92 relations: Address space, Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller, Arithmetic logic unit, Asynchronous communication, Autonomous peripheral operation, BIOS interrupt call, Bus (computing), Bus error, Central processing unit, Computer, Computer hardware, Computer keyboard, Computer mouse, Computer multitasking, Computer network, Conventional PCI, Deadlock, Device driver, Disk controller, Electromagnetic interference, Electronic hardware, Encryption, Ethernet, Event (computing), Event-driven programming, Exception handling, Floating-point arithmetic, Hard disk drive, Hardware register, Industry Standard Architecture, Instruction set architecture, INT (x86 instruction), Intel, Inter-process communication, Inter-processor interrupt, Interrupt, Interrupt coalescing, Interrupt handler, Interrupt latency, Interrupt request (PC architecture), Interrupt storm, Interrupt vector table, Interrupts in 65xx processors, Kernel (operating system), Kernel.org, Locality of reference, Logic level, LWN.net, Memory barrier, Memory controller, ..., Message Signaled Interrupts, Misnomer, Multiplexing, Multiprocessing, Network interface controller, Non-maskable interrupt, O'Reilly Media, Open collector, Operating system, Oscilloscope, Parallel port, PCI Express, Peripheral, Polling (computer science), Process (computing), Program counter, Programmable interrupt controller, Protection ring, Pull-up resistor, Pullstring, Push-button, Queue (abstract data type), Ralf Brown's Interrupt List, Real-time computing, Scheduling (computing), Segmentation fault, Signal (IPC), Signal edge, Software, State (computer science), Subroutine, System call, System programming, Tektronix, Time-triggered architecture, Trap (computing), Typeahead, Universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter, Utility frequency, Watchdog timer, X86, Zilog Z80. Expand index (42 more) » « Shrink index
In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.
In computing, Intel's Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller (APIC) is a family of interrupt controllers.
An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers.
In telecommunications, asynchronous communication is transmission of data, generally without the use of an external clock signal, where data can be transmitted intermittently rather than in a steady stream.
In computing autonomous peripheral operation is a hardware feature found in some modern microcontroller architectures to off-load certain tasks into embedded autonomous peripherals in order to minimize latencies and improve throughput in hard real-time applications as well as to save energy in ultra-low-power designs.
BIOS interrupt calls are a facility that operating systems and application programs use to invoke the facilities of the Basic Input/Output System on IBM PC compatible computers.
In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.
In computing, a bus error is a fault raised by hardware, notifying an operating system (OS) that a process is trying to access memory that the CPU cannot physically address: an invalid address for the address bus, hence the name.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface.
In computing, multitasking is the concurrent execution of multiple tasks (also known as processes) over a certain period of time.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Conventional PCI, often shortened to PCI, is a local computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer.
In concurrent computing, a deadlock is a state in which each member of a group is waiting for some other member to take action, such as sending a message or more commonly releasing a lock.
In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.
The disk controller is the controller circuit which enables the CPU to communicate with a hard disk, floppy disk or other kind of disk drive.
Electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.
Electronic hardware consists of interconnected electronic components which perform analog or logic operations on received and locally stored information to produce as output or store resulting new information or to provide control for output actuator mechanisms.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).
In computing, an event is an action or occurrence recognized by software, often originating asynchronously from the external environment, that may be handled by the software.
In computer programming, event-driven programming is a programming paradigm in which the flow of the program is determined by events such as user actions (mouse clicks, key presses), sensor outputs, or messages from other programs/threads.
Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
In digital electronics, especially computing, hardware registers are circuits typically composed of flip flops, often with many characteristics similar to memory, such as.
Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is a retronym term for the 16-bit internal bus of IBM PC/AT and similar computers based on the Intel 80286 and its immediate successors during the 1980s.
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.
INT is an assembly language instruction for x86 processors that generates a software interrupt.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
In computer science, inter-process communication or interprocess communication (IPC) refers specifically to the mechanisms an operating system provides to allow the processes to manage shared data.
An inter-processor interrupt (IPI) is a special type of interrupt by which one processor may interrupt another processor in a multiprocessor system if the interrupting processor requires action from the other processor.
In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.
Interrupt coalescing, also known as interrupt moderation, is a technique in which events which would normally trigger a hardware interrupt are held back, either until a certain amount of work is pending, or a timeout timer triggers.
In computer systems programming, an interrupt handler, also known as an interrupt service routine or ISR, is a special block of code associated with a specific interrupt condition.
In computing, interrupt latency is the time that elapses from when an interrupt is generated to when the source of the interrupt is serviced.
In a computer, an interrupt request (or IRQ) is a hardware signal sent to the processor that temporarily stops a running program and allows a special program, an interrupt handler, to run instead.
In operating systems, an interrupt storm is an event during which a processor receives an inordinate number of interrupts that consume the majority of the processor's time.
An "interrupt vector table" (IVT) is a data structure that associates a list of interrupt handlers with a list of interrupt requests in a table of interrupt vectors.
The 65xx family of microprocessors, consisting of the MOS Technology 6502 and its derivatives, the WDC 65C02, WDC 65C802 and WDC 65C816, and CSG 65CE02, all handle interrupts in a similar fashion.
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
kernel.org is the main distribution point of source code for the Linux kernel, which is the base of the Linux operating system.
In computer science, locality of reference, also known as the principle of locality, is a term for the phenomenon in which the same values, or related storage locations, are frequently accessed, depending on the memory access pattern.
In digital circuits, a logic level is one of a finite number of states that a digital signal can inhabit.
LWN.net is a computing webzine with an emphasis on free software and software for Linux and other Unix-like operating systems.
A memory barrier, also known as a membar, memory fence or fence instruction, is a type of barrier instruction that causes a central processing unit (CPU) or compiler to enforce an ordering constraint on memory operations issued before and after the barrier instruction.
The memory controller is a digital circuit that manages the flow of data going to and from the computer's main memory.
Message Signaled Interrupts (MSI) are an alternative in-band method of signaling an interrupt, using special in-band messages to replace traditional out-of-band assertion of dedicated interrupt lines.
A misnomer is a name or term that suggests an idea that is known to be wrong.
In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.
Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system.
A network interface controller (NIC, also known as a network interface card, network adapter, LAN adapter or physical network interface, and by similar terms) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.
In computing, a non-maskable interrupt (NMI) is a hardware interrupt that standard interrupt-masking techniques in the system cannot ignore.
O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American media company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books and Web sites and produces conferences on computer technology topics.
An open collector is a common type of output found on many integrated circuits (IC), which behaves like a switch that is either connected to ground or disconnected.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
An oscilloscope, previously called an oscillograph, and informally known as a scope or o-scope, CRO (for cathode-ray oscilloscope), or DSO (for the more modern digital storage oscilloscope), is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time.
A parallel port is a type of interface found on computers (personal and otherwise) for connecting peripherals.
PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express), officially abbreviated as PCIe or PCI-e, is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard, designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X, and AGP bus standards.
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.
Polling, or polled operation, in computer science, refers to actively sampling the status of an external device by a client program as a synchronous activity.
In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed.
The program counter (PC), commonly called the instruction pointer (IP) in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, and sometimes called the instruction address register (IAR), the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence.
In computing, a programmable interrupt controller (PIC) is a device that is used to combine several sources of interrupt onto one or more CPU lines, while allowing priority levels to be assigned to its interrupt outputs.
In computer science, hierarchical protection domains, often called protection rings, are mechanisms to protect data and functionality from faults (by improving fault tolerance) and malicious behaviour (by providing computer security).
In electronic logic circuits, a pull-up resistor is a resistor used to ensure a known state for a signal.
A pullstring (pull string, pull-string), pullcord (pull cord, pull-cord), or pullchain (pull-chain, pull chain) is a string, cord, or chain wound on a spring-loaded spindle that engages a mechanism when it is pulled.
A push-button (also spelled pushbutton) or simply button is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process.
In computer science, a queue is a particular kind of abstract data type or collection in which the entities in the collection are kept in order and the principal (or only) operations on the collection are the addition of entities to the rear terminal position, known as enqueue, and removal of entities from the front terminal position, known as dequeue.
Ralf Brown's Interrupt List (aka RBIL, x86 Interrupt List, MS-DOS Interrupt List or INTER) is a comprehensive list of interrupts, calls, hooks, interfaces, data structures, CMOS settings, memory and port addresses, as well as processor opcodes and special function registers for x86 machines (including many clones) from the very start of the PC era in 1981 up into the year 2000, most of it still applying to PCs today.
In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.
In computing, scheduling is the method by which work specified by some means is assigned to resources that complete the work.
In computing, a segmentation fault (often shortened to segfault) or access violation is a fault, or failure condition, raised by hardware with memory protection, notifying an operating system (OS) the software has attempted to access a restricted area of memory (a memory access violation).
Signals are a limited form of inter-process communication (IPC), typically used in Unix, Unix-like, and other POSIX-compliant operating systems.
In electronics, a signal edge is a transition in a digital signal either from low to high (0 to 1) or from high to low (1 to 0).
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
In information technology and computer science, a program is described as stateful if it is designed to remember preceding events or user interactions; the remembered information is called the state of the system.
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.
In computing, a system call is the programmatic way in which a computer program requests a service from the kernel of the operating system it is executed on.
System programming (or systems programming) is the activity of programming computer system software.
Tektronix, Inc., historically widely known as "Tek", is an American company best known for manufacturing test and measurement devices such as oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, and video and mobile test protocol equipment.
Time-triggered architecture (abbreviated as TTA), also known as a time-triggered system, is a computer system that executes one or more sets of tasks according to a pre-determined and set task schedule.
In computing and operating systems, a trap, also known as an exception or a fault, is typicallyThere is a wide variation in the nomenclature.
Typeahead is a feature of computers and software (and some typewriters) that enables users to continue typing regardless of program or computer operation—the user may type in whatever speed is desired, and if the receiving software is busy at the time it will be called to handle this later.
A universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter (UART) is a computer hardware device for asynchronous serial communication in which the data format and transmission speeds are configurable.
The utility frequency, (power) line frequency (American English) or mains frequency (British English) is the nominal frequency of the oscillations of alternating current (AC) in an electric power grid transmitted from a power station to the end-user.
A watchdog timer (sometimes called a computer operating properly or COP timer, or simply a watchdog) is an electronic timer that is used to detect and recover from computer malfunctions.
x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.
The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor.
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