136 relations: Absorption spectroscopy, Aether (classical element), Alnilam, Alnitak, Amino acid, Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Astronomical unit, Astronomy, Astrophysical maser, Astrophysics, Atom, Beta Scorpii, Big Bang, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, Binary star, Blueshift, Calcium, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, Cosmic dust, Cosmic ray, Coulomb, Dark nebula, Density, Diffuse interstellar bands, DNA, Doppler effect, Dynamics (mechanics), Edward Emerson Barnard, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electronvolt, Energy, Energy level, Epicureanism, Exoplanet, Extinction (astronomy), Extremely high frequency, Fossil stellar magnetic field, Galactic corona, Galaxy, Gas, Gravitational collapse, H II region, H-alpha, Heliosphere, Helium, Hydrogen, Hydrogen line, ..., Hydrogenation, Hydroxylation, Infrared, Infrared astronomy, Interplanetary medium, Interstellar ice, Ion, Jacobus Kapteyn, Johannes Franz Hartmann, Kelvin, Kinetic energy, Kristian Birkeland, List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules, List of plasma physics articles, Local Bubble, Local Interstellar Cloud, Luminiferous aether, Lyman series, Magnetic field, Magnetohydrodynamics, Mass, Matter, Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, Metallicity, Milky Way, Mintaka, Molecular cloud, Molecule, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, NASA, National Science Foundation, Natural philosophy, Nebula, Nitrogen, Nucleotide, Organic compound, Orion (constellation), Outer space, Oxygen, Oxygenate, PAH world hypothesis, Parsec, Photodissociation region, Photon, Physicist, Planetary nebula, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Pressure, Protein, Protoplanetary disk, Radial velocity, Radiance, Radio astronomy, Radio telescope, Redshift, Shock wave, Sodium, Solar System, Solar wind, Space.com, Spectroscopy, Speed of sound, Star, Star formation, Star system, Stellar evolution, Stellar wind, Stellar-wind bubble, Sun, Superbubble, Supernova, Supernova remnant, The Astrophysical Journal, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Timeline of knowledge about the interstellar and intergalactic medium, Turbulence, Ultraviolet, Ultraviolet astronomy, Very low frequency, Victor Ambartsumian, Victor Francis Hess, Voyager 1, Wavelength, Work function, X-ray, X-ray astronomy. Expand index (86 more) » « Shrink index
Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (αἰθήρ aithēr), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.
Alnilam, designated Epsilon Orionis (ε Orionis, abbreviated Epsilon Ori, ε Ori) and 46 Orionis (46 Ori), is a large blue supergiant star some 2,000 light-years distant in the constellation of Orion.
Alnitak, designated Zeta Orionis (ζ Orionis, abbreviated Zeta Ori, ζ Ori) and 50 Orionis (50 Ori), is a multiple star several hundred parsecs from the Sun in the constellation of Orion.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology is a history of science by Isaac Asimov, written as the biographies of over 1500 scientists.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
An astrophysical maser is a naturally occurring source of stimulated spectral line emission, typically in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Beta Scorpii (β Scorpii, abbreviated Beta Sco, β Sco) is a multiple star system in the southern zodiac constellation of Scorpius.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
In physical cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (abbreviated BBN, also known as primordial nucleosynthesis, arch(a)eonucleosynthesis, archonucleosynthesis, protonucleosynthesis and pal(a)eonucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen (hydrogen-1, 1H, having a single proton as a nucleus) during the early phases of the Universe.
A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.
A blueshift is any decrease in wavelength, with a corresponding increase in frequency, of an electromagnetic wave; the opposite effect is referred to as redshift.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.
A dark nebula or absorption nebula is a type of interstellar cloud that is so dense that it obscures the light from objects behind it, such as background stars and emission or reflection nebulae.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption features seen in the spectra of astronomical objects in the Milky Way and other galaxies.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.
Dynamics is the branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies the motion of objects without reference to these forces.
Edward Emerson Barnard (December 16, 1857 – February 6, 1923) was an American astronomer.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
In astronomy, extinction is the absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by dust and gas between an emitting astronomical object and the observer.
Extremely high frequency (EHF) is the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) designation for the band of radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz).
Fossil stellar magnetic fields or fossil fields are proposed as possible interstellar magnetic fields that became locked into certain stars.
The terms galactic corona and gaseous corona have been used in the first decade of the 21st century to describe a hot, ionised, gaseous component in the Galactic halo of the Milky Way.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gravitational collapse is the contraction of an astronomical object due to the influence of its own gravity, which tends to draw matter inward toward the center of gravity.
An H II region or HII region is a region of interstellar atomic hydrogen that is ionized.
H-alpha (Hα) is a specific deep-red visible spectral line in the Balmer series with a wavelength of 656.28 nm in air; it occurs when a hydrogen electron falls from its third to second lowest energy level.
The heliosphere is the bubble-like region of space dominated by the Sun, which extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The hydrogen line, 21-centimeter line or H I line refers to the electromagnetic radiation spectral line that is created by a change in the energy state of neutral hydrogen atoms.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics that studies astronomical objects visible in infrared (IR) radiation.
The interplanetary medium is the material which fills the Solar System, and through which all the larger Solar System bodies, such as planets, dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets, move.
Interstellar ice consists of grains of volatiles in the ice phase that form in the interstellar medium.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Prof Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn FRS FRSE LLD (19 January 1851 – 18 June 1922) was a Dutch astronomer.
Johannes Franz Hartmann (January 11, 1865 – September 13, 1936) was a German physicist and astronomer.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Kristian Olaf Bernhard Birkeland (13 December 1867 – 15 June 1917) was a Norwegian scientist.
This is a list of molecules that have been detected in the interstellar medium and circumstellar envelopes, grouped by the number of component atoms.
This is a list of plasma physics topics.
The Local Bubble, or Local Cavity, is a relative cavity in the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Orion Arm of the Milky Way.
The Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC), also known as the Local Fluff, is the interstellar cloud roughly across through which the Solar System is currently moving.
In the late 19th century, luminiferous aether or ether ("luminiferous", meaning "light-bearing"), was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.
In physics and chemistry, the Lyman series is a hydrogen spectral series of transitions and resulting ultraviolet emission lines of the hydrogen atom as an electron goes from n ≥ 2 to n.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD; also magneto-fluid dynamics or hydro­magnetics) is the study of the magnetic properties of electrically conducting fluids.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
In physics (in particular in statistical mechanics), the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.
In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
Mintaka, also designated Delta Orionis (δ Orionis, abbreviated Delta Ori, δ Ori) and 34 Orionis (34 Ori) is a multiple star some 1,200 light years from the Sun in the constellation of Orion.
A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
A nebula (Latin for "cloud" or "fog"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygenated chemical compounds contain oxygen as a part of their chemical structure.
The PAH world hypothesis is a speculative hypothesis that proposes that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), known to be abundant in the universe, including in comets, and, as well, assumed to be abundant in the primordial soup of the early Earth, played a major role in the origin of life by mediating the synthesis of RNA molecules, leading into the RNA world.
The parsec (symbol: pc) is a unit of length used to measure large distances to astronomical objects outside the Solar System.
Photodissociation regions (or photon-dominated regions, or PDRs) are predominantly neutral regions of the interstellar medium in which far ultraviolet photons strongly influence the gas chemistry and act as the most important source of heat.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
A planetary nebula, abbreviated as PN or plural PNe, is a type of emission nebula consisting of an expanding, glowing shell of ionized gas ejected from red giant stars late in their lives.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.
The radial velocity of an object with respect to a given point is the rate of change of the distance between the object and the point.
In radiometry, radiance is the radiant flux emitted, reflected, transmitted or received by a given surface, per unit solid angle per unit projected area.
Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies.
A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.
In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.
In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse and form stars.
A star system or stellar system is a small number of stars that orbit each other, bound by gravitational attraction.
Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes over the course of time.
A stellar wind is a flow of gas ejected from the upper atmosphere of a star.
Stellar-wind bubble is a cavity light years across filled with hot gas blown into the interstellar medium by the high-velocity (several thousand km/s) stellar wind from a single massive star of type O or B. Weaker stellar winds also blow bubble structures, which are also called astrospheres.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A superbubble or supershell is a cavity which is hundreds of light years across as is populated with hot (106 K) gas atoms, less dense than the surrounding interstellar medium, blown against that medium and carved out by multiple supernovae and stellar winds.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.
Timeline of knowledge about the interstellar medium and intergalactic medium.
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Ultraviolet astronomy is the observation of electromagnetic radiation at ultraviolet wavelengths between approximately 10 and 320 nanometres; shorter wavelengths—higher energy photons—are studied by X-ray astronomy and gamma ray astronomy.
Very low frequency or VLF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kilohertz (kHz), corresponding to wavelengths from 100 to 10 kilometers, respectively.
Victor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian (Ви́ктор Амаза́спович Амбарцумя́н; Վիկտոր Համազասպի Համբարձումյան, Viktor Hamazaspi Hambardzumyan; 12 August 1996) was a Soviet Armenian scientist, and one of the founders of theoretical astrophysics.
Victor Franz Hess (24 June 188317 December 1964) was an Austrian-American physicist, and Nobel laureate in physics, who discovered cosmic rays.
Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
In solid-state physics, the work setting (sometimes spelled workfunction) is the minimum thermodynamic work (i.e. energy) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects.
Cosmic fog, Galactic dust, Inter-stellar space, Interstellar Medium, Interstellar gas, Interstellar magnetic field, Interstellar matter, Interstellar media, Interstellar radiation field, Interstellar wind, Space, Interstellar, Stellar fog, Warm Ionised Medium, Warm Neutral Medium.