266 relations: Accenture, Actuator, Adam Greenfield, AFNOR, Air pollution, Alphabet Inc., Ambient intelligence, American Civil Liberties Union, Amorphous computing, Analytics, Android (operating system), Animal migration tracking, Application programming interface, Asset management, Auto-ID Labs, Automation, Autonomous cruise control system, Barcode, Base station, Bill Joy, Bluetooth Low Energy, Bluetooth mesh networking, BPM Everywhere, Brick (electronics), British Computer Society, Broadband, Building automation, Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Democracy and Technology, Chaos theory, Children's Online Privacy Protection Act, Cisco Systems, Cloud computing, Cloud manufacturing, Cloudflare, Coaxial cable, Cochlear implant, Complex system, Computer, Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Computerworld, Constrained Application Protocol, Consumer privacy, Control system, Cyber-physical system, Data, Data cleansing, Data Distribution Service, Data mining, Data security, ..., David Pogue, Deep learning, Denial-of-service attack, Device-to-device, Digital control, Digital Earth, Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Digital object memory, Digital transformation, Digital twin, Discipline and Punish, Distributed computing, Early adopter, Earthquake warning system, Ecosystem, Edge device, Edward Snowden, Electricity generation, Electricity meter, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Electronic Product Code, Electronic toll collection, Electronics, Embedded system, Emergency notification system, End-user license agreement, Environmental monitoring, EPCglobal, ETH Zurich, Ethernet, Ethernet hub, Event-driven architecture, Fair Credit Reporting Act, Fast-moving consumer goods, Federal Communications Commission, Federal Trade Commission, Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914, Fleet management, Fluidmesh, Fog computing, Food and Drug Administration, Forbes, Fortune (magazine), G.hn, Gartner, Geoweb, Gilles Deleuze, Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present), Google, Governance, Government of the United Kingdom, GS1, GS1 US, Habitat, Hacker, Harvard Business Review, Helsinki University of Technology, Home automation, Home automation for the elderly and disabled, HomePlug, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.11ah, IEEE 802.15.4, IEEE Computer Society, IEEE Spectrum, Indoor positioning system, Industrial big data, Industrial Internet Consortium, Industrial Revolution, Industry 4.0, Information technology, InformationWeek, Innovation management, Instant messaging, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Integrated development environment, Intelligent maintenance system, Intelligent transportation system, Internet access, Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet protocol suite, IP address, IPv4, IPv4 address exhaustion, IPv6, Jean-Louis Gassée, Jeremy Bentham, Kevin Ashton, Li-Fi, Linux, List of mergers and acquisitions by Alphabet, Local area network, Logistics, LPWAN, LTE (telecommunication), LTE Advanced, Machine learning, Machine to machine, Machine tool, Mark Weiser, Market fragmentation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Medical device, Michael L. Littman, Michel Foucault, Microsoft, Microsoft at Work, Mirai (malware), MQTT, MTConnect, Multi-agent system, Multimedia over Coax Alliance, Narrowband, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Intelligence Council, National Science Foundation, Near-field communication, Nest Labs, Network switch, Novell, Novell Embedded Systems Technology, Observer pattern, OMA Device Management, OMA LWM2M, Open Connectivity Foundation, Open Mobile Alliance, Open standard, OpenWSN, Operational Technology, Optical fiber, Organizational architecture, Organizational culture, Panopticism, Panopticon, Parabolic antenna, Personal area network, Peter-Paul Verbeek, Philip N. Howard, PlayStation 3, Politico, Power-line communication, Predictive maintenance, Privacy, Privacy by design, Process control, Procter & Gamble, Prognostics, Proprietary protocol, Proprietary software, Publish–subscribe pattern, QR code, Quality of service, Radio-frequency identification, Reconfigurable manufacturing system, Remote patient monitoring, Representational state transfer, San Francisco Bay Area, Santander, Spain, Satellite, Semantic Web, Sensor, Sensor fusion, Service-oriented architecture, Sigfox, Smart city, Smart grid, Smart meter, Smart Technologies, Smart traffic light, Software, Soil contamination, Songdo International Business District, Standards organization, States General of the Netherlands, Statistical model, Supply chain network, Surveillance, System, Technical standard, Technological convergence, The New York Times, The Register, Thread (network protocol), Tim O'Reilly, Tom Engelhardt, Transport Layer Security, Tsunami warning system, Twisted pair, Ubiquitous computing, Uniform Resource Identifier, Unique Device Identification, Unique identifier, University of Twente, Uptime, Value proposition, Very-small-aperture terminal, Visible light communication, Voice command device, Water quality, Wearable technology, Web of Things, Web service, Wi-Fi, Wii U, Wired (magazine), Wireless sensor network, XMPP, XMPP Standards Foundation, Z-Wave, ZDNet, ZeroMQ, Zigbee, 2016 Dyn cyberattack, 5G, 6LoWPAN. 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Accenture is a global management consulting and professional services firm that provides strategy, consulting, digital, technology and operations services.
An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism or system, for example by opening a valve.
Adam Greenfield is an American writer and urbanist, based in London.
Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR, en: French Standardization Association) is the French national organization for standardization and its International Organization for Standardization member body.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Alphabet Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate headquartered in Mountain View, California.
In computing, ambient intelligence (AmI) refers to electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people.
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Officially nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike.
Amorphous computing refers to computational systems that use very large numbers of identical, parallel processors each having limited computational ability and local interactions.
Analytics is the discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data.
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
For years scientists have been tracking animals and the ways they migrate.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
Asset management, broadly defined, refers to any system that monitors and maintains things of value to an entity or group.
The Auto-ID Labs network is a research group in the field of networked radio-frequency identification (RFID) and emerging sensing technologies.
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance.
Autonomous cruise control (ACC; also called adaptive cruise control, radar cruise control, traffic-aware cruise control or dynamic radar cruise control) is an optional cruise control system for road vehicles that automatically adjusts the vehicle speed to maintain a safe distance from vehicles ahead.
A barcode (also bar code) is an optical, machine-readable, representation of data; the data usually describes something about the object that carries the barcode.
Base station (or base radio station) is – according to the International Telecommunication Union's (ITU) Radio Regulations (RR) – a "land station in the land mobile service." The term is used in the context of mobile telephony, wireless computer networking and other wireless communications and in land surveying.
William Nelson Joy (born November 8, 1954) is an American computer scientist.
Bluetooth Low Energy (Bluetooth LE, colloquially BLE, formerly marketed as Bluetooth Smart) is a wireless personal area network technology designed and marketed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (Bluetooth SIG) aimed at novel applications in the healthcare, fitness, beacons, security, and home entertainment industries.
Bluetooth mesh networking, conceived in 2015, adopted on is a protocol based upon Bluetooth Low Energy that allows for many-to-many communication over Bluetooth radio.
BPM Everywhere (BPME) represents a strategy for coping, and possibly exploiting, the disruption that is anticipated as a result of structural changes due to technical progression known as the Internet of Things (IoT).
The word "brick", when used in reference to consumer electronics, describes an electronic device such as a smartphone, game console, router, or tablet computer that, due to severe physical damage, a serious misconfiguration, corrupted firmware, or a hardware problem, can no longer function, hence, is as technologically useful as a brick.
Sir Maurice Wilkes served as first President of BCS in 1957. The British Computer Society (BCS) is a professional body and a learned society that represents those working in Information Technology, both in the United Kingdom and internationally.
In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types.
Building automation is the automatic centralized control of a building's heating, ventilation and air conditioning, lighting and other systems through a building management system or building automation system (BAS).
Carnegie Mellon University (commonly known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Center for Democracy & Technology (CDT) is a Washington, D.C.-based 501(c)(3) non-profit organization whose mission is to strengthen individual rights and freedoms by defining, promoting, and influencing technology policy and the architecture of the Internet.
Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
The Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 (COPPA) is a United States federal law, located at.
Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational technology conglomerate headquartered in San Jose, California, in the center of Silicon Valley, that develops, manufactures and sells networking hardware, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products.
Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet.
Cloud manufacturing (CMfg) is a new manufacturing paradigm developed from existing advanced manufacturing models (e.g., ASP, AM, NM, MGrid) and enterprise information technologies under the support of cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT), virtualization and service-oriented technologies, and advanced computing technologies.
Cloudflare, Inc. is a U.S. company that provides content delivery network services, DDoS mitigation, Internet security and distributed domain name server services, sitting between the visitor and the Cloudflare user's hosting provider, acting as a reverse proxy for websites.
Cross-sectional view of a coaxial cable Coaxial cable, or coax (pronounced), is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield.
A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss in both ears.
A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
The Computer Laboratory is the computer science department of the University of Cambridge.
Computerworld is a publication website and digital magazine for information technology (IT) and business technology professionals.
Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a specialized Internet Application Protocol for constrained devices, as defined in RFC 7252.
Consumer privacy is a form of information privacy concerned with the legal and political issues arising from the interaction of the public's expectation of privacy with the collection and dissemination of data by businesses or merchants.
A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops.
A cyber-physical (also styled cyberphysical) system (CPS) is a mechanism that is controlled or monitored by computer-based algorithms, tightly integrated with the Internet and its users.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
Data cleansing or data cleaning is the process of detecting and correcting (or removing) corrupt or inaccurate records from a record set, table, or database and refers to identifying incomplete, incorrect, inaccurate or irrelevant parts of the data and then replacing, modifying, or deleting the dirty or coarse data.
The Data Distribution Service for real-time systems (DDS) is an Object Management Group (OMG) machine-to-machine (sometimes called middleware) standard that aims to enable scalable, real-time, dependable, high-performance and interoperable data exchanges using a publish–subscribe pattern.
Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
Data security means protecting digital data, such as those in a database, from destructive forces and from the unwanted actions of unauthorized users, such as a cyberattack or a data breach.
David Welch Pogue (born March 9, 1963) is an American technology writer and TV science presenter.
Deep learning (also known as deep structured learning or hierarchical learning) is part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on learning data representations, as opposed to task-specific algorithms.
In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.
Device-to-Device (D2D) communication in cellular networks is defined as direct communication between two mobile users without traversing the Base Station (BS) or core network.
Digital control is a branch of control theory that uses digital computers to act as system controllers.
Digital Earth is the name given to a concept by former US vice president Al Gore in 1998, describing a virtual representation of the Earth that is georeferenced and connected to the world’s digital knowledge archives.
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
A digital object memory (DOMe) is a digital storage space intended to keep permanently all related information about a concrete physical object instance that is collected during the lifespan of this object and thus forms a basic building block for the Internet of Things (IoT) by connecting digital information with physical objects.
Digital Transformation (DT) is the transformation of business by revamping the business strategy or digital strategy, models, operations, products, marketing approach, objectives etc., by adopting digital technologies.
Digital twin refers to a digital replica of physical assets (physical twin), processes and systems that can be used for various purposes.
Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Surveiller et punir : Naissance de la prison) is a 1975 book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
An early adopter (sometimes misspelled as early adapter or early adaptor) or lighthouse customer is an early customer of a given company, product, or technology.
An earthquake warning system is a system of accelerometers, seismometers, communication, computers, and alarms that is devised for regional notification of a substantial earthquake while it is in progress.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
An edge device is a device which provides an entry point into enterprise or service provider core networks.
Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013 without authorization.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
analog electricity meter. Electricity meter with transparent plastic case (Israel) North American domestic electronic electricity meter An electricity meter, electric meter, electrical meter, or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed by a residence, a business, or an electrically powered device.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.
The Electronic Product Code (EPC) is designed as a universal identifier that provides a unique identity for every physical object anywhere in the world, for all time.
Electronic toll collection (ETC) aims to eliminate the delay on toll roads, HOV lanes, toll bridges, and toll tunnels by collecting tolls without cash and without requiring cars to stop.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
An emergency notification system is a method of facilitating the one-way dissemination or broadcast of messages to one or many groups of people, alerting them to a pending or existing emergency.
In proprietary software, an end-user license agreement (EULA) or software license agreement is the contract between the licensor and purchaser, establishing the purchaser's right to use the software.
Environmental monitoring describes the processes and activities that need to take place to characterise and monitor the quality of the environment.
EPCglobal is a joint venture between GS1 (formerly known as EAN International) and GS1 US (formerly the Uniform Code Council, Inc.). It is an organization set up to achieve worldwide adoption and standardization of Electronic Product Code (EPC) technology.
ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich) is a science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).
An Ethernet hub, active hub, network hub, repeater hub, multiport repeater, or simply hub is a network hardware device for connecting multiple Ethernet devices together and making them act as a single network segment.
Event-driven architecture (EDA), is a software architecture pattern promoting the production, detection, consumption of, and reaction to events.
The Fair Credit Reporting Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1681 (“FCRA”) is U.S. Federal Government legislation enacted to promote the accuracy, fairness, and privacy of consumer information contained in the files of consumer reporting agencies.
Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) or consumer packaged goods (CPG) are products that are sold quickly and at relatively low cost.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 established the Federal Trade Commission.
Fleet management is the management of.
Fluidmesh Networks is a manufacturer of wireless networking products founded in 2005 by four Italian engineers, Umberto Malesci, Cosimo Malesci, Andrea Orioli and Torquato Bertani as a spin-off out of MIT, where Umberto Malesci and Cosimo Malesci were graduate students in the Department of Engineering.
Fog computing or fog networking, also known as fogging, is an architecture that uses edge devices to carry out a substantial amount of computation, storage, communication locally and routed over the internet backbone, and most definitively has input and output from the physical world known as transduction.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
Fortune is an American multinational business magazine headquartered in New York City, United States.
G.hn is a specification for home networking with data rates up to 2 Gbit/s and operation over four types of legacy wires: telephone wiring, coaxial cables, power lines and plastic optical fiber.
Gartner, Inc. is a global research and advisory firm providing insights, advice, and tools for leaders in IT, Finance, HR, Customer Service and Support, Legal and Compliance, Marketing, Sales, and Supply Chain functions across the world.
The concept of a Geospatial Web may have first been introduced by Dr.
Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art.
Ongoing news reports in the international media have revealed operational details about the United States National Security Agency (NSA) and its international partners' global surveillance of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Governance is all of the processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government, a market or a network, over a social system (family, tribe, formal or informal organization, a territory or across territories) and whether through the laws, norms, power or language of an organized society.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
GS1 is a not-for-profit organisation that develops and maintains global standards for business communication.
GS1 US is the GS1 Member Organization in the United States of America.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
A computer hacker is any skilled computer expert that uses their technical knowledge to overcome a problem.
Harvard Business Review (HBR) is a general management magazine published by Harvard Business Publishing, a wholly owned subsidiary of Harvard University.
The Helsinki University of Technology (TKK; Teknillinen korkeakoulu; Tekniska högskolan) was a technical university in Finland.
Home automation or domotics is building automation for a home, called a smart home or smart house.
The form of home automation focuses on making it possible for older adults and people with disabilities to remain at home, safe and comfortable.
HomePlug is the family name for various power line communications specifications under the HomePlug designation, with each offering unique performance capabilities and coexistence or compatibility with other HomePlug specifications.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
IEEE 802.11 is a set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 900 MHz and 2.4, 3.6, 5, and 60 GHz frequency bands.
IEEE 802.11ah is a wireless networking protocol published in 2017 to be called Wi-Fi HaLow (pronounced "HEY-Low") as an amendment of the IEEE 802.11-2007 wireless networking standard.
IEEE 802.15.4 is a technical standard which defines the operation of low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs).
IEEE Computer Society (sometimes abbreviated Computer Society or CS) is a professional society of IEEE.
IEEE Spectrum is a magazine edited by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
An indoor positioning system (IPS) is a system to locate objects or people inside a building using lights, radio waves, magnetic fields, acoustic signals, or other sensory information collected by mobile devices.
Industrial big data refers to a large amount of diversified time series generated at a high speed by industrial equipment, known as the Internet of thingsThe term emerged in 2012 along with the concept of "Industry 4.0”, and refers to big data”, popular in information technology marketing, in that data created by industrial equipment might hold more potential business values.
The Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) is an open membership organization, with 258 members as of 22 November 2016.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Industry 4.0 is a name for the current trend of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
InformationWeek is a digital magazine which conducts corresponding face-to-face events, virtual events, and research.
Innovation management is a combination of the management of innovation processes, and change management.
Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development.
An intelligent maintenance system (IMS) is a system that utilizes the collected data from the machinery in order to predict and prevent the potential failures in them.
An intelligent transportation system (ITS) is an advanced application which, without embodying intelligence as such, aims to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and 'smarter' use of transport networks.
Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).
IPv4 address exhaustion is the depletion of the pool of unallocated IPv4 addresses.
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.
Jean-Louis Gassée (born March 1944 in Paris, France) is a business executive.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Kevin Ashton (born 1968) is a British technology pioneer who cofounded the Auto-ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), which created a global standard system for RFID and other sensors.
Li-Fi (short for light fidelity) is a technology for wireless communication between devices using light to transmit data and position.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
Google is a computer software and a web search engine company that acquired, on average, more than one company per week in 2010 and 2011.
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
A low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) or low-power wide-area (LPWA) network or low-power network (LPN) is a type of wireless telecommunication wide area network designed to allow long range communications at a low bit rate among things (connected objects), such as sensors operated on a battery.
In telecommunication, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile devices and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies.
LTE Advanced is a mobile communication standard and a major enhancement of the Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard.
Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.
Machine to machine refers to direct communication between devices using any communications channel, including wired and wireless.
A machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing, or other forms of deformation.
Mark D. Weiser (July 23, 1952 – April 27, 1999) was a chief scientist at Xerox PARC in the United States.
Fragmentation in a technology market happens when a market is composed of multiple highly-incompatible technologies or technology stacks, forcing prospective buyers of a single product to commit to an entire product ecosystem, rather than maintaining free choice of complementary products and services.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
A medical device is any apparatus, appliance, software, material, or other article—whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used specifically for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes and necessary for its proper application—intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for the purpose of.
Michael Lederman Littman (born August 30, 1966) is a computer scientist.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft at Work was a short-lived effort promoted by Microsoft to tie together common business machinery, like fax machines and photocopiers, with a common communications protocol allowing control and status information to be shared with computers running Microsoft Windows.
Mirai (Japanese for "the future", 未来) is a malware that turns networked devices running Linux into remotely controlled "bots" that can be used as part of a botnet in large-scale network attacks.
MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport) is an ISO standard (ISO/IEC PRF 20922) publish-subscribe-based messaging protocol.
MTConnect is a manufacturing technical standard to retrieve process information from numerically controlled machine tools.
A multi-agent system (MAS or "self-organized system") is a computerized system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents.
The Multimedia over Coax Alliance (MoCA) is an international standards consortium publishing specifications for networking over coaxial cable.
In radio, narrowband describes a channel in which the bandwidth of the message does not significantly exceed the channel's coherence bandwidth.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA, pronounced "NITS-uh") is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U.S. government, part of the Department of Transportation.
The National Intelligence Council (NIC) is the center for midterm and long-term strategic thinking within the United States Intelligence Community (IC).
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
Near-field communication (NFC) is a set of communication protocols that enable two electronic devices, one of which is usually a portable device such as a smartphone, to establish communication by bringing them within 4 cm (1.6 in) of each other.
Nest Labs is an American home automation producer of programmable, self-learning, sensor-driven, Wi-Fi-enabled thermostats, smoke detectors, security cameras, and other security systems.
A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub, officially MAC bridge) is a computer networking device that connects devices together on a computer network by using packet switching to receive, process, and forward data to the destination device.
Novell, Inc. was a software and services company headquartered in Provo, Utah.
Novell Embedded Systems Technology (NEST) was a series of APIs, data formats and network protocol stacks written in a highly portable fashion intended to be used in embedded systems.
The observer pattern is a software design pattern in which an object, called the subject, maintains a list of its dependents, called observers, and notifies them automatically of any state changes, usually by calling one of their methods.
OMA Device Management is a device management protocol specified by the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Device Management (DM) Working Group and the Data Synchronization (DS) Working Group.
OMA Lightweight M2M is a protocol from the Open Mobile Alliance for M2M or IoT device management.
The Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF) is an industry group whose stated mission is to develop specification standards, promote a set of interoperability guidelines, and provide a certification program for devices involved in the Internet of Things (IoT).
The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) is a standards body which develops open standards for the mobile phone industry.
An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed (e.g. open process).
OpenWSN is a project created at the University of California Berkeley and extended at the INRIA and at the Open University of Catalonia (UOC) which aims to build an open standard-based and open source implementation of a complete constrained network protocol stack for wireless sensor networks and Internet of Things.
Operational Technology (OT) – the hardware and software dedicated to detecting or causing changes in physical processes through direct monitoring and/or control of physical devices such as valves, pumps, etc.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
Organizational architecture has two very different meanings.
Organizational culture encompasses values and behaviours that "contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization".
Panopticism is a social theory named after the Panopticon, originally developed by French philosopher Michel Foucault in his book Discipline and Punish. The "panopticon" refers to an experimental laboratory of power in which behaviour could be modified, and Foucault viewed the panopticon as a symbol of the disciplinary society of surveillance.
The Panopticon is a type of institutional building and a system of control designed by the English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham in the late 18th century.
A parabolic antenna is an antenna that uses a parabolic reflector, a curved surface with the cross-sectional shape of a parabola, to direct the radio waves.
A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network for interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspace.
Peter-Paul Verbeek (born 6 December 1970, Middelburg) is a Dutch philosopher of technology, chair of the philosophy department at the University of Twente (Netherlands), member of the Dutch council for the Humanities and chair of the Society for Philosophy and Technology.
Philip N. Howard is a sociologist and communication researcher who studies the impact of information technologies on democracy and social inequality.
The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.
Politico, known earlier as The Politico, is an American political journalism company based in Arlington County, Virginia, that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally.
Power-line communication (PLC) carries data on a conductor that is also used simultaneously for AC electric power transmission or electric power distribution to consumers.
Predictive maintenance (PdM) techniques are designed to help determine the condition of in-service equipment in order to predict when maintenance should be performed.
Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.
Privacy by design calls for privacy to be taken into account throughout the whole engineering process.
Automatic process control in continuous production processes is a combination of control engineering and chemical engineering disciplines that uses industrial control systems to achieve a production level of consistency, economy and safety which could not be achieved purely by human manual control.
Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) is an American multi-national consumer goods corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio, founded in 1837 by British American William Procter and Irish American James Gamble.
Prognostics is an engineering discipline focused on predicting the time at which a system or a component will no longer perform its intended function.
In telecommunications, a proprietary protocol is a communications protocol owned by a single organization or individual.
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.
In software architecture, publish–subscribe is a messaging pattern where senders of messages, called publishers, do not program the messages to be sent directly to specific receivers, called subscribers, but instead categorize published messages into classes without knowledge of which subscribers, if any, there may be.
QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional barcode) first designed in 1994 for the automotive industry in Japan.
Quality of service (QoS) is the description or measurement of the overall performance of a service, such as a telephony or computer network or a cloud computing service, particularly the performance seen by the users of the network.
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects.
A reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) is one designed at the outset for rapid change in its structure, as well as its hardware and software components, in order to quickly adjust its production capacity and functionality within a part family in response to sudden market changes or intrinsic system change.
Remote patient monitoring (RPM) is a technology to enable monitoring of patients outside of conventional clinical settings (e.g. in the home), which may increase access to care and decrease healthcare delivery costs.
Representational State Transfer (REST) is an architectural style that defines a set of constraints and properties based on HTTP.
The San Francisco Bay Area (popularly referred to as the Bay Area) is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun estuaries in the northern part of the U.S. state of California.
The port city of Santander (Cántabru: Sanander) is the capital of the autonomous community and historical region of Cantabria situated on the north coast of Spain.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
The Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web through standards by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
Sensor fusion is combining of sensory data or data derived from disparate sources such that the resulting information has less uncertainty than would be possible when these sources were used individually.
A service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a style of software design where services are provided to the other components by application components, through a communication protocol over a network.
Sigfox is a French company founded in 2009 that builds wireless networks to connect low-power objects such as electricity meters and smartwatches, which need to be continuously on and emitting small amounts of data.
A smart city is an urban area that uses different types of electronic data collection sensors to supply information which is used to manage assets and resources efficiently.
A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operational and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficient resources.
A smart meter is an electronic device that records consumption of electric energy and communicates the information to the electricity supplier for monitoring and billing.
Smart Technologies Corporation is a Canadian company headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Smart traffic lights or Intelligent traffic lights are a vehicle traffic control system that combines traditional traffic lights with an array of sensors and artificial intelligence to intelligently route vehicle and pedestrian traffic.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.
Songdo International Business District (Songdo IBD) is a new smart city or "ubiquitous city" built from scratch on of reclaimed land along Incheon's waterfront, southwest of Seoul, South Korea and connected to Incheon International Airport by a reinforced concrete highway bridge, called Incheon Bridge.
A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of a group of affected adopters.
The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).
A statistical model is a mathematical model that embodies a set of statistical assumptions concerning the generation of some sample data and similar data from a larger population.
A Supply Chain Network (SCN) is an evolution of the basic supply chain.
Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems.
This article describe science and technology convergence, with illustrations to convergence of emerging technologies (NBIC, nano-, bio-, info- and cognitive technologies) and convergence of media technology.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Register (nicknamed El Reg) is a British technology news and opinion website co-founded in 1994 by Mike Magee, John Lettice and Ross Alderson.
Thread is an IPv6-based, low-power mesh networking technology for IoT products, intended to be secure and future-proof.
Tim O'Reilly (born 6 June 1954) is the founder of O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates).
Thomas M. "Tom" Engelhardt (born 1944) is an American writer and editor.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now deprecated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.
A tsunami warning system (TWS) is used to detect tsunamis in advance and issue warnings to prevent loss of life and damage.
Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of improving electromagnetic compatibility.
Ubiquitous computing (or "ubicomp") is a concept in software engineering and computer science where computing is made to appear anytime and everywhere.
A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters designed for unambiguous identification of resources and extensibility via the URI scheme.
The Unique Device Identification (UDI) System is intended to assign a unique identifier to medical devices within the United States.
With reference to a given (possibly implicit) set of objects, a unique identifier (UID) is any identifier which is guaranteed to be unique among all identifiers used for those objects and for a specific purpose.
The University of Twente (Dutch: Universiteit Twente;, abbr. UT) is a public research university located in Enschede, Netherlands.
Uptime is a measure of the time a machine, typically a computer, has been working and available.
A value proposition is a promise of value to be delivered, communicated, and acknowledged.
A very small aperture terminal (VSAT) is a two-way satellite ground station with a dish antenna that is smaller than 3.8 meters.
Visible light communication (VLC) is a data communications variant which uses visible light between 400 and 800 THz (780–375 nm).
A voice command device (VCD) is a device controlled by means of the human voice.
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.
Wearable technology, wearables, fashionable technology, wearable devices, tech togs, or fashion electronics are smart electronic devices (electronic device with micro-controllers) that can be worn on the body as implants or accessories.
The Web of Things (WoT) is a term used to describe approaches, software architectural styles and programming patterns that allow real-world objects to be part of the World Wide Web.
The term web service is either.
Wi-Fi or WiFi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.
The Wii U is a home video game console developed by Nintendo, and the successor to the Wii.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
Wireless sensor network (WSN) refers to a group of spatially dispersed and dedicated sensors for monitoring and recording the physical conditions of the environment and organizing the collected data at a central location.
Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a communication protocol for message-oriented middleware based on XML (Extensible Markup Language).
XMPP Standards Foundation (XSF) is the foundation in charge of the standardization of the protocol extensions of XMPP, the open standard of instant messaging and presence of the IETF.
Z-Wave is a wireless communications protocol used primarily for home automation.
ZDNet is a business technology news website published by CBS Interactive, along with TechRepublic.
ZeroMQ (also spelled ØMQ, 0MQ or ZMQ) is a high-performance asynchronous messaging library, aimed at use in distributed or concurrent applications.
Zigbee is an IEEE 802.15.4-based specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks with small, low-power digital radios, such as for home automation, medical device data collection, and other low-power low-bandwidth needs, designed for small scale projects which need wireless connection.
The 2016 Dyn cyberattack took place on October 21, 2016, and involved multiple distributed denial-of-service attacks (DDoS attacks) targeting systems operated by Domain Name System (DNS) provider Dyn, which caused major Internet platforms and services to be unavailable to large swathes of users in Europe and North America.
5G is a marketing term for some new mobile technologies.
6LoWPAN is an acronym of IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks.
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