322 relations: A. F. K. Organski, Aberystwyth, Aberystwyth University, Absolute gain (international relations), Academy, Adam Smith, Advocacy group, African Development Bank, African Union, Al-Qaeda, Alexander Wendt, Alfred Eckhard Zimmern, Amnesty International, Anarchy (international relations), Andrew Hurrell, Andrew Linklater, Anno Domini, Anthropology, Arab League, Area studies, Arthashastra, Asian Development Bank, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Balance of power (international relations), Bank for International Settlements, Barcelona, Barry Buzan, BRICS, Bureaucracy, Captive market, Carl von Clausewitz, Carol Cohn, Carolina Academic Press, Chanakya, Charles P. Kindleberger, China, Cold War, Collective security, Collective Security Treaty Organization, Colonialism, Columbia Encyclopedia, Committee on International Relations (University of Chicago), Commonwealth of Independent States, Communication studies, Communism, Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations, Comparative religion, Constructivism (international relations), Constructivist epistemology, ..., Copenhagen criteria, Core–periphery structure, Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific, Council of Europe, Court of Justice of the African Union, Criminology, Critical international relations theory, Critical theory, Cultural studies, Culture, Culturology, Cynthia Enloe, David Davies, 1st Baron Davies, Decolonization, Democracy, Democratic peace theory, Demography, Dependency theory, Diaspora, Diaspora politics, Diplomacy, Diplomatic history, Discipline (academia), Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Markwell, E. H. Carr, Early modern period, Ecology, Economic Community of West African States, Economic development, Economics, Engineering, Enlargement of the European Union, Epistemology, Ethnic conflict, Eurasian Development Bank, Eurasian Economic Union, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Court of Human Rights, European Court of Justice, European Institute for International Law and International Relations, European Union, Explanatory power, Feminism (international relations), Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Foreign policy, Francis Fukuyama, Francisco de Vitoria, Frankfurt School, French Revolution, G20, Gender studies, Geneva, Georgetown University, Glendon College, Global financial system, Global studies, Globalization, Government, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Great Britain, Great power, Group of Eight, Groupthink, GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, Hans Köchler, Hans Morgenthau, Hard power, Harry S. Truman, Harvard University, Hedley Bull, Hegemonic stability theory, Hegemony, Helen Milner, Historical nuclear weapons stockpiles and nuclear tests by country, History, History of colonialism, History of the Peloponnesian War, Holy Roman Empire, Hugo Grotius, Human nature, Human rights, Human Rights Watch, Human security, Humanities, Idealism, Immanuel Kant, Inherent bad faith model, Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Inter-American Development Bank, Interdisciplinarity, Intergovernmental organization, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Court of Justice, International Criminal Court, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, International law, International Monetary Fund, International non-governmental organization, International Organization, International organization, International political economy, International sanctions, International security, International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, Interventionism (politics), Iraq War, Islam, Islamic Development Bank, Islamic state, J. Ann Tickner, Japan, Jean Bodin, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Foster Dulles, John Ikenberry, John Locke, John Maynard Keynes, Joseph Grieco, Joseph Nye, Kathryn Sikkink, Ken Booth (academic), Kenneth Waltz, Law, League of Nations, Leviathan (Hobbes book), Liberal internationalism, Liberalism, Liberalism (international relations), Liberation movement, Lisa Martin, List of international relations institutes and organisations, List of international relations journals, Lobbying, London School of Economics, Maritime Security Regimes, Mark Blyth, Martha Finnemore, Marxism, Michael N. Barnett, Michael Roskin, Michael W. Doyle, Michael Walzer, Middle East, Montague Burton Professor of International Relations, Montesquieu, Moral Man and Immoral Society, Multilateralism, Multinational corporation, Munich Agreement, Muslim, Muslim world, Name and shame, Nation state, National interest, Nationalism, NATO, Natural law, Neoliberalism (international relations), New Development Bank, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nobel Peace Prize, Non-governmental organization, Non-state actor, Norman Angell, Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Normative, Normative statement, Nuclear proliferation, Ole Holsti, Ontology, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Organization of American States, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, Organized crime, Palestine Liberation Organization, Paul Kennedy, Paul Raskin, Peace economics, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Calvocoressi, Philip Noel-Baker, Philosophy, Polarity (international relations), Political freedom, Political science, Politics, Polity, Positive statement, Post-structural feminism, Postgraduate education, Postmodernism (international relations), Power transition theory, Psychology, Public policy, Ramon Llull University, Rational choice theory, Rawi Abdelal, Realism (international relations), Regime theory, Reinhold Niebuhr, Relative gain (international relations), Religious war, Republic, Robert Cooper (strategist), Robert Gilpin, Robert H. Jackson, Robert Keohane, Robert W. Cox, Rorden Wilkinson, Sara Ruddick, School of Foreign Service, September 11 attacks, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Social science, Social theory, Social work, Sociology, Soft power, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, South–South cooperation, Sovereign state, Sovereignty, Status quo, Stephen D. Krasner, Strategic studies, Structure and agency, Sudetenland, Sumer, Sun Tzu, Superpower, Susan Fiske, Sustainability, Switzerland, Tacit assumption, Technology, Ted Hopf, Terrorism, The Art of War, The Globalization of World Politics, The Prince, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, Thirty Years' War, Thomas Hobbes, Thucydides, Treaty of Utrecht, Truman Doctrine, Tufts University, Union of South American Nations, United Nations, United Nations Commission on Human Rights, United Nations Human Rights Committee, United Nations Human Rights Council, United Nations Security Council, United States, University of Chicago, University of Wales, War, War studies, Warsaw Pact, William Wohlforth, Woodrow Wilson, World Bank, World Trade Organization, World view, World War I, World War II, World-system, 4-digit UNESCO Nomenclature. Expand index (272 more) » « Shrink index
Abramo Fimo Kenneth Organski (12 May 1923 – 6 March 1998) was Professor of Political Science at the University of Michigan, the founder of Power transition theory and a co-founder of Decision Insights, Inc.
Aberystwyth (Mouth of the Ystwyth) is a historic market town, administrative centre, and holiday resort within Ceredigion, West Wales, often colloquially known as Aber.
Aberystwyth University (Prifysgol Aberystwyth) is a public research university in Aberystwyth, Wales.
According to liberal international relations theory, absolute gain is what international actors look at in determining their interests, weighing out the total effects of a decision on the state or organization and acting accordingly.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy.
The African Development Bank Group (AfDB) or Banque Africaine de Développement (BAD) is a multilateral development finance institution.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Alexander Wendt (born 12 June 1958) is a German political scientist who is one of the core social constructivist scholars in the field of international relations.
Sir Alfred Eckhard Zimmern (1879–1957) was a British classical scholar and historian, and political scientist writing on international relations.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
In international relations theory, anarchy is the idea that the world lacks any supreme authority or sovereign.
Andrew Hurrell, FBA is Montague Burton Professor of International Relations and a Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, since 2007.
Andrew Linklater FAcSS (born 8 March 1949 in Aberdeen, Scotlandhttp://www.debretts.com/people/biographies/browse/l/24326/Andrew+LINKLATER.aspx) is an international relations academic, and is the current Woodrow Wilson Professor of International Politics at Aberystwyth University.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
Area studies (also: regional studies) are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions.
The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a multilateral development bank that aims to support the building of infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
The balance of power theory in international relations suggests that national security is enhanced when military capability is distributed so that no one state is strong enough to dominate all others.
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Barry Gordon Buzan (born 28 April 1946) is Emeritus Professor of International Relations at the London School of Economics and honorary professor at the University of Copenhagen and Jilin University.
BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
Captive markets are markets where the potential consumers face a severely limited number of competitive suppliers; their only choices are to purchase what is available or to make no purchase at all.
Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (1 June 1780 – 16 November 1831)Bassford, Christopher (2002).
Carol Cohn Ph.D is the founding director of the Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights and a Lecturer of Women's Studies at the University of Massachusetts Boston.
Carolina Academic Press (also known as CAP) is an academic publisher of books and software.
Chanakya (IAST:,; fl. c. 4th century BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor.
Charles Poor "Charlie" Kindleberger (October 12, 1910 – July 7, 2003) was an economic historian and author of over 30 books.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement, political, regional, or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and therefore commits to a collective response to threats to, and breaches to peace.
The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizacija Dogovora o Kollektivnoj Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed on 15 May 1992.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
The Committee on International Relations (CIR) is a one-year master's degree graduate program in the Division of Social Sciences at the University of Chicago.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Communication studies or communication sciences is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations (Сообщество за демократию и права народов), also commonly known as Commonwealth of Unrecognized States, rarely as CIS-2 (Содружество непризнанных государств, СНГ-2), is an international organisation uniting several states in the former Soviet Union, all of which have limited recognition from the international community.
Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions.
In international relations, constructivism is the claim that significant aspects of international relations are historically and socially constructed, rather than inevitable consequences of human nature or other essential characteristics of world politics.
Constructivist epistemology is a branch in philosophy of science maintaining that scientific knowledge is constructed by the scientific community, who seek to measure and construct models of the natural world.
The Copenhagen Criteria are the rules that define whether a country is eligible to join the European Union.
Core–periphery structures are commonly found in economic and social networks.
The Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific (CSCAP) is a "non-governmental (second track) process for dialogue on security issues in Asia Pacific." There are currently twenty one member committees of CSCAP (from Australia, Cambodia, Canada, the European Union, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, New Zealand, North Korea, Papua New Guinea, the People's Republic of China, the Philippines, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, the United States of America, and Vietnam) and one observer (from the Pacific Islands Forum).
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Court of Justice of the African Union was originally intended to be the "principal judicial organ" of the African Union (Protocol of the Court of Justice of the African Union, Article 2.2) with authority to rule on disputes over interpretation of AU treaties.
Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.
Critical international relations theory is a diverse set of schools of thought in international relations (IR) that have criticized the theoretical, meta-theoretical and/or political status quo, both in IR theory and in international politics more broadly — from positivist as well as postpositivist positions.
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Culturology or science of culture is a branch of social sciences concerned with the scientific understanding, description, analysis, and prediction of cultures as a whole.
Cynthia Holden Enloe (born July 16, 1938) is a feminist writer, theorist, and professor.
David Davies, 1st Baron Davies (11 May 1880 – 16 June 1944), was a Welsh Liberal politician and public benefactor, the grandson of the industrialist, David Davies "Llandinam".
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Democratic peace theory is a theory which posits that democracies are hesitant to engage in armed conflict with other identified democracies.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.
Diaspora politics is the political behavior of transnational ethnic diasporas, their relationship with their ethnic homelands and their host states, and their prominent role in ethnic conflicts.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
Diplomatic history deals with the history of international relations between states.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
For the Montgomery, Alabama, talk radio personality, see Don Markwell Donald John "Don" Markwell (born 19 April 1959) is an Australian social scientist, who has been described as a "renowned Australian educational reformer".
Edward Hallett "Ted" Carr (28 June 1892 – 3 November 1982) was an English historian, diplomat, journalist and international relations theorist, and an opponent of empiricism within historiography.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
The Economic Community of West African States, also known as ECOWAS, is a regional economic union of fifteen countries located in West Africa.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
The European Union (EU) has expanded a number of times throughout its history by way of the accession of new member states to the Union.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups.
The Eurasian Development Bank (EDB) is a regional development bank established by the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2006.
The Eurasian Economic Union (officially EAEU, but sometimes called EEU or EAU)The acronym is used in the.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is an international financial institution founded in 1991.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Institute for International Law and International Relations (EIIR) is an independent policy institute and N.P. organisation which represents a center dedicated to studies and research on international law, international relations, strategic topics and social life.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Explanatory power is the ability of a hypothesis or theory to effectively explain the subject matter it pertains to.
Feminism is a broad term given to works of those scholars who have sought to bring gender concerns into the academic study of international politics.
The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (also referred to as The Fletcher School) is the oldest school in the United States dedicated solely to graduate studies in international affairs.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
Yoshihiro Francis "Frank" Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist, political economist, and author.
Francisco de Vitoria (– 12 August 1546; also known as Francisco de Victoria) was a Roman Catholic philosopher, theologian, and jurist of Renaissance Spain.
The Frankfurt School (Frankfurter Schule) is a school of social theory and philosophy associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University Frankfurt.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
Gender studies is a field for interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
Glendon College (Collège universitaire Glendon) is a federated campus of York University in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
The global financial system is the worldwide framework of legal agreements, institutions, and both formal and informal economic actors that together facilitate international flows of financial capital for purposes of investment and trade financing.
Global studies is the interdisciplinary study of political, economic, legal, ecological and cultural interconnectedness.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, or the Graduate Institute (in French: Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement (previously known as Institut (universitaire) de hautes études internationales), abbreviated IHEID (previously HEI, IHEI, or IUHEI) is a post-graduate university located in Geneva, Switzerland. The institution counts one UN secretary-general (Kofi Annan), seven Nobel Prize recipients, one Pulitzer Prize winner, and numerous ambassadors, foreign ministers, and heads of state among its alumni and faculty. Founded by two senior League of Nations officials, the Graduate Institute maintains strong links with that international organisation's successor, the United Nations, and many alumni have gone on to work at UN agencies. The school is a full member of the APSIA. Founded in 1927, the Graduate Institute of International Studies (IHEI or HEI) is continental Europe's oldest school of international relations and was the world's first university dedicated solely to the study of international affairs. It offered one of the first doctoral programmes in international relations in the world. In 2008, the Graduate Institute absorbed the Graduate Institute of Development Studies, a smaller post-graduate institution also based in Geneva founded in 1961. The merger resulted in the current Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies. Today the school enrolls about 800 graduate students from over 100 countries. Foreign students make up nearly 80% of the student body and the school is officially a bilingual English-French institution, although the majority of classes are in English.. With Maison de la Paix acting as its primary seat of learning, the Institute's campuses are located blocks from the United Nations Office at Geneva, International Labour Organization, World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, International Committee of the Red Cross, World Intellectual Property Organization and many other international organizations. It runs joint degree programmes with universities such as Smith College and Yale University, and is Harvard Kennedy School's only partner university to co-deliver double degrees.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.
Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome.
The GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (Организация за демократию и экономическое развитие — ГУАМ) is a regional organization of four post-Soviet states: '''G'''eorgia, '''U'''kraine, '''A'''zerbaijan, and '''M'''oldova.
Hans Köchler (born 18 October 1948) is a retired professor of philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, and president of the International Progress Organization, a non-governmental organization in consultative status with the United Nations.
Hans Joachim Morgenthau (February 17, 1904 – July 19, 1980) was one of the major twentieth-century figures in the study of international politics.
Hard power is the use of military and economic means to influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Hedley Norman Bull, FBA (10 June 1932 – 18 May 1985) was Professor of International Relations at the Australian National University, the London School of Economics and the University of Oxford until his death from cancer in 1985.
Hegemonic stability theory (HST) is a theory of international relations, rooted in research from the fields of political science, economics, and history.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Helen V. Milner is a political scientist from the United States who has written extensively on issues related to international political economy like international trade, the connections between domestic politics and foreign policy, globalization and regionalism, and the relationship between democracy and trade policy.
This article shows various estimates of the nuclear weapons stockpiles of various countries at various points in time.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The historical phenomenon of colonization is one that stretches around the globe and across time.
The History of the Peloponnesian War (Ἱστορίαι, "Histories") is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
The inherent bad faith model of information processing is a theory in political psychology that was first put forth by Ole Holsti to explain the relationship between John Foster Dulles' beliefs and his model of information processing.
The Inter-American Court of Human Rights is an autonomous judicial institution based in the city of San José, Costa Rica.
The Inter-American Development Bank (IADB or IDB or BID) is the largest source of development financing for Latin America and the Caribbean.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
An intergovernmental organization or international governmental organisation (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations.
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR; Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda; Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho u Rwanda) was an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 955 in order to judge people responsible for the Rwandan genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994.
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
An international non-governmental organization (INGO) has the same mission as a non-governmental organization (NGO), but it is international in scope and has outposts around the world to deal with specific issues in many countries.
International Organization is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international affairs.
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
International political economy (IPE), also known as global political economy (GPE), refers to either economics or an interdisciplinary academic discipline that analyzes economics and international relations.
International sanctions are political and economic decisions that are part of diplomatic efforts by countries, multilateral or regional organizations against states or organizations either to protect national security interests, or to protect international law, and defend against threats to international peace and security.
International security, also called global security, refers to the amalgamation of measures taken by states and international organizations, such as the United Nations, European Union, and others, to ensure mutual survival and safety.
The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) is an intergovernmental organization created by the mandate of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea.
Interventionism is a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy and/or society.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic Development Bank (IDB) (Arabic: البنك الإسلامي للتنمية) is a multilateral development financing institution located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
An Islamic state (دولة إسلامية, dawlah islāmiyyah) is a type of government primarily based on the application of shari'a (Islamic law), dispensation of justice, maintenance of law and order.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jean Bodin (1530–1596) was a French jurist and political philosopher, member of the Parlement of Paris and professor of law in Toulouse.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat.
Gilford John Ikenberry (October 5, 1954) is a theorist of international relations and United States foreign policy, and a professor of Politics and International Affairs in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
Joseph M. Grieco is professor of political science at Duke University, in Durham, North Carolina.
Joseph Samuel Nye Jr. (born January 19, 1937) is an American political scientist.
Kathryn Sikkink (born 1955) is an author, human rights academic, and scholar of international relations working primarily through the theoretical strain of constructivism.
Ken Booth FBA (born 29 January 1943) is a British international relations theorist, and the former E H Carr Professor of the Department of International Politics at Aberystwyth University.
Kenneth Neal Waltz (June 8, 1924 – May 12, 2013) was an American political scientist who was a member of the faculty at both the University of California, Berkeley and Columbia University and one of the most prominent scholars in the field of international relations.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition 1668). Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could only be avoided by strong, undivided government.
Liberal internationalism is a foreign policy doctrine that argues that liberal states should intervene in other sovereign states in order to pursue liberal objectives.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Liberalism is a school of thought within international relations theory which can be thought to revolve around three interrelated principles.
A liberation movement is an organization or political movement leading a rebellion, or a non-violent social movement, against a colonial power or national government, often seeking independence based on a nationalist identity and an anti-imperialist outlook.
Lisa Frances Ondieki (née O'Dea, formerly Martin; born 12 May 1960) is an Australian former long-distance runner.
The following list of scholarly journals in international relations contains notable academic journals on international relations.
Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Maritime Security Regimes are codes and conventions of behavior agreed upon by coastal states to provide a degree of security within territorial waters and on the high seas.
Mark Blyth (born 1967) is a British political scientist from Scotland and a professor of international political economy at Brown University.
Martha Finnemore (born 1959) is a prominent constructivist scholar of international relations, and University Professor at the Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Michael Nathan Barnett (born November 10, 1960) is a major constructivist scholar of international relations.
Michael G. Roskin (born 1939) is an American political scientist.
Michael W. Doyle (born 1948) is an American international relations scholar best known as a theorist of the liberal "democratic peace" and author of "," the 16th most cited article in the 100-year history of the American Political Science Review.
Michael Walzer (March 3, 1935) is a prominent American political theorist and public intellectual.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Montague Burton Professorship of International Relations is a named chair at the University of Oxford and the London School of Economics and Political Science.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Moral Man and Immoral Society: A Study in Ethics and Politics is a 1932 book by Reinhold Niebuhr, an American Protestant theologian at Union Theological Seminary (UTS) in New York City.
In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The national interest, often referred to by the French expression raison d'État ("reason of State"), is a country's goals and ambitions, whether economic, military, cultural or otherwise.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
In the study of international relations, neoliberalism refers to a school of thought which believes that states are, or at least should be, concerned first and foremost with absolute gains rather than relative gains to other states.
The New Development Bank (NDB), formerly referred to as the BRICS Development Bank, is a multilateral development bank established by the BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa).
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
In international relations, non-state actors (NSAs) are individuals and groups that hold influence and which are wholly or partly independent of state governments.
Sir Ralph Norman Angell (26 December 1872 – 7 October 1967) was an English lecturer, journalist, author, and Member of Parliament for the Labour Party.
The Norman Paterson School of International Affairs (NPSIA) is a professional school of international affairs at Carleton University that was founded in 1965.
Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard.
In economics and philosophy, a normative statement expresses a value judgment about whether a situation is desirable or undesirable.
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.
Ole Rudolf Holsti (born August 7, 1933) is an American political scientist and academic.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) is a regional international organization focusing on multilateral political and economic initiatives aimed at fostering cooperation, peace, stability and prosperity in the Black Sea region.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
Paul Michael Kennedy (born 17 June 1945) is a British historian specialising in the history of international relations, economic power and grand strategy.
Paul Raskin is the founding President of the Tellus Institute, which has conducted over 3,500 research and policy projects throughout the world on environmental issues, resource planning, scenario analysis, and sustainable development.
Peace economics is a specialized branch of economics.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
Peter John Ambrose Calvocoressi (17 November 1912 – 5 February 2010) was a British lawyer, Liberal politician, historian, and publisher.
Philip John Noel-Baker, Baron Noel-Baker, (1 November 1889 – 8 October 1982), born Philip John Baker, was a British politician, diplomat, academic, outstanding amateur athlete, and renowned campaigner for disarmament.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Polarity in international relations is any of the various ways in which power is distributed within the international system.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
A polity is any kind of political entity.
In the social sciences and philosophy, a positive or descriptive statement concerns what "is", "was", or "will be", and contains no indication of approval or disapproval (what should be).
Poststructural feminism is a branch of feminism that engages with insights from post-structuralist thought.
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.
Postmodern International relations is an approach that has been part of international relations scholarship since the 1980s.
The Power transition theory is a theory about the cyclical nature of war, in relation to the power in international relations.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.
Ramon Llull University (Universitat Ramon Llull, URL) is a private university located in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain established in 1990.
Rational choice theory, also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior.
Rawi E. Abdelal is the Joseph C. Wilson Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School in the Business, Government, and International Economy Unit.
Realism is a school of thought in international relations theory, theoretically formalising the Realpolitik statesmanship of early modern Europe.
Regime theory is a theory within international relations derived from the liberal tradition that argues that international institutions or regimes affect the behavior of states or other international actors.
Karl Paul Reinhold Niebuhr (June 21, 1892June 1, 1971) was an American theologian, ethicist, commentator on politics and public affairs, and professor at Union Theological Seminary for more than 30 years.
Relative gain, in international relations, is the actions of states only in respect to power balances and without regard to other factors, such as economics.
A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Sir Robert Francis Cooper (born 1947 in Essex, United Kingdom) is a British diplomat and adviser currently serving as a Special Advisor at the European Commission with regard to Myanmar.
Robert Gilpin (born 1930) is a scholar of international political economy and the professor emeritus of Politics and International Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University.
Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892 – October 9, 1954) was an American attorney and judge who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
Robert Owen Keohane (born October 3, 1941) is an American academic, who, following the publication of his influential book After Hegemony (1984), became widely associated with the theory of neoliberal institutionalism in international relations.
Robert Cox (born 1926) is a Canadian scholar of political science and a former United Nations officer.
Rorden Michael E. C. Wilkinson (13 February 1970) FRSA is a British academic and author.
Sara Ruddick (born Sara Elizabeth Loop; February 17, 1935 – March 20, 2011) was an important feminist philosopher and the author of Maternal Thinking: Toward a Politics of Peace.
The Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service (commonly abbreviated as SFS) at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. is one of the world's leading international relations schools.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Social theories are analytical frameworks, or paradigms, that are used to study and interpret social phenomena.
Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Soft power is the ability to attract and co-opt, rather than by coercion (hard power), which is using force or giving money as a means of persuasion.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia.
South–South Cooperation is a term historically used by policymakers and academics to describe the exchange of resources, technology, and knowledge between developing countries, also known as countries of the Global South.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Status quo is a Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social or political issues.
Stephen David Krasner (born 15 February 1942, New York) is an international relations professor at Stanford University and is a former Director of Policy Planning at the United States Department of State, a position he held from 2005 until April 2007 while on leave from Stanford.
Strategic studies is an interdisciplinary academic field centered on the study of conflict and peace strategies, often devoting special attention to the relationship between international politics, geostrategy, international diplomacy, international economics, and military power.
In the social sciences there is a standing debate over the primacy of structure or agency in shaping human behaviour.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sun Tzu (also rendered as Sun Zi; 孫子) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer, and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China.
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
Susan Tufts Fiske (born August 19, 1952) is the Eugene Higgins Professor of Psychology and Public Affairs in the Department of Psychology at Princeton University.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A tacit assumption or implicit assumption is an assumption that includes the underlying agreements or statements made in the development of a logical argument, course of action, decision, or judgment that are not explicitly voiced nor necessarily understood by the decision maker or judge.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
Ted Hopf (born 1959) is an American academic and a leading figure in constructivism in international relations theory.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise dating from the Spring and Autumn period.
The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations is a book by John Baylis, Patricia Owens, and Steve Smith.
The Prince (Il Principe) is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian diplomat and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli.
The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000, by Paul Kennedy, first published in 1987, explores the politics and economics of the Great Powers from 1500 to 1980 and the reason for their decline.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War.
Tufts University is a private research university incorporated in the municipality of Medford, Massachusetts, United States.
The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.
The United Nations Human Rights Committee is a United Nations body of 18 experts that meets three times a year for four-week sessions (spring session at UN headquarters in New York, summer and fall sessions at the UN Office in Geneva) to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by 169 UN member states on their compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ICCPR, and any individual petitions concerning 116 States parties to the Optional Protocol.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Wales (Welsh: Prifysgol Cymru) was a confederal university based in Cardiff, Wales, UK.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
War studies, sometimes called polemology, is the multi-disciplinary study of war.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
William Curti Wohlforth (born 1959) is the Daniel Webster Professor of Government in the Dartmouth College Department of Government, of which he was chair for three academic years (2006-2009).
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A world-system is a socioeconomic system, under systems theory, that encompasses part or all of the globe, detailing the aggregate structural result of the sum of the interactions between polities.
UNESCO Nomenclature (more properly UNESCO nomenclature for fields of science and technology) is a system developed by UNESCO for classification of research papers and doctoral dissertations.
Diplomacy and Statecraft, Diplomatic relationship, Global relations, IntRel, International Affairs, International Politics, International Relation Studies, International Relations, International affairs, International politics, International relation, International trade relations, Interstate relations, Intrel, Levels of Analysis in international relations, Study of International Relations.