98 relations: Abscess, Acute liver failure, Alexander Monro (secundus), Antihypertensive drug, Artery, Atracurium besilate, Bag valve mask, Biot's respiration, Bleeding, Blood pressure, Blood vessel, Blood–brain barrier, Bradycardia, Brain, Brain herniation, Brain Trauma Foundation, Brain tumor, Brainstem, Bruise, Caffeine, Calcium channel blocker, Carbon dioxide, Carcinoma, Catheter, Cerebral edema, Cerebral hemisphere, Cerebral perfusion pressure, Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, Cerebrospinal fluid, Chiari malformation, Circulatory system, Conjugate gaze palsy, Cranioplasty, Craniosynostosis, Craniotomy, Cushing reflex, Decompressive craniectomy, Diencephalon, Diuretic, Dura mater, Edema, Edinburgh, Epileptic seizure, External ventricular drain, Fermentation, Fontanelle, General anaesthetic, George Kellie, Headache, Heart failure, ..., Hematoma, Hernia, Hydrocephalus, Hypercapnia, Hypertension, Hypertensive encephalopathy, Hyperventilation, Hypoxia (medical), Idiopathic disease, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Infection, Intracranial hemorrhage, Intravenous therapy, Ischemia, Lactic acid, Mannitol, Mean arterial pressure, Medical ventilator, Meningitis, Metabolism, Midline shift, Millimeter of mercury, Mydriasis, Nausea, Neurointensive care, Neurology, Non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement methods, Osmotherapy, Oxygen, Papilledema, Paralysis, PH, Pressure reactivity index, Pulse pressure, Reflex bradycardia, Respiratory tract, Reye syndrome, Sequela, Sixth nerve palsy, Skull, Supine position, Tegmentum, Theophylline, Traumatic brain injury, Valsalva maneuver, Vein, Ventricular system, Vomiting. Expand index (48 more) » « Shrink index
An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
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Acute liver failure is the appearance of severe complications rapidly after the first signs of liver disease (such as jaundice), and indicates that the liver has sustained severe damage (loss of function of 80–90% of liver cells).
Alexander Monro of Craiglockhart and Cockburn (22 May 1733 – 2 October 1817) was a Scottish anatomist, physician and medical educator.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
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Atracurium besilate, also known as atracurium besylate, is a medication used in addition to other medications to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.
A bag valve mask, abbreviated to BVM and sometimes known by the proprietary name Ambu bag or generically as a manual resuscitator or "self-inflating bag", is a hand-held device commonly used to provide positive pressure ventilation to patients who are not breathing or not breathing adequately.
Biot's respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by groups of quick, shallow inspirations followed by regular or irregular periods of apnea.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
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Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
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Brain herniation is a potentially deadly side effect of very high pressure within the skull that occurs when a part of the brain is squeezed across structures within the skull.
For over 30 years, Brain Trauma Foundation has been conducting innovative clinical research and developing evidence-based guidelines that improve outcomes for the millions of people who suffer from traumatic brain injuries every year.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
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A contusion, commonly known as a bruise, is a type of hematoma of tissue in which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma, allowing blood to seep, hemorrhage, or extravasate into the surrounding interstitial tissues.
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Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
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Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
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In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.
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Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.
The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure.
Cerebral perfusion pressure, or CPP, is the net pressure gradient causing cerebral blood flow to the brain (brain perfusion).
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is the presence of a blood clot in the dural venous sinuses, which drain blood from the brain.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
Chiari malformations (CMs) are structural defects in the cerebellum.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Conjugate gaze palsies are neurological disorders affecting the ability to move both eyes in the same direction.
Cranioplasty is a surgical repair of a defect or deformity of a skull.
Craniosynostosis (from cranio, cranium; + syn, together; + ostosis relating to bone) is a condition in which one or more of the fibrous sutures in an infant (very young) skull prematurely fuses by turning into bone (ossification), thereby changing the growth pattern of the skull.
A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain.
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Cushing reflex (also referred to as the vasopressor response, the Cushing effect, the Cushing reaction, the Cushing phenomenon, the Cushing response, or Cushing's Law) is a physiological nervous system response to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) that results in Cushing's triad of increased blood pressure, irregular breathing, and bradycardia.
Decompressive craniectomy (crani- + -ectomy) is a neurosurgical procedure in which part of the skull is removed to allow a swelling brain room to expand without being squeezed.
The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
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Dura mater, or dura, is a thick membrane made of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
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Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
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Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
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An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
An external ventricular drain (EVD), also known as a ventriculostomy or extraventricular drain, is a device used in neurosurgery to treat hydrocephalus and relieve elevated intracranial pressure when the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inside the brain is obstructed.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
A fontanelle (or fontanel) (colloquially, soft spot) is an anatomical feature of the infant human skull comprising any of the soft membranous gaps (sutures) between the cranial bones that make up the calvaria of a fetus or an infant.
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General anaesthetics (or anesthetics, see spelling differences) are often defined as compounds that induce a reversible loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals.
Dr George Kellie MD, FRSE (1770–1829) was a Scottish surgeon who, together with Alexander Monro secundus gave his name to the Monro-Kellie doctrine, a concept which relates intracranial pressure to the volume of intracranial contents and is a basic tenet of our understanding of the neuropathology of raised intracranial pressure.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
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Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
A hematoma (US spelling) or haematoma (UK spelling) is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, due to either disease or trauma including injury or surgery and may involve blood continuing to seep from broken capillaries.
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A hernia is the abnormal exit of tissue or an organ, such as the bowel, through the wall of the cavity in which it normally resides.
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Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.
Hypercapnia, also known as hypercarbia and CO2 retention, is a condition of abnormally elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) is general brain dysfunction due to significantly high blood pressure.
Hyperventilation (a.k.a. overbreathing) occurs when the rate or tidal volume of breathing eliminates more carbon dioxide than the body can produce.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) without a detectable cause.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
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Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), also known as intracranial bleed, is bleeding within the skull.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
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Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.
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In medicine, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) is an average blood pressure in an individual during a single cardiac cycle.
A medical ventilator (or simply ventilator in context) is a mechanical ventilator, a machine designed to move breathable air into and out of the lungs, to provide breathing for a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
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Midline shift is a shift of the brain past its center line.
A millimeter of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high and now defined as precisely pascals.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
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Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
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Neurocritical care (or neurointensive care) is a medical field that treats life-threatening diseases of the nervous system and identifies, prevents/treats secondary brain injury.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
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Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is one of the major causes of secondary brain ischemia that accompanies a variety of pathological conditions, most notably traumatic brain injury (TBI), strokes, and intracranial hemorrhages.
Osmotherapy is the use of osmotically active substances to reduce the volume of intracranial contents.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
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Papilledema (or papilloedema) is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure due to any cause.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
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Pressure reactivity index or PRx is tool for monitoring patients who have raised intracranial pressure (ICP), caused by pathologies such as a traumatic brain injury or subarachnoid haemorrhage, in order to guide therapy to protect the brain from damagingly high or low cerebral blood flow.
Pulse pressure is the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Reflex bradycardia is a bradycardia (decrease in heart rate) in response to the baroreceptor reflex, one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms for preventing abnormal increases in blood pressure.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Reye syndrome is a rapidly progressive encephalopathy.
A sequela (usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma.
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Sixth nerve palsy, or abducens nerve palsy, is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve), which is responsible for causing contraction of the lateral rectus muscle to abduct (i.e., turn out) the eye.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
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The supine position means lying horizontally with the face and torso facing up, as opposed to the prone position, which is face down.
The tegmentum (from Latin for "covering") is a general area within the brainstem.
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Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
The Valsalva maneuver or Valsalva manoeuvre is performed by moderately forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway, usually done by closing one's mouth, pinching one's nose shut while pressing out as if blowing up a balloon.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
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The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
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Blood in the brain, Increased intracranial pressure, Intacranial tension, Intercranial pressure, Intra-cranial pressure, Intracranial hypertension, Intracranial tension, Kellie Munro hypothesis, Monro-Kellie rule, Monro–Kellie rule, Raised intercranial pressure, Raised intracranial pressure.