good in 2014.
Tutonish (also called Teutonish, Teutonik, Allteutonish, Altutonish, Alteutonik, Nu Teutonish, Niu Teutonish, or Neuteutonish) is a constructed language created by Elias Molee.
The Union Mundial pro Interlingua (UMI; World Interlingua Union) is a global organization that promotes Interlingua, an international auxiliary language (IAL) published in 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
Universal language may refer to a hypothetical or historical language spoken and understood by all or most of the world's population.
Uropi is a constructed language which was created by Joël Landais, a French English teacher.
Volapük (in English; in Volapük) is a constructed language, created in 1879 and 1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest in Baden, Germany.
Waldemar Rosenberger, (Vladimir Karlovich Rozenberger, 1848–1918) from Saint Petersburg, Russia, became director of the Volapük Academy in 1892.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The World Esperanto Congress (Universala Kongreso de Esperanto, UK) is an annual Esperanto convention.
A world language is a language that is spoken internationally and is learned and spoken by a large number of people as a second language.
Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.
Zonal constructed languages are constructed languages made to facilitate communication between speakers of a certain group of closely related languages.