76 relations: Africa, Alcohol, American Academy of Pediatrics, Animal product, Antagonist, Australia, Basil Hetzel, Breast cyst, Bromide, Bromine, Capillary electrophoresis, China, Congenital hypothyroidism, Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome, Denis Diderot, Developmental disability, Diet (nutrition), Dietary supplement, Encyclopédie, Endemic goitre, Endocrinology, Estrogen, Europe, Fatigue, Fluoride, Goitre, Goitrogen, Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Health effects of tobacco, Hijiki, Hyperthyroidism, Hyperthyroxinemia, Hypothyroidism, Intellectual disability, Intelligence quotient, Iodine, Iodine Global Network, Iodised salt, Ionizing radiation, Jod-Basedow phenomenon, Kazakhstan, Kelp, List of valleys of the Alps, Lugol's iodine, Medical test, Microgram, Micronutrient, Mineral (nutrient), New Zealand, ..., Nori, Nutrient, Oral contraceptive pill, Pacific Ocean, Palmaria palmata, Paracelsus, Pediatrics (journal), Perchlorate, Pregnancy, Public health, Race and intelligence, Russia, Seafood, Selenium deficiency, Sodium-iodide symporter, Southeast Asia, Sushi, The Lancet, The New York Times, Thiocyanate, Thyroid hormones, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Triiodothyronine, Ultraviolet, Wolff–Chaikoff effect, World Health Organization. Expand index (26 more) » « Shrink index
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois.
An animal product is any material derived from the body of an animal.
An antagonist is a character, group of characters, institution or concept that stands in or represents opposition against which the protagonist(s) must contend.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Basil Stuart Hetzel (13 June 1922 – 4 February 2017) was an Australian medical researcher who made a major contribution to combating iodine deficiency, a major cause of goitre and cretinism worldwide.
A breast cyst is a fluid-filled sac within the breast.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a family of electrokinetic separation methods performed in submillimeter diameter capillaries and in micro- and nanofluidic channels.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a condition of thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth.
Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome, previously known as Cretinism, is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth owing to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormone (congenital hypothyroidism) usually owing to maternal hypothyroidism.
Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.
Endemic goiter is a type of goitre that is associated with dietary iodine deficiency.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
A goitre or goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland.
Goitrogens are substances that disrupt the production of thyroid hormones by interfering with iodine uptake in the thyroid gland.
Graves' disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease, is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is gradually destroyed.
Tobacco use has predominantly negative effects on human health and concern about health effects of tobacco has a long history.
(Sargassum fusiforme, syn. Hizikia fusiformis) is a brown sea vegetable growing wild on rocky coastlines around Japan, Korea, and China.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hyperthyroxinemia or hyperthyroxinaemia is a thyroid disease where the serum levels of thyroxine are higher than expected.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
The Iodine Global Network (abbreviated IGN; formerly the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders Global Network or ICCIDD Global Network) describes itself as a "non-profit, non-government organization for the sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency worldwide.".
Iodised salt (also spelled iodized salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of various salts of the element iodine.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
The Jod-Basedow effect (also Jod-Basedow syndrome and Jod-Basedow phenomenon) is hyperthyroidism following administration of iodine or iodide, either as a dietary supplement or as contrast medium.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.
The main valleys of the Alps, orographically by drainage basin.
Lugol's iodine, also known as aqueous iodine and strong iodine solution, is a solution of potassium iodide with iodine in water.
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
is the Japanese name for edible seaweed (a "sea vegetable") species of the red algae genus Pyropia, including P. yezoensis and P. tenera.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Palmaria palmata, also called dulse, dillisk or dilsk (from Irish/Scottish Gaelic duileasc/duileasg), red dulse, sea lettuce flakes, or creathnach, is a red alga (Rhodophyta) previously referred to as Rhodymenia palmata.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
Pediatrics is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
A perchlorate is the name for a chemical compound containing the perchlorate ion,.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
The connection between race and intelligence has been a subject of debate in both popular science and academic research since the inception of IQ testing in the early 20th century.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.
Selenium deficiency is relatively rare in healthy well-nourished individuals.
A sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), also known as a sodium/iodide cotransporter or solute carrier family 5, member 5 (SLC5A5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC5A5 gene.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
is a Japanese dish of specially prepared, usually with some sugar and salt, combined with a variety of, such as seafood, vegetables, and occasionally tropical fruits.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.
Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The Wolff–Chaikoff effect, discovered by Drs.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.