234 relations: Admiralty law, Alberico Gentili, Alien (law), Ambatielos case, American Civil War, Americas, Anarchy (international relations), Ancient Rome, Andersonville National Historic Site, Andes, Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. case, Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 case, Aviation law, Axiom, Bakassi, Bolivia, Boll case, Bosnian genocide case, Bretton Woods Conference, Bruno Simma, Burkina Faso–Niger Frontier Dispute case, Burundi, Cambridge University Press, Case Concerning Barcelona Traction, Light, and Power Company, Ltd, Casus belli, Centre for International Law, Chapeau (disambiguation), Charles de Gaulle, Charles Harvey Denby, Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute, Cicero, Collective, Colombia, Commissions of the Danube River, Comparative law, Conference of the parties, Conflict of laws, Congress of Vienna, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Corfu Channel case, Cornelius van Bynkershoek, Court of Arbitration for Sport, Croatia–Serbia genocide case, Customary international law, Declaration of Philadelphia, Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, Diplomacy, Diplomatic law, Diplomatic recognition, ..., Divine retribution, Eclecticism, Ecuador, Emer de Vattel, English law, Enlightened self-interest, Ethics, Europe, European Court of Human Rights, European Court of Justice, European Institute for International Law and International Relations, European Union, European Union law, First Geneva Convention, Fisheries case, Fourth Geneva Convention, Francisco de Vitoria, G20, Geneva Conventions, Genocide, Genocide Convention, Global administrative law, Global policeman, Good faith, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Group of Seven, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hans Morgenthau, History of slavery, Hostis humani generis, Hugo Grotius, Human rights, Index of international public law articles, India, Interdisciplinarity, International community, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, International Court of Justice, International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Criminal Court, International criminal law, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, International human rights law, International humanitarian law, International Labour Organization, International Law Commission, International litigation, International Monetary Fund, International organization, International relations, International trade, International trade law, International waters, Internationalization of the Danube River, Interpol, Israel, Jeremy Bentham, John Austin (legal philosopher), Judiciary, Jurisdiction, Jus gentium, Jus inter gentes, Just war theory, Karl Dönitz, Kellogg–Briand Pact, Kenya, Korean War, Kyoto Protocol, Law, Law dictionary, Law of war, Legal positivism, Legal research, Legal status of the Holy See, Lex Junia Licinia, Libya–Chad Territorial Dispute case, Lieber Code, List of International Court of Justice cases, List of international environmental agreements, List of International Labour Organization Conventions, List of national legal systems, List of treaties, Louis Henkin, Maritime Delimitation in the Black Sea case, Martens Clause, Minquiers and Ecrehos case, Monetary Gold Removed from Rome in 1943 case, Monopoly on violence, Morality, Namibia, Nation, Nation state, Nationalism, Nationality, NATO, Natural law, Netherlands, Nicaragua v. United States, Non-state actor, North American Free Trade Agreement, North Sea Continental Shelf cases, Nottebohm case, Nuremberg trials, Objectivity (philosophy), Opinio juris sive necessitatis, Outer space, Oxford University Press, Pacta sunt servanda, Peace of Westphalia, Peace Palace Library, Penology, Peremptory norm, Permanent Court of Arbitration, Permanent Court of International Justice, Personal jurisdiction over international defendants in the United States, Peru, Pierre-Marie Dupuy, Piracy, Power politics, Prisoner of war, Prize (law), Rafael Domingo Osle, Rationality, Refugee, Refugee law, Roerich Pact, Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Ronald Coase, Rule of law, Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts Project, Rwanda, Second Geneva Convention, Slavery, Sources of international law, Sovereign state, Sovereignty, Space law, Speaking truth to power, State (polity), State immunity, Statute of the International Court of Justice, Supranational law, Supranational union, Supreme Court of the United States, Tanzania, Taylor & Francis, Territorial dispute, The Hague, The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, Theology, Third Geneva Convention, Third World Approaches to International Law, Torture, Transnational crime, Treaty, Uganda, UNIDROIT, United Nations, United Nations Charter, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 377, United Nations General Assembly Sixth Committee, United Nations Human Rights Committee, United Nations Security Council, United States, United States Congress, United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Universal jurisdiction, University for Peace, University of Salamanca, Unrestricted submarine warfare, Use of force, Validity, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, War of aggression, Westphalian sovereignty, World Bank, World Trade Organization, World War II. 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Admiralty law or maritime law is a body of law that governs nautical issues and private maritime disputes.
Alberico Gentili (January 14, 1552June 19, 1608) was an Italian lawyer, jurist, and a former standing advocate to the Spanish Embassy in London, who served as the Regius professor of civil law at the University of Oxford for 21 years.
In law, an alien is a person who is not a national of a given country, though definitions and terminology differ to some degree.
Greece v United Kingdom (also called the Ambatielos Case) is a public international law case, concerning state responsibility for economic damage.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
In international relations theory, anarchy is the idea that the world lacks any supreme authority or sovereign.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Andersonville National Historic Site, located near Andersonville, Georgia, preserves the former Camp Sumter (also known as Andersonville Prison), a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp during the final twelve months of the American Civil War.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
The United Kingdom v Iran (also known as the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. case) was a public international law dispute between the UK and Iran.
Case Concerning the Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo v Belgium) was a public international law case before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) with a judgment issued on 14 February 2002.
Aviation law is the branch of law that concerns flight, air travel, and associated legal and business concerns.
An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.
Bakassi is a peninsula on the Gulf of Guinea.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Netherlands v Sweden (also known as the Boll case) was heard before the International Court of Justice in 1958.
Bosnia and Herzegovina v Serbia and Montenegro (also called the Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide) is a public international law case decided by the International Court of Justice.
The Bretton Woods Conference, formally known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, was the gathering of 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II.
Bruno Simma (born March 29, 1941 in Quierschied, Germany), is a German jurist who served as a judge on the International Court of Justice from 2003 until 2012.
The Burkina Faso-Niger frontier dispute case (2013) was a public international law case with the International Court of Justice served by the West African states of Burkina Faso and Niger, which share a border.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Case Concerning Barcelona Traction, Light, and Power Company, Ltd is a public international law case, concerning the abuse of rights.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
The Centre for International Law (CIL) was established in 2009 at the National University of Singapore’s Bukit Timah Campus in response to the growing need for international law expertise and capacity building in the Asia-Pacific region.
A chapeau is a flat-topped hat once worn by senior clerics.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Colonel Charles Denby (June 16, 1830 – January 13, 1904) was a U.S. Union officer in the Civil War and diplomat.
Peru v Chile (also called the Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute) is a public international law case concerning a territorial dispute between the South American republics of Peru and Chile over the sovereignty of an area at sea in the Pacific Ocean approximately in size.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together to achieve a common objective.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
See Internationalization of the Danube River for events before 1856. The Commissions of the Danube River were authorized by the Treaty of Paris (1856) after the close of the Crimean War.
Comparative law is the study of differences and similarities between the law of different countries.
A conference of the parties (COP; Conférence des Parties, CP) is the governing body of an international convention.
Conflict of laws concerns relations across different legal jurisdictions between natural persons, companies, corporations and other legal entities, their legal obligations and the appropriate forum and procedure for resolving disputes between them.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly.
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is an international human rights treaty of the United Nations intended to protect the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities.
The Corfu Channel case (Affaire du Détroit de Corfou) was the first public international law case heard before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) between 1947 and 1949, concerning state responsibility for damages at sea, as well as the doctrine of innocent passage.
Cornelis van Bijnkershoek (a.k.a. Cornelius van Bynkershoek) (29 May 1673, Middelburg – 16 April 1743, The Hague) was a Dutch jurist and legal theorist who contributed to the development of international law in works like De Dominio Maris Dissertatio (1702); Observationes Juris Romani (1710), of which a continuation in four books appeared in 1733; the treatise De foro legatorum (1721); and the Quaestiones Juris Publici (1737).
The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS; Tribunal arbitral du sport, TAS) is an international quasi-judicial body established to settle disputes related to sport through arbitration.
The Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Croatia v. Serbia) was heard before the International Court of Justice.
Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.
The Declaration of Philadelphia (10 May 1944) restated the traditional objectives of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and then branched out in two new directions: the centrality of human rights to social policy, and the need for international economic planning.
The Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work was adopted in 1998, at the 86th International Labour Conference.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
Diplomatic law is that area of international law that governs permanent and temporary diplomatic missions.
Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).
Divine retribution is supernatural punishment of a person, a group of people, or everyone by a deity in response to some action.
Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Emer (Emmerich) de Vattel (25 April 1714 – 28 December 1767) was an international lawyer.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
Enlightened self-interest is a philosophy in ethics which states that persons who act to further the interests of others (or the interests of the group or groups to which they belong), ultimately serve their own self-interest.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Institute for International Law and International Relations (EIIR) is an independent policy institute and N.P. organisation which represents a center dedicated to studies and research on international law, international relations, strategic topics and social life.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.
The First Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, held on 22 August 1864, is the first of four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
The United Kingdom v Norway also known as the Fisheries Case was the culmination of a dispute, originating in 1933, over how large an area of water surrounding Norway was Norwegian waters (that Norway thus had exclusive fishing rights to) and how much was 'high seas' (that the UK could thus fish).
The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, commonly referred to as the Fourth Geneva Convention and abbreviated as GCIV, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
Francisco de Vitoria (– 12 August 1546; also known as Francisco de Victoria) was a Roman Catholic philosopher, theologian, and jurist of Renaissance Spain.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260.
Global administrative law is an emerging field that is based upon a dual insight: that much of what is usually termed “global governance” can be accurately characterized as administrative action; and that increasingly such action is itself being regulated by administrative law-type principles, rules and mechanisms – in particular those relating to participation, transparency, accountability and review.
Global policeman is an informal term for a state which seeks or claims global hegemony.
Good faith (bona fides), in human interactions, is a sincere intention to be fair, open, and honest, regardless of the outcome of the interaction.
The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, or the Graduate Institute (in French: Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement (previously known as Institut (universitaire) de hautes études internationales), abbreviated IHEID (previously HEI, IHEI, or IUHEI) is a post-graduate university located in Geneva, Switzerland. The institution counts one UN secretary-general (Kofi Annan), seven Nobel Prize recipients, one Pulitzer Prize winner, and numerous ambassadors, foreign ministers, and heads of state among its alumni and faculty. Founded by two senior League of Nations officials, the Graduate Institute maintains strong links with that international organisation's successor, the United Nations, and many alumni have gone on to work at UN agencies. The school is a full member of the APSIA. Founded in 1927, the Graduate Institute of International Studies (IHEI or HEI) is continental Europe's oldest school of international relations and was the world's first university dedicated solely to the study of international affairs. It offered one of the first doctoral programmes in international relations in the world. In 2008, the Graduate Institute absorbed the Graduate Institute of Development Studies, a smaller post-graduate institution also based in Geneva founded in 1961. The merger resulted in the current Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies. Today the school enrolls about 800 graduate students from over 100 countries. Foreign students make up nearly 80% of the student body and the school is officially a bilingual English-French institution, although the majority of classes are in English.. With Maison de la Paix acting as its primary seat of learning, the Institute's campuses are located blocks from the United Nations Office at Geneva, International Labour Organization, World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, International Committee of the Red Cross, World Intellectual Property Organization and many other international organizations. It runs joint degree programmes with universities such as Smith College and Yale University, and is Harvard Kennedy School's only partner university to co-deliver double degrees.
The Group of Seven (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
Hans Joachim Morgenthau (February 17, 1904 – July 19, 1980) was one of the major twentieth-century figures in the study of international politics.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
Hostis humani generis (Latin for "enemy of mankind") is a legal term of art that originates in admiralty law.
Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
List of international public law topics: This is a comprehensive list of pages dealing with public international law, i.e. those areas of law dealing with the United Nations System and the Law of Nations.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
The international community is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world.
The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) is a United Nations convention.
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families is a United Nations multilateral treaty governing the protection of migrant workers and families.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons
Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons is a landmark international law case, where the International Court of Justice gave an advisory opinion stating that there is no source of law, customary or treaty, that explicitly prohibits the possession or even use of nuclear weapons.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
International criminal law is a body of public international law designed to prohibit certain categories of conduct commonly viewed as serious atrocities and to make perpetrators of such conduct criminally accountable for their perpetration.
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR; Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda; Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho u Rwanda) was an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 955 in order to judge people responsible for the Rwandan genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994.
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
International human rights law (IHRL) is the body of international law designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
The International Law Commission was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 for the "promotion of the progressive development of international law and its codification." It holds an annual session at the United Nations Office at Geneva.
International litigation, sometimes called transnational litigation, is the practice of litigation in connection with disputes among businesses or individuals residing or based in different countries.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
International trade law includes the appropriate rules and customs for handling trade between countries.
The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands.
The Danube River has been a trade waterway for centuries, but with the rise of international borders and the jealousies of national states, commerce and shipping has often been hampered for narrow reasons.
The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
John Austin (3 March 1790 – 1 December 1859) was a noted English legal theorist who strongly influenced British and American law with his analytical approach to jurisprudence and his theory of legal positivism.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
The ius gentium or jus gentium (Latin for "law of nations") is a concept of international law within the ancient Roman legal system and Western law traditions based on or influenced by it.
Jus inter gentes, is the body of treaties, U.N. conventions, and other international agreements.
Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum iustum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers.
Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz;; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
The Kellogg–Briand Pact (or Pact of Paris, officially General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy) is a 1928 international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them".
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
A law dictionary is a dictionary that is designed and compiled to give information about terms used in the field of law.
The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).
Legal positivism is a school of thought of analytical jurisprudence, largely developed by eighteenth- and nineteenth-century legal thinkers such as Jeremy Bentham and John Austin.
Legal research is "the process of identifying and retrieving information necessary to support legal decision-making.
The legal status of the Holy See, the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, both in state practice and according to the writing of modern legal scholars, is that of a full subject of public international law, with rights and duties analogous to those of States.
The Lex Junia Licinia or Lex Junia et Licinia was an ancient Roman law produced in 62 BC that confirmed the similar Lex Caecilia Didia of 98 BC.
The Case Concerning the Territorial Dispute (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya v. Chad) ICJ 1 is a public international law case before the International Court of Justice on 3 February 1994.
The Lieber Code of April 24, 1863, also known as Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, General Order № 100, or Lieber Instructions, was an instruction signed by US President Abraham Lincoln to the Union Forces of the United States during the American Civil War that dictated how soldiers should conduct themselves in wartime.
This is a list of contentious cases and advisory opinions brought to the International Court of Justice since its creation in 1946.
This is a list of international environmental agreements.
The list of International Labour Organization Conventions totals 190 laws which aim to improve the labour standards of people around the world.
The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.
This list of treaties contains known historic agreements, pacts, peaces, and major contracts between states, armies, governments, and tribal groups.
Louis Henkin (November 11, 1917 – October 14, 2010), widely considered one of the most influential contemporary scholars of international law and the foreign policy of the United States, was a former president of the American Society of International Law and of the American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy and University Professor emeritus at Columbia Law School.
The Case concerning maritime delimitation in the Black Sea (Romania v Ukraine) was a decision of the International Court of Justice (ICJ).
The Martens Clause (pronounced) was introduced into the preamble to the 1899 Hague Convention II – Laws and Customs of War on Land.
France v United Kingdom (also called the Minquiers and Ecrehos Case) was an International Court of Justice case concerning sovereignty over seas.
Italy v France, United Kingdom and United States ICJ 2 (also called the Monetary Gold Removed from Rome in 1943 Case) was part of a long-running dispute over the fate of Nazi gold that was originally seized from Rome.
The monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force, also known as the monopoly on violence (Gewaltmonopol des Staates), is a core concept of modern public law, which goes back to Jean Bodin's 1576 work Les Six livres de la République and Thomas Hobbes' 1651 book Leviathan.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Republic of Nicaragua v. The United States of America (1986) is a public international law case decided by the International Court of Justice (ICJ).
In international relations, non-state actors (NSAs) are individuals and groups that hold influence and which are wholly or partly independent of state governments.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
Germany v Denmark and the Netherlands (also known as The North Sea Continental Shelf cases) were a series of disputes that came to the International Court of Justice in 1969.
Nottebohm case (Liechtenstein v. Guatemala) is the proper name for the 1955 case adjudicated by the International Court of Justice (ICJ).
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.
Opinio juris sive necessitatis ("an opinion of law or necessity") or simply opinio juris ("an opinion of law") is the belief that an action was carried out as a legal obligation.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pacta sunt servanda (Latin for "agreements must be kept"), a brocard, is a basic principle of civil law, canon law, and international law.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
The Peace Palace Library is a collection of studies and references specializing in international law.
Penology (from "penal", Latin poena, "punishment" and the Greek suffix -logia, "study of") is a section of criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice of various societies in their attempts to repress criminal activities, and satisfy public opinion via an appropriate treatment regime for persons convicted of criminal offences.
A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens or ius cogens; Latin for "compelling law") is a fundamental principle of international law that is accepted by the international community of states as a norm from which no derogation is permitted.
The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) is an intergovernmental organization located at The Hague in the Netherlands.
The Permanent Court of International Justice, often called the World Court, existed from 1922 to 1946.
Questions over personal jurisdiction over international defendants in the United States arise when foreign nationals commit crimes against Americans, or when a person from or in a different country is sued in U.S. courts, or when events took place in another country.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Pierre-Marie Dupuy (born October 5, 1946 in Paris) is a French jurist.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Power politics (or, in German, Machtpolitik) is a form of international relations in which sovereign entities protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic or political aggression.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Prize is a term used in admiralty law to refer to equipment, vehicles, vessels, and cargo captured during armed conflict.
Rafael Domingo Oslé (born in 1963 in Logroño, La Rioja (Spain)) is a Spanish jurist, legal theorist and professor of law who is specialized in ancient Roman law, Comparative law, law and religion, and Global law.
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
Refugee law is the branch of international law which deals with the rights and protection of refugees.
The Treaty on the Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments or Roerich Pact is an inter-American treaty.
The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Ronald Harry Coase (29 December 1910 – 2 September 2013) was a British economist and author.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
The Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts Project (RULAC Project) is an initiative of the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights to support the application and implementation of the international law of armed conflict.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
The Second Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
International law is the name of a body of rules which regulate the conduct of sovereign states in their relations with one another.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Space law encompasses national and international law governing activities in outer space.
Speaking truth to power is a non-violent political tactic, employed by dissidents against the received wisdom or propaganda of governments they regard as oppressive, authoritarian or an ideocracy.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
The doctrine and rules of state immunity concern the protection which a state is given from being sued in the courts of other states.
The Statute of the International Court of Justice is an integral part of the United Nations Charter, as specified by Chapter XIV of the United Nations Charter, which established the International Court of Justice.
Supranational law is a form of international law, based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another.
A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more territorial entities or over the possession or control of land, usually between a new state and the occupying power.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, first published by the Oxford University Press in 1941, is an 1100-page book listing short quotations that are common in English language and culture.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
The Third Geneva Convention, relative to the treatment of prisoners of war, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
Third World Approaches to International Law (TWAIL) is an Indonesia-based critical school of international legal scholarship and an intellectual and political movement.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Transnational crimes are crimes that have actual or potential effect across national borders and crimes that are intrastate but offend fundamental values of the international community.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
UNIDROIT (formally, the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law; French: Institut international pour l'unification du droit privé) is an intergovernmental organization on harmonization of private international law; its projects include drafting of international conventions and production of model laws.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolution 377 A, the "Uniting for Peace" resolution, states that in any cases where the Security Council, because of a lack of unanimity amongst its five permanent members, fails to act as required to maintain international peace and security, the General Assembly shall consider the matter immediately and may issue any recommendations it deems necessary in order to restore international peace and security.
The United Nations General Assembly Sixth Committee the (Legal Committee) is the last of the six main committees of the United Nations General Assembly.
The United Nations Human Rights Committee is a United Nations body of 18 experts that meets three times a year for four-week sessions (spring session at UN headquarters in New York, summer and fall sessions at the UN Office in Geneva) to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by 169 UN member states on their compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ICCPR, and any individual petitions concerning 116 States parties to the Optional Protocol.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
United States v Iran (also called the Case Concerning United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran) is a public international law case (issued in two decisions) brought to the International Court of Justice by the United States of America against Iran in response to the Iran hostage crisis, where United States diplomatic offices and personnel were seized by militant revolutionaries.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Universal jurisdiction allows states or international organizations to claim criminal jurisdiction over an accused person regardless of where the alleged crime was committed, and regardless of the accused's nationality, country of residence, or any other relation with the prosecuting entity.
The University for Peace (UPEACE) is an intergovernmental organization with university status, established by treaty in 1980 and having its main campus in Costa Rica.
The University of Salamanca (Universidad de Salamanca) is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the city of Salamanca, west of Madrid, in the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as "cruiser rules").
The use of force, in the context of law enforcement, may be defined as the "amount of effort required by police to compel compliance by an unwilling subject".
In logic, an argument is valid if and only if it takes a form that makes it impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion nevertheless to be false.
The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) is a treaty concerning the international law on treaties between states.
A war of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged without the justification of self-defense, usually for territorial gain and subjugation.
Westphalian sovereignty, or state sovereignty, is the principle of international law that each nation-state has exclusive sovereignty over its territory.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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