36 relations: Absolutive case, Agent (grammar), Antipassive voice, Argument (linguistics), Auxiliary verb, Basque language, Causative, Clitic, Dative case, Deep structure and surface structure, Ditransitive verb, Dutch language, Dyirbal language, English passive voice, Ergative case, Ergative verb, Ergative–absolutive language, German language, Grammar, Impersonal passive voice, Micronesian languages, Morphosyntactic alignment, Nominative–accusative language, Object (grammar), Passive voice, Pingelapese language, Reflexive verb, Romance languages, Spanish language, Subject (grammar), Transitive verb, Transitivity (grammar), Valency (linguistics), Verb, Voice (grammar), Word order.
The absolutive case (abbreviated) is the unmarked grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative) that is used as the citation form of a noun.
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In linguistics, a grammatical agent is the thematic relation of the cause or initiator to an event.
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The antipassive voice (abbreviated or) is a type of grammatical voice that either does not include the object or includes the object in an oblique case.
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In linguistics, an argument is an expression that helps complete the meaning of a predicate, the latter referring in this context to a main verb and its auxiliaries.
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An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
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Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
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In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).
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A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
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The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
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Deep structure and surface structure
Deep structure and surface structure (also D-structure and S-structure, although these abbreviated forms are sometimes used with distinct meanings) are concepts used in linguistics, specifically in the study of syntax in the Chomskyan tradition of transformational generative grammar.
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In grammar, a ditransitive verb is a verb which takes a subject and two objects which refer to a theme and a recipient.
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The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
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Dyirbal (also Djirubal) is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken in northeast Queensland by about 29 speakers of the Dyirbal tribe.
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English passive voice
The passive voice is a grammatical "voice".
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The ergative case (abbreviated) is the grammatical case that identifies the noun as a subject of a transitive verb in ergative–absolutive languages.
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In linguistics, an ergative verb is a verb that can be either transitive or intransitive, and whose subject when intransitive corresponds to its direct object when transitive.
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Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
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In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
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Impersonal passive voice
The impersonal voice, sometimes called pseudo-passive voice, is a verb voice that decreases the valency of an intransitive verb (which has valency one) to zero.
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The twenty Micronesian languages form a family of Oceanic languages.
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In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the grammatical relationship between arguments—specifically, between the two arguments (in English, subject and object) of transitive verbs like the dog chased the cat, and the single argument of intransitive verbs like the cat ran away.
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Nominative–accusative languages, or nominative languages have a form of morphosyntactic alignment in which subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs are distinguished from objects of transitive verbs by word order, case-marking, and/or verb agreement.
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Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
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Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
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The Pingelapese language is a Micronesian language native to Pingelap, an atoll belonging to the state of Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia.
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In grammar, a reflexive verb is, loosely, a verb whose direct object is the same as its subject, for example, "I wash myself".
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The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
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Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
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The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
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A transitive verb is a verb that requires one or more objects.
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In linguistics, transitivity is a property of verbs that relates to whether a verb can take direct objects and how many such objects a verb can take.
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In linguistics, verb valency or valence is the number of arguments controlled by a verbal predicate.
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A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
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In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
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In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
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Intr. v., Intr.v., Intransitive, Intransitive verbs.