157 relations: Abstraction (computer science), Abstraction layer, Address Resolution Protocol, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Application layer, Application programming interface, Application-specific integrated circuit, ARPANET, Association for Computing Machinery, Bandwidth throttling, Barry Appelman, BBN Technologies, Berkeley Software Distribution, Best-effort delivery, Black box, Bob Kahn, Carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection, Checksum, Chipset, Client (computing), Client–server model, Communication protocol, Computer network, Conceptual model, Connection-oriented communication, Connectionless communication, CYCLADES, DARPA, Data link layer, Datagram, David D. Clark, DECnet, Device driver, Digital Equipment Corporation, Domain Name System, DOS, Douglas Comer, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, Embedded system, Encapsulation (networking), End-to-end principle, Ephemeral port, Error detection and correction, Ethernet, External Data Representation, Fast Local Internet Protocol, File Transfer Protocol, Firewall (computing), Firmware, Flag day (computing), ..., Flow control (data), FTP Software, Gateway (telecommunications), Generic Routing Encapsulation, Header (computing), High-Level Data Link Control, Hubert Zimmermann, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, IBM Systems Network Architecture, Information Processing Techniques Office, Information Sciences Institute, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Interface Message Processor, International Telecommunication Union, Internet, Internet Architecture Board, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, Internet Control Message Protocol, Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet Group Management Protocol, Internet layer, Internet Protocol, Internet Society, Internetworking, Interop, IP address, IP multicast, IP over Avian Carriers, IPsec, IPv4, IPv6, Jon Postel, KA9Q, Library (computing), Link layer, List of automation protocols, List of information technology initialisms, List of IP protocol numbers, List of TCP and UDP port numbers, Lists of network protocols, Louis Pouzin, LwIP, Medium access control, Microsoft Windows, MIME, Multihoming, MVS, Neighbor Discovery Protocol, Network address translation, Network congestion, Network Control Program, Network interface controller, Network News Transfer Protocol, Network packet, Network segmentation, Network socket, Network switch, Oleg Vishnepolsky, Open architecture, Open Systems Interconnection, Open-source model, OS/2, OSI model, Packet radio, PARC (company), PARC Universal Packet, Peer-to-peer, Personal computer, Physical layer, Port (computer networking), Proprietary protocol, Protocol stack, Real-time Transport Protocol, Reliable byte stream, Remote procedure call, Request for Comments, Resource Reservation Protocol, Reverse Address Resolution Protocol, Robustness principle, Router (computing), Routing, Session Initiation Protocol, Signalling System No. 7, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, Software, Stanford University, Stream Control Transmission Protocol, Streaming media, T/TCP, Technical standard, Telnet, The Wollongong Group, Transmission Control Protocol, Transmission medium, Transport layer, Tunneling protocol, United States Department of Defense, University College London, Unix domain socket, User Datagram Protocol, Vint Cerf, Virtual private network, VM (operating system), Voice over IP, W. Richard Stevens, X.400, Xerox Network Systems. Expand index (107 more) » « Shrink index
In software engineering and computer science, abstraction is.
In computing, an abstraction layer or abstraction level is a way of hiding the implementation details of a particular set of functionality, allowing the separation of concerns to facilitate interoperability and platform independence.
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a communication protocol used for discovering the link layer address, such as a MAC address, associated with a given network layer address, typically an IPv4 address.
Andrew Stuart Tanenbaum (born March 16, 1944), sometimes referred to by the handle ast, is an American-Dutch computer scientist and professor emeritus of computer science at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in the Netherlands.
An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
Bandwidth throttling is the intentional slowing or speeding of an Internet service by an Internet service provider (ISP).
Barry Appelman is recognized as being the father of the "buddy list" and AOL instant messenger.
BBN Technologies (originally Bolt, Beranek and Newman) is an American high-technology company which provides research and development services.
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.
Best-effort delivery describes a network service in which the network does not provide any guarantee that data is delivered or that delivery meets any quality of service.
In science, computing, and engineering, a black box is a device, system or object which can be viewed in terms of its inputs and outputs (or transfer characteristics), without any knowledge of its internal workings.
Robert Elliot Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American electrical engineer, who, along with Vint Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet.
Carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) is a media access control method used most notably in early Ethernet technology for local area networking.
A checksum is a small-sized datum derived from a block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors which may have been introduced during its transmission or storage.
In a computer system, a chipset is a set of electronic components in an integrated circuit known as a "Data Flow Management System" that manages the data flow between the processor, memory and peripherals.
A client is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server.
The client–server model is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
A conceptual model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.
Connection-oriented communication is a network communication mode in telecommunications and computer networking, where a communication session or a semi-permanent connection is established before any useful data can be transferred, and where a stream of data is delivered in the same order as it was sent.
Connectionless communication, often referred to as CL-mode communication,Information Processing Systems - Open Systems Interconnection, "Transport Service Definition - Addendum 1: Connectionless-mode Transmission", International Organization for Standardization, International Standard 8072/AD 1, December 1986.
The CYCLADES computer network was a French research network created in the early 1970s.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
The data link layer, or layer 2, is the second layer of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking.
A datagram is a basic transfer unit associated with a packet-switched network.
David Dana "Dave" Clark (born April 7, 1944) is an American computer scientist and Internet pioneer who has been involved with Internet developments since the mid-1970s.
DECnet is a suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation.
In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.
DOS is a family of disk operating systems.
Douglas Earl Comer is a professor of computer science at Purdue University, where he teaches courses on operating systems and computer networks.
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used on UDP/IP networks whereby a DHCP server dynamically assigns an IP address and other network configuration parameters to each device on a network so they can communicate with other IP networks.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
In computer networking, encapsulation is a method of designing modular communication protocols in which logically separate functions in the network are abstracted from their underlying structures by inclusion or information hiding within higher level objects.
The end-to-end principle is a design framework in computer networking.
An ephemeral port is a short-lived transport protocol port for Internet Protocol (IP) communications.
In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).
External Data Representation (XDR) is a standard data serialization format, for uses such as computer network protocols.
The Fast Local Internet Protocol (FLIP) is a suite of internet protocols, which provide Security transparency, security and network management.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.
In electronic systems and computing, firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.
A flag day, as used in system administration, is a change which requires a complete restart or conversion of a sizable body of software or data.
In data communications, flow control is the process of managing the rate of data transmission between two nodes to prevent a fast sender from overwhelming a slow receiver.
FTP Software was a software company incorporated in 1986 by James van Bokkelen, John Romkey (co-author of the MIT PC/IP package), Nancy Connor, Roxanne van Bokkelen (née Ritchie), Dave Bridgham and several other founding shareholders.
A gateway is the piece of networking hardware used in telecommunications via communications networks that allows data to flow from one discrete network to another.
Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) is a tunneling protocol developed by Cisco Systems that can encapsulate a wide variety of network layer protocols inside virtual point-to-point links over an Internet Protocol network.
In information technology, header refers to supplemental data placed at the beginning of a block of data being stored or transmitted.
High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented code-transparent synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Hubert Zimmermann (1941 – November 9, 2012) was a French software engineer and a pioneer of computer networking.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) is IBM's proprietary networking architecture, created in 1974.
The Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO), originally "Command and Control Research",Lyon, Matthew; Hafner, Katie (1999-08-19).
The USC Information Sciences Institute (ISI) is a component of the University of Southern California (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering, and specializes in research and development in information processing, computing, and communications technologies.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
The Interface Message Processor (IMP) was the packet switching node used to interconnect participant networks to the ARPANET from the late 1960s to 1989.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) is "a committee of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and an advisory body of the Internet Society (ISOC).
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a function of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and Internet numbers.
The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a supporting protocol in the Internet protocol suite.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a communications protocol used by hosts and adjacent routers on IPv4 networks to establish multicast group memberships.
The internet layer is a group of internetworking methods, protocols, and specifications in the Internet protocol suite that are used to transport datagrams (packets) from the originating host across network boundaries, if necessary, to the destination host specified by an IP address.
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.
The Internet Society (ISOC) is an American non-profit organization founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet-related standards, education, access, and policy.
Internetworking is the practice of connecting a computer network with other networks through the use of gateways that provide a common method of routing information packets between the networks.
Interop is an annual trade fair for information technology organised by UBM.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.
IP multicast is a method of sending Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams to a group of interested receivers in a single transmission.
In computer networking, IP over Avian Carriers (IPoAC) is a proposal to carry Internet Protocol (IP) traffic by birds such as homing pigeons.
In computing, Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a secure network protocol suite of IPv4 that authenticates and encrypts the packets of data sent over an IPv4 network.
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.
Jonathan Bruce Postel (August 6, 1943 – October 16, 1998) was an American computer scientist who made many significant contributions to the development of the Internet, particularly with respect to standards.
KA9Q, also called KA9Q NOS or simply NOS, was a popular early implementation of TCP/IP and associated protocols for amateur packet radio systems and smaller personal computers connected via serial lines.
In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.
In computer networking, the link layer is the lowest layer in the Internet Protocol Suite, the networking architecture of the Internet.
This is a list of communication protocols used for the automation of processes (industrial or otherwise), such as for building automation, power-system automation, automatic meter reading, and vehicular automation.
The table below lists information technology initialisms and acronyms in common and current usage.
Below are the Assigned Internet Protocol Numbers found in the Protocol field of the IPv4 header and the Next Header field of the IPv6 header.
This is a list of TCP and UDP port numbers used by protocols of the application layer of the Internet protocol suite for the establishment of host-to-host connectivity.
This is a list of articles that list different types or classifications of communication protocols used in computer networks.
Louis Pouzin (born 1931 in Chantenay-Saint-Imbert, Nièvre, France) invented the datagram and designed an early packet communications network, CYCLADES.
lwIP (lightweight IP) is a widely used open source TCP/IP stack designed for embedded systems.
In IEEE 802 LAN/MAN standards, the medium access control (MAC) sublayer (also known as the media access control sublayer) and the logical link control (LLC) sublayer together make up the data link layer.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet standard that extends the format of email to support.
Multihoming is the practice of connecting a host or a computer network to more than one network.
Multiple Virtual Storage, more commonly called MVS, was the most commonly used operating system on the System/370 and System/390 IBM mainframe computers.
The Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP, ND) is a protocol in the Internet protocol suite used with Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6).
Network address translation (NAT) is a method of remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information in the IP header of packets while they are in transit across a traffic routing device.
Network congestion in data networking and queueing theory is the reduced quality of service that occurs when a network node or link is carrying more data than it can handle.
The Network Control Program (NCP) provided the middle layers of the protocol stack running on host computers of the ARPANET, the predecessor to the modern Internet.
A network interface controller (NIC, also known as a network interface card, network adapter, LAN adapter or physical network interface, and by similar terms) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.
The Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) is an application protocol used for transporting Usenet news articles (netnews) between news servers and for reading and posting articles by end user client applications.
A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network.
Network segmentation in computer networking is the act or practice of splitting a computer network into subnetworks, each being a network segment.
A network socket is an internal endpoint for sending or receiving data within a node on a computer network.
A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub, officially MAC bridge) is a computer networking device that connects devices together on a computer network by using packet switching to receive, process, and forward data to the destination device.
Oleg Vishnepolsky is the author of IBM's S2 Spreadsheet.
Open architecture is a type of computer architecture or software architecture that is designed to make adding, upgrading and swapping components easy.
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci.
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.
Packet radio is a form of packet switching technology used to transmit digital data via wireless communications.
PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California, with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.
The PARC Universal Packet (commonly abbreviated to PUP or PuP, although the original documents usually use Pup) was one of the two earliest internetwork protocol suites; it was created by researchers at Xerox PARC in the mid-1970s.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer.
In computer networking, a port is an endpoint of communication in an operating system, which identifies a specific process or a type of network service running on that system.
In telecommunications, a proprietary protocol is a communications protocol owned by a single organization or individual.
The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family.
The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks.
A reliable byte stream is a common service paradigm in computer networking; it refers to a byte stream in which the bytes which emerge from the communication channel at the recipient are exactly the same, and in exactly the same order, as they were when the sender inserted them into the channel.
In distributed computing, a remote procedure call (RPC) is when a computer program causes a procedure (subroutine) to execute in a different address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network), which is coded as if it were a normal (local) procedure call, without the programmer explicitly coding the details for the remote interaction.
In information and communications technology, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a type of publication from the technology community.
The Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is a transport layer protocol designed to reserve resources across a network for quality of service (QoS) using the integrated services model.
The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is an obsolete computer networking protocol used by a client computer to request its Internet Protocol (IPv4) address from a computer network, when all it has available is its link layer or hardware address, such as a MAC address.
In computing, the robustness principle is a design guideline for software: The principle is also known as Postel's law, after Jon Postel, who wrote in an early specification of TCP: In other words, programs that send messages to other machines (or to other programs on the same machine) should conform completely to the specifications, but programs that receive messages should accept non-conformant input as long as the meaning is clear.
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.
Routing is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network, or between or across multiple networks.
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a communications protocol for signaling and controlling multimedia communication sessions in applications of Internet telephony for voice and video calls, in private IP telephone systems, as well as in instant messaging over Internet Protocol (IP) networks.
Signaling System No.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (email) transmission.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a computer networking communications protocol which operates at the transport layer and serves a role similar to the popular protocols TCP and UDP.
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider.
T/TCP (Transactional Transmission Control Protocol) is a variant of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems.
Telnet is a protocol used on the Internet or local area network to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection.
The Wollongong Group (TWG) was one of the first to sell commercial software products based on the Unix operating system.
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.
A transmission medium is a material substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) that can propagate energy waves.
In computer networking, the transport layer is a conceptual division of methods in the layered architecture of protocols in the network stack in the Internet Protocol Suite and the OSI model.
In computer networks, a tunneling protocol is a communications protocol that allows for the secure movement of data from one network to another.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
A Unix domain socket or IPC socket (inter-process communication socket) is a data communications endpoint for exchanging data between processes executing on the same host operating system.
In computer networking, the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suite.
Vinton Gray Cerf ForMemRS, (born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn.
A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.
VM (often: VM/CMS) is a family of IBM virtual machine operating systems used on IBM mainframes System/370, System/390, zSeries, System z and compatible systems, including the Hercules emulator for personal computers.
Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.
William Richard (Rich) Stevens (February 5, 1951September 1, 1999) was a Northern Rhodesia-born American author of computer science books, in particular books on UNIX and TCP/IP.
X.400 is a suite of ITU-T Recommendations that define standards for Data Communication Networks for Message Handling Systems (MHS) — more commonly known as email.
Xerox Network Systems (XNS) is a computer networking protocol suite developed by Xerox within the Xerox Network Systems Architecture.
DoD Model, DoD model, Five-layer TCP/IP model, Five-layer adaptation of TCP/IP model, Five-layer adaptation of the TCP/IP model, IP Protocol Family, IP Protocol Suite, IP Stack, IP based network, IP model, IP network, IP networks, IP protocol family, IP protocol suite, IP stack, IP-based network, IPstack, Internet Protocol Family, Internet Protocol Suite, Internet Protocol suite, Internet Protocols, Internet Services, Internet model, Internet protocol family, Internet protocols, Internet reference model, Internet technologies, Internet technology, Ip stack, Ip suite, TCP IP, TCP-IP, TCP/IP, TCP/IP Protocol, TCP/IP Suite, TCP/IP abc's, TCP/IP five layer model, TCP/IP model, TCP/IP network, TCP/IP protocol stack, TCP/IP protocol suite, TCP/IP reference model, TCP/IP stack, TCPIP, Tcp ip model, Tcp-ip model, Tcp/Ip, Tcp/ip, Tcp/ip model, Tcpip, The Crap Phil Is Pushing, Transmission Control Program, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.