148 relations: Acetate, Adenosine triphosphate, Air ioniser, Alpha particle, Aluminium, Aluminium silicate, Ammonia, Ammonium, Amphotericin B, Anode, Atom, Atomic emission spectroscopy, Atomic nucleus, Atomic orbital, Aurora, Azide, Barium, BBC, Beryllium, Beta particle, Bicarbonate, Biocide, Bisulfite, Bravais lattice, Bromide, Calcium, Carbanion, Carbocation, Carbonate, Cathode, Cell membrane, Charles Scribner's Sons, Chemical bond, Chemical formula, Chemistry, Chlorate, Chloride, Chlorine, Chromate and dichromate, Collins English Dictionary, Columbia University, Crystal, Cyanide, Dication, Direct current, Dissociation (chemistry), Electric charge, Electrode, Electron, Electron configuration, ..., Electronegativity, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Energy, Entropy, Fluoride, Formate, Frank Press, Fungicide, Gamma ray, Gaseous ionization detectors, Geiger–Müller tube, Gemstone, Gramicidin, Hydride, Hydrogen, Hydronium, Hydroxide, Hypochlorite, Iodide, Ioliomics, Ion, Ion beam, Ion channel, Ion exchange, Ion implantation, Ion source, Ion thruster, Ionic bonding, Ionic compound, Ionic radius, Ionization, Ionization chamber, Ionizing radiation, Ionosphere, Linus Pauling, List of ions, List of oxidation states of the elements, Lithium, Magnesium, Magnetic field, Mass spectrometry, Matter wave, Metal, Metasilicate, Michael Faraday, Molecule, Monatomic ion, Nature, Nitrate, Nitride, Nitrite, Noble gas, Nonmetal, Oxalate, Oxford University Press, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxyanion, Oxygen, Particle accelerator, Perchlorate, Permanganate, Peroxide, Phosphate, Polyatomic ion, Potassium, Proportional counter, Proton, Protonation, Purdue University, Radiation, Radical (chemistry), Salt (chemistry), Silicate, Silver, Smoke detector, Sodium, Sodium chloride, Stopping power (particle radiation), Strontium, Sulfate, Sulfide, Sulfite, Superoxide, Svante Arrhenius, Thiosulfate, Tin, Total dissolved solids, Townsend discharge, University of Colorado Boulder, Unpaired electron, Valence electron, Voltage, W. H. Freeman and Company, Water quality, X-ray, Zinc, Zwitterion. Expand index (98 more) » « Shrink index
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
An air ioniser (or negative ion generator or Chizhevsky's chandelier) is a device that uses high voltage to ionise (electrically charge) air molecules.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium silicate (or aluminum silicate) is a name commonly applied to chemical compounds which are derived from aluminium oxide, Al2O3 and silicon dioxide, SiO2 which may be anhydrous or hydrated, naturally occurring as minerals or synthetic.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used for serious fungal infections and leishmaniasis.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) is a method of chemical analysis that uses the intensity of light emitted from a flame, plasma, arc, or spark at a particular wavelength to determine the quantity of an element in a sample.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
Azide is the anion with the formula N. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
A biocide is defined in the European legislation as a chemical substance or microorganism intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.
Bisulfite ion (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogen sulfite) is the ion HSO3−.
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is threevalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge in at least one significant mesomeric contributor (resonance form).
A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Charles Scribner's Sons, or simply Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in New York City, known for publishing American authors including Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Kurt Vonnegut, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Stephen King, Robert A. Heinlein, Thomas Wolfe, George Santayana, John Clellon Holmes, Don DeLillo, and Edith Wharton.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
The chlorate anion has the formula.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chromate salts contain the chromate anion,.
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
A dication is any cation, of general formula X2+, formed by the removal of two electrons from a neutral species.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Formate (IUPAC name: methanoate) is the anion derived from formic acid.
Frank Press (born December 4, 1924) is an American geophysicist.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gaseous ionization detectors are radiation detection instruments used in particle physics to detect the presence of ionizing particles, and in radiation protection applications to measure ionizing radiation.
The Geiger–Müller tube or G–M tube is the sensing element of the Geiger counter instrument used for the detection of ionizing radiation.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Gramicidin is a heterogeneous mixture of three antibiotic compounds, gramicidins A, B and C, making up 80%, 6%, and 14%, respectively, all of which are obtained from the soil bacterial species Bacillus brevis and called collectively gramicidin D. Gramicidin D contains linear pentadecapeptides, that is chains made up of 15 amino acids.
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
In chemistry, hypochlorite is an ion with the chemical formula ClO−.
An iodide ion is the ion I−.
Ioliomics is a research discipline dealing with the studies of ions in liquids (or liquid phases) and stipulated with fundamental differences of ionic interactions.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
An ion beam is a type of charged particle beam consisting of ions.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.
Ion implantation is low-temperature process by which ions of one element are accelerated into a solid target, thereby changing the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the target.
An ion source is a device that creates atomic and molecular ions.
An ion thruster or ion drive is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion.
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
This is a list of ions, indexed according to the periodic table.
This is a list of known oxidation states of the chemical elements, excluding nonintegral values.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metasilicates are silicates containing ions of empirical formula SiO32−.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A monatomic ion is an ion consisting of exactly one atom.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
In chemistry, a nitride is a compound of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of 3-.
The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is the dianion with the formula, also written.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
An oxyanion, or oxoanion, is an ion with the generic formula (where A represents a chemical element and O represents an oxygen atom).
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
A perchlorate is the name for a chemical compound containing the perchlorate ion,.
A permanganate is the general name for a chemical compound containing the manganate(VII) ion,.
Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
The proportional counter is a type of gaseous ionization detector device used to measure particles of ionizing radiation.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the flagship campus of the Purdue University system.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Stopping power in nuclear physics is defined as the retarding force acting on charged particles, typically alpha and beta particles, due to interaction with matter, resulting in loss of particle energy.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfites or sulphites are compounds that contain the sulfite ion (or the sulfate(IV) ion, from its correct systematic name),.
A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.
Svante August Arrhenius (19 February 1859 – 2 October 1927) was a Nobel-Prize winning Swedish scientist, originally a physicist, but often referred to as a chemist, and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry.
Thiosulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; sometimes thiosulphate in British English) is an oxyanion of sulfur.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Total dissolved solids (TDS) is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid in molecular, ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form.
The Townsend discharge or Townsend avalanche is a gas ionisation process where free electrons are accelerated by an electric field, collide with gas molecules, and consequently free additional electrons.
The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.
In chemistry, an unpaired electron is an electron that occupies an orbital of an atom singly, rather than as part of an electron pair.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
In chemistry, a zwitterion, formerly called a dipolar ion, is a molecule with two or more functional groups, of which at least one has a positive and one has a negative electrical charge and the net charge of the entire molecule is zero.
Anion, Anionic, Anions, Cathion, Cation, Cationic, Cations, Charge (chemistry), Dianion, Ion (chemistry), Ion (physics), Ion notation, Ionic charge, Ionical, Ions, Kation, Negative atomic ion, Negative ion, Negative ions, Non-ionic, Nonionic, Oxo anion, Positive ion, Positive ions.