82 relations: Acute radiation syndrome, Aerospace manufacturer, Beta decay, Bioaccumulation, Biological half-life, Biosolids, Brachytherapy, Carcinogen, CBC News, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chernobyl disaster, Child, Elution, Fission product yield, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Gamma camera, Gamma ray, Glenn T. Seaborg, Goitrogen, Graves' disease, Half-life, Hydraulic fracturing, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Iobenguane, Iodate, Iodide, Iodine, Iodine in biology, Iodine-123, Iodine-125, Iodine-129, Irradiation, Isotope, Isotope hydrology, Isotopes of iodine, Isotopes of tellurium, Isotopes of xenon, Jod-Basedow phenomenon, Medicinal radiocompounds, Microgram, Munich, Mutation, National Cancer Institute, Neuroblastoma, Neutrino, Neutron, Nevada Test Site, Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents, Nuclear fallout, ..., Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear weapons testing, Nuclide, Parts-per notation, Perchlorate, Pheochromocytoma, Plutonium, Portable water purification, Potassium iodate, Potassium iodide, Preventive healthcare, Radiation therapy, Radiation-induced cancer, Radioactive decay, Radioactive tracer, Radiogenic nuclide, Radionuclide, Saul Hertz, Sialadenitis, Spent nuclear fuel, Tellurium, Thorium, Thyroid, Thyroid cancer, Thyroiditis, Uranium, Uranium-235, Wolff–Chaikoff effect, World Health Organization, Xenon. Expand index (32 more) » « Shrink index
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation poisoning, radiation sickness or radiation toxicity, is a collection of health effects which present within 24 hours of exposure to high amounts of ionizing radiation.
An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a proton is transformed into a neutron, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
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Bioaccumulation refers to the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
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The biological half-life or terminal half-life of a substance is the time it takes for a substance (for example a metabolite, drug, signalling molecule, radioactive nuclide, or other substance) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity, as per the MeSH definition.
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Biosolids is a term coined in the United States that is typically used to describe several forms of treated sewage sludge that is intended for agricultural use as a soil conditioner.
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Brachytherapy (from the Greek word βραχύς brachys, meaning "short-distance"), also known as internal radiotherapy, sealed source radiotherapy, curietherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.
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A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer.
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CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on CBC Television, Radio and online services.
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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The Chernobyl disaster (also referred to as Chernobyl or the Chernobyl accident) was a catastrophic nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine (then officially the Ukrainian SSR), which was under the direct jurisdiction of the central authorities of the Soviet Union.
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Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human between the stages of birth and puberty.
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In analytical and organic chemistry, elution is the process of extracting one material from another by washing with a solvent; as in washing of loaded ion-exchange resins to remove captured ions.
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Nuclear fission splits a heavy nucleus such as uranium or plutonium into two lighter nuclei, which are called fission products.
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The was an energy accident at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, initiated primarily by the tsunami of the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011.
A gamma camera, also called a scintillation camera or Anger camera, is a device used to image gamma radiation emitting radioisotopes, a technique known as scintigraphy.
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Gamma radiation, also known as gamma rays, and denoted by the Greek letter γ, refers to electromagnetic radiation of an extremely high frequency and therefore consists of high-energy photons.
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Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
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Goitrogens are substances (whether in drugs, chemicals, or foods) that disrupt the production of thyroid hormones by interfering with iodine uptake in the thyroid gland.
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Graves' disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter and Flajani-Basedow-Graves disease, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.
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Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.
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Hydraulic fracturing (also hydrofracturing, hydrofracking, fracking or fraccing) is a well-stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
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Hyperthyroidism, also known as over active thyroid and hyperthyreosis, is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
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Hypothyroidism (from hypo- meaning under or reduced, plus thyroid), often called underactive thyroid or low thyroid and sometimes hypothyreosis, is a common disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
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Iobenguane, also known as metaiodobenzylguanidine or mIBG, or MIBG (tradename Adreview) is a radiopharmaceutical, used in a scintigraphy method called MIBG scan.
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An iodate is a conjugate base of iodic acid.
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An iodide ion is the ion I−.
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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
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SBHarris 05:41, 26 July 2009 (UTC)--> Iodine is an essential trace element for life, the heaviest element commonly needed by living organisms, and the second-heaviest known to be used by any form of life (only tungsten, a component of a few bacterial enzymes, has a higher atomic number and atomic weight).
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Iodine-123 (123I or I-123) is a radioactive isotope of iodine used in nuclear medicine imaging, including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and X-ray computed tomography (X-Ray CT) scans.
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Iodine-125 (125I) is a radioisotope of iodine which has uses in biological assays, nuclear medicine imaging and in radiation therapy as brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer and brain tumors.
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Iodine-129 (129I) is a long-lived radioisotope of iodine which occurs naturally, but also is of special interest in the monitoring and effects of man-made nuclear fission decay products, where it serves as both tracer and potential radiological contaminant.
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Irradiation is the process by which an object is exposed to radiation.
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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.
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Isotope hydrology is a field of hydrology that uses isotopic dating to estimate the age and origins of water and of movement within the hydrologic cycle.
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There are 37 known isotopes of iodine (I) from 108I to 144I, but only one, 127I, is stable.
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There are 38 known isotopes and 17 nuclear isomers of tellurium (Te), with atomic masses that range from 105 to 142.
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Naturally occurring xenon (Xe) is made of eight stable isotopes and one very long lived isotope.
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The Jod-Basedow effect (also Jod-Basedow syndrome and Jod-Basedow phenomenon) is hyperthyroidism following administration of iodine or iodide, either as a dietary supplement or as contrast medium.
Medicinal radiocompounds or Radiopharmaceuticals are a group of pharmaceutical drugs which have radioactivity.
In the metric system, a microgram (µg; in the U.S. recommended when communicating medical information: mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one billionth of a kilogram, one millionth of a gram, or one thousandth of a milligram.
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Munich (also in UK English; München,, Minga) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
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In biology, a mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
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The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood and the most common cancer in infancy, with an incidence of about six hundred fifty cases per year in the U.S., and a hundred cases per year in the UK.
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A neutrino (or, in Italian) is an electrically neutral elementary particle with half-integer spin.
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The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.
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The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), previously the Nevada Test Site (NTS), is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in southeastern Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the city of Las Vegas.
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A nuclear and radiation accident is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "an event that has led to significant consequences to people, the environment or the facility." Examples include lethal effects to individuals, large radioactivity release to the environment, or reactor core melt." The prime example of a "major nuclear accident" is one in which a reactor core is damaged and significant amounts of radioactivity are released, such as in the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast or a nuclear reaction conducted in an unshielded facility, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and shock wave have passed.
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In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
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Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
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Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
A nuclide (from nucleus) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
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In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
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Perchlorates are the salts derived from perchloric acid—in particular when referencing the polyatomic anions found in solution, perchlorate is often written with the formula ClO4−.
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A pheochromocytoma (from Greek phaios "dark", chroma "color", kytos "cell", -oma "tumor") or phaeochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.
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Plutonium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
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Portable water purification devices better described as point-of-use (POU) water treatment systems and field water disinfection techniques are self-contained, hand-carried units used by recreational enthusiasts, military personnel, survivalists, and others for water purification when they need to obtain drinking water from untreated sources (e.g. rivers, lakes, groundwater etc.). These personal devices and methods attempt to render water potable (i.e. safe and palatable for drinking purposes - without disease-causing pathogens).
Potassium iodate (KIO3) is a chemical compound.
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Potassium iodide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KI.
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Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
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Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells.
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Up to 10% of invasive cancers are related to radiation exposure, including both ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation.
Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.
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A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radioisotope so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
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A radiogenic nuclide is a nuclide that is produced by a process of radioactive decay.
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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
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Saul Hertz, M.D. (April 20, 1905 – July 28, 1950) was an American physician who discovered the use of radioactive iodine for the treatment of thyroid disease.
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Sialadenitis (sialoadenitis) is inflammation of a salivary gland.
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Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant).
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Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
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Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
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The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body, and consists of two connected lobes.
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Thyroid cancer is a cancer originating from follicular or parafollicular thyroid cells.
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Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland.
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Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
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Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
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The Wolff–Chaikoff effect (pronounced "woolf' cha'kof"), discovered by Drs.
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The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
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