105 relations: Abscess, Acute liver failure, Alexander Monro (secundus), Antihypertensive drug, Arnold–Chiari malformation, Artery, Atracurium besilate, Bag valve mask, Biot's respiration, Bleeding, Blood pressure, Blood vessel, Blood–brain barrier, Bradycardia, Brain, Brain herniation, Brain Trauma Foundation, Brain tumor, Brainstem, Bruise, Caffeine, Calcium channel blocker, Carbon dioxide, Carcinoma, Catheter, Cerebellum, Cerebral edema, Cerebral hemisphere, Cerebral perfusion pressure, Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, Cerebrospinal fluid, Circulatory system, Conjugate gaze palsy, Cranioplasty, Craniosynostosis, Craniotomy, Cushing reflex, Decompressive craniectomy, Diencephalon, Disease, Diuretic, Dura mater, Edema, Edinburgh, Epileptic seizure, Etiology, External ventricular drain, Falx cerebri, Fermentation, Focal and diffuse brain injury, ..., Fontanelle, General anaesthetic, George Kellie, Headache, Heart failure, Hematoma, Hernia, Human skull, Hydrocephalus, Hypercapnia, Hypertension, Hypertensive encephalopathy, Hyperventilation, Hypoxia (medical), Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Idiopathy, Infarction, Infection, Intracranial hemorrhage, Intravenous therapy, Ischemia, Lactic acid, Mannitol, Mean arterial pressure, Medical ventilator, Meningitis, Metabolism, Midline shift, Millimeter of mercury, Mydriasis, Nausea, Neurointensive care, Neurology, Non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement methods, Osmotherapy, Oxygen, Papilledema, Paralysis, PH, Pulse pressure, Reflex bradycardia, Respiratory tract, Reye syndrome, Sequela, Sixth nerve palsy, Spinal canal, Supine position, Tegmentum, Tentorium cerebelli, Theophylline, Traumatic brain injury, Valsalva maneuver, Vein, Ventricular system, Vomiting. Expand index (55 more) » « Shrink index
An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
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Acute liver failure is the appearance of severe complications rapidly after the first signs of liver disease (such as jaundice), and indicates that the liver has sustained severe damage (loss of function of 80–90% of liver cells).
Alexander Monro of Craiglockhart and Cockburn (22 May 1733 – 2 October 1817) was a Scottish anatomist, physician and medical educator.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Chiari malformation, also known as Arnold–Chiari malformation, is a condition affecting the brain.
The anatomy of arteries can be separated into gross anatomy, at the macroscopic level, and microscopic anatomy, which must be studied with the aid of a microscope.
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Atracurium besylate is a neuromuscular-blocking drug or skeletal muscle relaxant in the category of non-depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking drugs, used adjunctively in anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.
A bag valve mask, abbreviated to BVM and sometimes known by the proprietary name Ambu bag or generically as a manual resuscitator or “self-inflating bag”, is a hand-held device commonly used to provide positive pressure ventilation to patients who are not breathing or not breathing adequately.
Biot's respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by groups of quick, shallow inspirations followed by regular or irregular periods of apnea.
Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging (see American and British spelling differences), is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
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Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bradycardia, also known as bradyarrhythmia, is a slow heart rate, namely, a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
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Brain herniation is a potentially deadly side effect of very high intracranial pressure that occurs when a part of the brain is squeezed across structures within the skull.
The Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) was founded in 1986 to develop research on traumatic brain injury (TBI).
A brain tumor or intracranial neoplasm occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
In the anatomy of humans and of many other vertebrates, the brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
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A bruise (layman's term), also called a contusion (medical term), is a type of hematoma of tissue in which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma, allowing blood to seep, hemorrhage, or extravasate into the surrounding interstitial tissues.
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Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class of psychoactive drugs.
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Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
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In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.
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The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control.
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Cerebral edema or cerebral oedema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.
The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure.
Cerebral perfusion pressure, or CPP, is the net pressure gradient causing cerebral blood flow to the brain (brain perfusion).
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is the presence of acute thrombosis (a blood clot) in the dural venous sinuses, which drain blood from the brain.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spine.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Conjugate gaze palsies are neurological disorders affecting the ability to move both eyes in the same direction.
Cranioplasty is a surgical repair of a defect or deformity of a skull.
Craniosynostosis (from cranio, cranium; + syn, together; + ostosis relating to bone) is a condition in which one or more of the fibrous sutures in an infant skull prematurely fuses by turning into bone (ossification), thereby changing the growth pattern of the skull.
A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain.
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Cushing reflex (also referred to as the vasopressor response, the Cushing effect, the Cushing reaction, the Cushing phenomenon, the Cushing response, or Cushing's Law) is a physiological nervous system response to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) that results in Cushing's triad of increased blood pressure, irregular breathing, and a reduction of the heart rate.
Decompressive craniectomy (crani- + -ectomy) is a neurosurgical procedure in which part of the skull is removed to allow a swelling brain room to expand without being squeezed.
The diencephalon ("interbrain") is the region of the embryonic vertebrate neural tube that gives rise to posterior forebrain structures.
A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism.
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A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine.
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Dura mater, or dura, is a thick membrane that is the outermost of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord.
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Edema (also oedema, dropsy, and hydropsy) (Greek οἴδημα oídēma, "swelling") is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body which cause severe pain.
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Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann) is the capital city of Scotland, located in Lothian on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth.
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An epileptic seizure (colloquially a fit) is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
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An external ventricular drain (EVD), also known as an extraventricular drain or ventriculostomy, is a device used in neurosurgery that relieves elevated intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus when the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid around the brain is obstructed.
The falx cerebri, also known as the cerebral falx, so named from its sickle-like form, is a strong, arched fold of dura mater that descends vertically in the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases or alcohol.
Focal and diffuse brain injury are ways to classify brain injury: focal injury occurs in a specific location, while diffuse injury occurs over a more widespread area.
A fontanelle (or fontanel) (colloquially, soft spot) is an anatomical feature of the infant human skull comprising any of the soft membranous gaps (sutures) between the cranial bones that make up the calvaria of a fetus or an infant.
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A general anaesthetic (or anesthetic, see spelling differences) is a drug that has the ability to bring about a reversible loss of consciousness.
George Kellie (1720–1779) was a Scottish surgeon who, together with Alexander Monro secundus gave his name to the Monro-Kellie doctrine, a concept which relates intracranial pressure to the volume of intracranial contents and is a basic tenet of our understanding of the neuropathology of raised intracranial pressure.
A headache or cephalalgia is pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
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Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), occurs when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
A hematoma or haematoma is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, usually in liquid form within the tissue.
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A hernia is the exit of an organ, such as the bowel, through the wall of the cavity in which it normally resides.
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The human skull is the bony structure that forms the head in the human skeleton.
Hydrocephalus is a medical condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain.
Hypercapnia, also known as CO2 retention, hypercapnea, and hypercarbia, is a condition of abnormally elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure or arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypertensive encephalopathy is a neurological dysfunction induced by malignant hypertension.
Hyperventilation occurs when the rate and quantity of alveolar ventilation of carbon dioxide exceeds the body's production of carbon dioxide.
Hypoxia (also known as hypoxiation or anoxemia) is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply.
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), sometimes called by the older names benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) or pseudotumor cerebri (PTC), is a neurological disorder that is characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) in the absence of a tumor or other diseases.
An idiopathy is any disease with unknown pathogenesis or apparently spontaneous origin.
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Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) caused by a local lack of oxygen, due to an obstruction of the tissue's blood supply.
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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce.
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An intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a hemorrhage, or bleeding, within the skull.
Intravenous therapy (IV therapy or iv therapy in short) is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein.
Ischemia, also spelled as ischaemia or ischæmia, is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
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Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)CO2H.
Mannitol (also referred to as mannite or manna sugar) is a white, crystalline solidLawson, P. (2007) Mannitol.
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The mean arterial pressure (MAP) is a term used in medicine to describe an average blood pressure in an individual.
A medical ventilator (or simply ventilator in context) is a machine designed to mechanically move breathable air into and out of the lungs, to provide the mechanism of breathing for a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently.
Meningitis (from Greek μῆνιγξ méninx, "membrane" and the medical suffix -itis, "inflammation") is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.
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Midline shift is a shift of the brain past its center line.
A millimeter of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high and now defined as precisely pascals.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually defined as when having a non-physiological cause, but sometimes defined as potentially being a physiological pupillary response.
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Nausea (Latin nausea, from Greek ναυσία - nausia, "ναυτία" - nautia, motion sickness", "feeling sick or queasy") is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit.
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Neurocritical care or neurointensive care is a branch of medicine that emerged in the 1980s and deals with life-threatening diseases of the nervous system, which are those that involve the brain, spinal cord and nerves.
Neurology (from νεῦρον, neuron, and the suffix -λογία -logia "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
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Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is one of the major causes of secondary brain ischemia that accompanies a variety of pathological conditions, most notably, traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, and intracranial hemorrhages.
Osmotherapy is the use of osmotically active substances to reduce the volume of intracranial contents.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
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Papilledema (or papilloedema) is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure.
Paralysis is loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
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In chemistry, pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.
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Pulse pressure is the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure readings.
Reflex bradycardia is a bradycardia (decrease in heart rate) in response to the baroreceptor reflex, one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms for preventing abnormal increases in blood pressure.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy involved with the process of respiration.
Reye syndrome or Reye's syndrome is a rapidly progressive encephalopathy which usually begins shortly after recovery from an acute viral illness, especially influenza and varicella (chickenpox).
A sequela (usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma.
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Sixth nerve palsy, or abducens nerve palsy, is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve), which is responsible for causing contraction of the lateral rectus muscle to abduct (i.e., turn out) the eye.
The spinal canal (or vertebral canal or spinal cavity) is the space in the vertebral column formed by the vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes.
The supine position is a position of the body: lying with the face up, as opposed to the prone position, which is face down, sometimes with the hands behind the head or neck.
The tegmentum (from Latin for "covering") is a general area within the brainstem.
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The tentorium cerebelli or cerebellar tentorium (Latin: "tent of the cerebellum") is an extension of the dura mater that separates the cerebellum from the inferior portion of the occipital lobes.
Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force traumatically injures the brain.
The Valsalva maneuver or Valsalva manoeuvre is performed by moderately forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway, usually done by closing one's mouth, pinching one's nose shut while pressing out as if blowing up a balloon.
In the circulatory system, veins (from the Latin vena) are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
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The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
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Blood in the brain, Increased intracranial pressure, Intacranial tension, Intercranial pressure, Intra-cranial pressure, Intracranial hypertension, Intracranial tension, Kellie Munro hypothesis, Monro-Kellie rule, Raised intercranial pressure, Raised intracranial pressure.