30 relations: Adjuvant therapy, Atypical ductal hyperplasia, Bloom–Richardson grading system, Breast cancer, Cancer staging, Chemotherapy, Collagenous spherulosis, Diagnosis of exclusion, Ductal carcinoma in situ, Fibroadenoma, Fibrocystic breast changes, Grading (tumors), HER2/neu, Histology, Hormone receptor, Inflammatory breast cancer, Lymph node, Mammography, Mastectomy, Menstrual cycle, Metastasis, Microscopy, Natural history of disease, Nipple, Oncogene, Physical examination, Prognosis, Radiation therapy, Tamoxifen, Trastuzumab.
Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.
Atypical ductal hyperplasia, abbreviated ADH, is the term used for a benign lesion of the breast that indicates an increased risk of breast cancer.
The Bloom–Richardson grading system from 1957 refers to a breast cancer classification system to grade breast cancers, and was the precursor of the present criteria, the modified Bloom–Richardson–Elston grading (BRE) system (also called the Nottingham system.) The cells and tissue structure of the breast cancer are examined histopathologically to determine how aggressive the cancer is.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Collagenous spherulosis, also mucinous spherulosis and simply spherulosis, is a benign finding in breast pathology.
A diagnosis of exclusion (per exclusionem) is a diagnosis of a medical condition reached by a process of elimination, which may be necessary if presence cannot be established with complete confidence from history, examination or testing.
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), also known as intraductal carcinoma, is a pre-cancerous or non-invasive cancerous lesion of the breast.
Fibroadenomas, are benign breast tumours characterized by an admixture of stromal and epithelial tissue.
Fibrocystic breasts or fibrocystic breast disease or fibrocystic breast condition commonly referred to as "FBC" is a condition of breast tissue affecting an estimated 30-60% of women and at least 50% of women of childbearing age.
In pathology, grading is a measure of the cell appearance in tumors and other neoplasms.
Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2, also known as CD340 (cluster of differentiation 340), proto-oncogene Neu, Erbb2 (rodent), or ERBB2 (human), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERBB2 gene.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
A hormone receptor is a receptor molecule that binds to a specific hormone.
Inflammatory breast cancer is one of the most aggressive types of breast cancer that can occur in women of any age (and, extremely rarely, in men).
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Mammography (also called mastography) is the process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening.
Mastectomy (from Greek μαστός "breast" and ἐκτομή ektomia "cutting out") is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
The natural history of disease is the course a disease takes in individual people from its pathological onset ("inception") until its eventual resolution through complete recovery or death.
The nipple is a raised region of tissue on the surface of the breast from which milk leaves the breast through the lactiferous ducts.
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Tamoxifen (TMX), sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a medication that is used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.
Trastuzumab, sold under the brand name Herceptin among others, is a monoclonal antibody used to treat breast cancer.