47 relations: Amacrine cell, Bistratified cell, Brain, Brown University, Circadian rhythm, Clyde E. Keeler, Cone cell, Consciousness, Dopamine, Duplex retina, Entrainment (chronobiology), Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Glaucoma, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Hypothalamus, Ignacio Provencio, Lateral geniculate nucleus, Mammalian eye, Melanopsin, Melatonin, Mesopic vision, Midbrain, Midget cell, Muller glia, Neuron, Ommatidium, Parasol cell, Photoreceptor cell, Photosensitivity, Pineal gland, Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, Pretectal area, Pupil, Pupillary light reflex, Pupillary reflex, Retina, Retinal pigment epithelium, Retinohypothalamic tract, Rod cell, Russell Foster, Samer Hattar, Superior colliculus, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Synchronization, Visual phototransduction, 11-cis retinal.
Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina.
Bistratified ganglion cell can refer to either of two kinds of retinal ganglion cells whose cell body is located in the ganglion cell layer of the retina, the small-field bistratified ganglion cell, also known as small bistratified cell (SBC), and the large-field bistratified ganglion cell or large bistratified cell (LBC).
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Clyde Edgar Keeler, April 11, 1900 – April 22, 1994, was a medical geneticist who is noted for his work on laboratory mice and the genetics of vision.
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A duplex retina is a retina consisting of both rod cells and cone cells.
Entrainment, within the study of chronobiology, occurs when rhythmic physiological or behavioral events match their period to that of an environmental oscillation.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Ignacio Provencio (born 29 June 1965) is an American neuroscientist and the discoverer of melanopsin, a photopigment found in specialized photosensitive ganglion cells of the mammalian retina.
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN; also called the lateral geniculate body or lateral geniculate complex) is a relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway.
Mammals normally have a pair of eyes.
Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Mesopic vision is a combination of photopic vision and scotopic vision in low but not quite dark lighting situations.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
A midget cell is one type of retinal ganglion cell.
Müller glia, or Müller cells, are a type of retinal glial cells, first recognized and described by Heinrich Müller.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
The compound eyes of arthropods like insects, crustaceans and millipedes are composed of units called ommatidia (singular: ommatidium).
A parasol cell, sometimes called an M cell or M ganglion cell, is one type of retinal ganglion cell located in the ganglion cell layer of the retina.
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons, especially visible light.
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide also known as PACAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADCYAP1 gene.
The pretectal area, or pretectum, is a midbrain structure composed of seven nuclei and comprises part of the subcortical visual system.
The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina.
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness.
Pupillary reflex refers to one of the reflexes associated with pupillary function.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
The pigmented layer of retina or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the pigmented cell layer just outside the neurosensory retina that nourishes retinal visual cells, and is firmly attached to the underlying choroid and overlying retinal visual cells.
The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a photic neural input pathway involved in the circadian rhythms of mammals.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
Russell Grant Foster, CBE, FRS FMedSci (born 1959) is a British professor of circadian neuroscience, the Director of the Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology and the Head of the Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute (SCNi).
Samer Hattar (Arabic سامر حتر) is a chronobiologist and a leader in the field of non-image forming photoreception.
The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.
Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison.
Visual phototransduction is the sensory transduction of the visual system.
The 11-cis Retinal is an isomer of retinal.