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Internationalized domain name

Index Internationalized domain name

An internationalized domain name (IDN) is an Internet domain name that contains at least one label that is displayed in software applications, in whole or in part, in a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Tamil, Hebrew or the Latin alphabet-based characters with diacritics or ligatures, such as French. [1]

73 relations: A, A (Cyrillic), Afilias, Alphabet, Arabic, ASCII, Byte, China, China Internet Network Information Center, Chinese characters, Chinese Domain Name Consortium, CJK characters, Country code top-level domain, Cyrillic script, Diacritic, DNS root zone, Domain name, Domain Name System, Dotted I (Cyrillic), E, Email, Emoji domain, Er (Cyrillic), French language, General Atlantic, German language, Hangul, Hebrew language, Hiragana, Hostname, I, ICANN, International email, Internationalized country code top-level domain, Internationalized Resource Identifier, Internet, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, Internet Engineering Task Force, James Seng, Japan Network Information Center, John Klensin, Kanji, Latin alphabet, List of Internet top-level domains, Mozilla Application Suite, Nameprep, Netscape Navigator, Opera (web browser), P, Phishing, ..., Punycode, Ram Mohan, Request for Comments, Root name server, Spoofing attack, Sunrise period, Taiwan, Tamil language, ThaiURL, Top-level domain, Typographic ligature, Unicode, Universal Acceptance, Vint Cerf, Web browser, Windows Vista, Working group, Writing system, Ye (Cyrillic), .asia, .info, .jp, .test. Expand index (23 more) »

A

A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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A (Cyrillic)

A (А а; italics: А а) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

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Afilias

Afilias plc is the registry operator of the.info,.mobi and.pro top-level domain, service provider for registry operators of.org,.ngo,.lgbt,.asia,.aero, and a provider of domain name registry services for countries around the world, including.MN (Mongolia),.AG (Antigua and Barbuda),.BM (Bermuda),.BZ (Belize),.GI (Gibraltar),.IN (India),.ME (Montenegro),.SC (the Seychelles), and.VC (St. Vincent and the Grenadines).

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Alphabet

An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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ASCII

ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

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Byte

The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China Internet Network Information Center

The China Internet Network Information Center, or CNNIC, is the administrative agency responsible for Internet affairs under the Ministry of Information Industry of the People's Republic of China.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.

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Chinese Domain Name Consortium

The Chinese Domain Name Consortium, created on 19 May 2000, is a collaboration among the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), Hong Kong and Macau to come up with a standard way to create a domain name system for Chinese characters.

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CJK characters

In internationalization, CJK is a collective term for the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages, all of which include Chinese characters and derivatives (collectively, CJK characters) in their writing systems.

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Country code top-level domain

A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code.

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).

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Diacritic

A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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DNS root zone

The DNS root zone is the top-level DNS zone in the hierarchical namespace of the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.

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Domain name

A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control within the Internet.

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Domain Name System

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.

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Dotted I (Cyrillic)

The dotted i (І і; italics: І і&#x202f), also called decimal i (и десятеричное), is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

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E

E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Email

Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.

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Emoji domain

An emoji domain is a domain name with emoji in it, for example www.😉.tld.

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Er (Cyrillic)

Er (Р р; italics: Р р) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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General Atlantic

General Atlantic (also known as "GA") is an American worldwide growth equity firm providing capital and strategic support for growth companies.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Hangul

The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hiragana

is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).

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Hostname

In computer networking, a hostname (archaically nodename) is a label that is assigned to a device connected to a computer network and that is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication, such as the World Wide Web.

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I

I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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ICANN

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a nonprofit organization responsible for coordinating the maintenance and procedures of several databases related to the namespaces and numericalspaces of the Internet, ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.

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International email

International email (IDN email or Intl email) is email that contains international characters (characters which do not exist in the ASCII character set), encoded as UTF-8, in the email header and in supporting mail transfer protocols.

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Internationalized country code top-level domain

An internationalized country code top-level domain is a top-level domain (TLD) in the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.

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Internationalized Resource Identifier

The Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) – is an internet protocol standard which extends ASCII characters subset of the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) protocol.

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Internet

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a function of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and Internet numbers.

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Internet Engineering Task Force

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).

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James Seng

Seng Ching Hong (commonly referred to as James Seng) is one of the Internet pioneers in Singapore and is recognized as an international expert in the Internet arena.

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Japan Network Information Center

The Japan Network Information Center (JPNIC) is the National Internet Registry in Japan that manages several aspects of Internet operations, including the allocation of IP addresses and AS numbers.

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John Klensin

John C. Klensin is a political scientist and computer science professional who is active in Internet-related issues.

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Kanji

Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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List of Internet top-level domains

This list of Internet top-level domain (TLD) extensions contains top-level domains, which are those domains in the DNS root zone of the Domain Name System of the Internet.

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Mozilla Application Suite

The Mozilla Application Suite (originally known as Mozilla, marketed as the Mozilla Suite) is a discontinued cross-platform integrated Internet suite.

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Nameprep

Nameprep is the process of case-folding to lowercase and removal of some generally invisible code points before it is suitable to represent a domain name, or other such canonical name.

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Netscape Navigator

Netscape Navigator was a proprietary web browser, and the original browser of the Netscape line, from versions 1 to 4.08, and 9.x. It was the flagship product of the Netscape Communications Corp and was the dominant web browser in terms of usage share in the 1990s, but by 2002 its use had almost disappeared.

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Opera (web browser)

Opera is a web browser for Windows, macOS, and Linux operating systems developed by Opera Software AS.

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P

P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Phishing

Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

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Punycode

Punycode is a representation of Unicode with the limited ASCII character subset used for Internet host names.

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Ram Mohan

Ram Mohan (born 1931) is an Indian animator, title designer and design educator, who is also known as father of Indian Animation and was a veteran in the Indian animation industry, who started his career at the Cartoon Films Unit, Films Division of India, Government of India in 1956.

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Request for Comments

In information and communications technology, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a type of publication from the technology community.

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Root name server

A root name server is a name server for the root zone of the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.

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Spoofing attack

In the context of network security, a spoofing attack is a situation in which a person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data, to gain an illegitimate advantage.

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Sunrise period

The sunrise period of domain registration is a special period during which trademark holders may preregister names that are the same or similar to their trademarks in order to avoid cybersquatting.

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Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Tamil language

Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.

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ThaiURL

ThaiURL (Thai Uniform Resource Locator) is a technology enabling the use of Thai domain names in applications that have been modified to support this technology.

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Top-level domain

A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System of the Internet.

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Typographic ligature

In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.

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Unicode

Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

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Universal Acceptance

Universal Acceptance (UA) is the principle that every top-level domain (TLD) should function within all applications regardless of script, number of characters, or how new it is.

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Vint Cerf

Vinton Gray Cerf ForMemRS, (born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn.

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Web browser

A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.

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Windows Vista

Windows Vista (codenamed Longhorn) is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.

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Working group

A working group or working party is a group of experts working together to achieve specified goals.

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Writing system

A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.

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Ye (Cyrillic)

Ye (Е е; italics: Е е) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

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.asia

.asia is the official designated regional domain extension for Asia and the Pacific.

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.info

The domain name info is a generic top-level domain (gTLD) in the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.

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.jp

.jp is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Japan.

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.test

The name test is a top-level domain (TLD) that is intended for use in the testing of software.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internationalized_domain_name

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