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Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

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Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye. [1]

47 relations: Amacrine cell, Bistratified cell, Brain, Brown University, Circadian rhythm, Clyde E. Keeler, Cone cell, Consciousness, Dopamine, Duplex retina, Entrainment (chronobiology), Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Glaucoma, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Hypothalamus, Ignacio Provencio, Lateral geniculate nucleus, Mammalian eye, Melanopsin, Melatonin, Mesopic vision, Midbrain, Midget cell, Muller glia, Neuron, Ommatidium, Parasol cell, Photoreceptor cell, Photosensitivity, Pineal gland, Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, Pretectal area, Pupil, Pupillary light reflex, Pupillary reflex, Retina, Retinal pigment epithelium, Retinohypothalamic tract, Rod cell, Russell Foster, Samer Hattar, Superior colliculus, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Synchronization, Visual phototransduction, 11-cis retinal.

Amacrine cell

Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina.

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Bistratified cell

Bistratified ganglion cell can refer to either of two kinds of retinal ganglion cells whose cell body is located in the ganglion cell layer of the retina, the small-field bistratified ganglion cell, also known as small bistratified cell (SBC), and the large-field bistratified ganglion cell or large bistratified cell (LBC).

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Brain

The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brown University

Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

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Clyde E. Keeler

Clyde Edgar Keeler, April 11, 1900 – April 22, 1994, was a medical geneticist who is noted for his work on laboratory mice and the genetics of vision.

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Cone cell

Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).

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Consciousness

Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Dopamine

Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Duplex retina

A duplex retina is a retina consisting of both rod cells and cone cells.

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Entrainment (chronobiology)

Entrainment, within the study of chronobiology, occurs when rhythmic physiological or behavioral events match their period to that of an environmental oscillation.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.

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Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.

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Glycine

Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.

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Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Ignacio Provencio

Ignacio Provencio (born 29 June 1965) is an American neuroscientist and the discoverer of melanopsin, a photopigment found in specialized photosensitive ganglion cells of the mammalian retina.

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Lateral geniculate nucleus

The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN; also called the lateral geniculate body or lateral geniculate complex) is a relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway.

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Mammalian eye

Mammals normally have a pair of eyes.

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Melanopsin

Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.

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Melatonin

Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.

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Mesopic vision

Mesopic vision is a combination of photopic vision and scotopic vision in low but not quite dark lighting situations.

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Midbrain

The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.

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Midget cell

A midget cell is one type of retinal ganglion cell.

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Muller glia

Müller glia, or Müller cells, are a type of retinal glial cells, first recognized and described by Heinrich Müller.

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Neuron

A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Ommatidium

The compound eyes of arthropods like insects, crustaceans and millipedes are composed of units called ommatidia (singular: ommatidium).

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Parasol cell

A parasol cell, sometimes called an M cell or M ganglion cell, is one type of retinal ganglion cell located in the ganglion cell layer of the retina.

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Photoreceptor cell

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.

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Photosensitivity

Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons, especially visible light.

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Pineal gland

The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.

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Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide also known as PACAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADCYAP1 gene.

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Pretectal area

The pretectal area, or pretectum, is a midbrain structure composed of seven nuclei and comprises part of the subcortical visual system.

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Pupil

The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina.

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Pupillary light reflex

The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness.

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Pupillary reflex

Pupillary reflex refers to one of the reflexes associated with pupillary function.

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Retina

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Retinal pigment epithelium

The pigmented layer of retina or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the pigmented cell layer just outside the neurosensory retina that nourishes retinal visual cells, and is firmly attached to the underlying choroid and overlying retinal visual cells.

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Retinohypothalamic tract

The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a photic neural input pathway involved in the circadian rhythms of mammals.

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Rod cell

Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.

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Russell Foster

Russell Grant Foster, CBE, FRS FMedSci (born 1959) is a British professor of circadian neuroscience, the Director of the Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology and the Head of the Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute (SCNi).

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Samer Hattar

Samer Hattar (Arabic سامر حتر) is a chronobiologist and a leader in the field of non-image forming photoreception.

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Superior colliculus

The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.

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Suprachiasmatic nucleus

The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.

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Synchronization

Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison.

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Visual phototransduction

Visual phototransduction is the sensory transduction of the visual system.

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11-cis retinal

The 11-cis Retinal is an isomer of retinal.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Redirects here:

Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells, IpRGC, IpRGCs, Iprgc, Melanopsin-containing ganglion cell, Photosensitive Ganglion Cell, Photosensitive ganglia, Photosensitive ganglion cell.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intrinsically_photosensitive_retinal_ganglion_cells

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