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Ion channel

Index Ion channel

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore. [1]

175 relations: Acetylcholine receptor, Action potential, Active transport, Adenosine triphosphate, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Alpha helix, Amino acid, Andrew Huxley, Application-specific integrated circuit, Bernard Katz, Bert Sakmann, Bertil Hille, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Brugada syndrome, Buthus, Calcium channel, Calcium-activated potassium channel, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac pacemaker, Cation channel superfamily, Cation channels of sperm, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Cell surface receptor, Channelome, Channelopathy, Channelrhodopsin, Chloride, Chloride channel, Clay Armstrong, Cone snail, Conotoxin, Crystallography, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate, Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channel, Cystic fibrosis, Dendrotoxin, Dinoflagellate, Drosophila, Electrochemical gradient, Electrophysiology, Endoplasmic reticulum, Eosinophil, Episodic ataxia, Epithelial sodium channel, Epithelium, Erwin Neher, Familial hemiplegic migraine, ..., Fluoroscopy, G protein, GABA receptor, Gating (electrophysiology), Gene, Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, GHK flux equation, Glioblastoma, Glutamate receptor, Glycosylation, Golgi apparatus, Heart arrhythmia, Heteropoda venatoria, Heteropodatoxin, Homology (biology), Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, Hyperpolarization (biology), Iberiotoxin, Immunohistochemistry, Insulin, Integral membrane protein, InterPro, Inward-rectifier potassium channel, Ion, Ion transporter, Ionophore, KcsA potassium channel, Ki Database, Lidocaine, Ligand (biochemistry), Light-gated ion channel, Lipid bilayer, Local anesthetic, Long QT syndrome, Macrophage, Magnesium transporter, Mamba, MCOLN1, Mechanosensitive channels, Membrane potential, Membrane protein, Mitochondrion, Mucolipidosis type IV, Muscle contraction, Mutagenesis, Mutation, Myokymia, Na+/K+-ATPase, NADPH oxidase, Nervous system, Neuroglia, Neurotoxin, Neutrophil, Newt, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Organelle, Osmotic concentration, P2X purinoreceptor, Pancreas, Paramyotonia congenita, Passive transport, Patch clamp, Pfam, PH, Pharmacology, Phosphorylation, Photon, Potassium, Potassium channel, Potassium-aggravated myotonia, Procaine, Protein structure, Protein subunit, Reactive oxygen species, Receptor (biochemistry), Rectifier, Red tide, Redox, Repolarization, Resting potential, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Ricardo Miledi, Roderick MacKinnon, Saxitoxin, Second messenger system, Secretion, Semipermeable membrane, Shaker gene, Sinoatrial node, Skeletal muscle, Smooth muscle tissue, Snake, Sodium, Sodium channel, Sodium-calcium exchanger, Sodium-glucose transport proteins, Spinocerebellar ataxia type-13, Squid giant axon, Synapse, Syndrome, Synthetic ion channels, T cell, Tetrameric protein, Tetraodontidae, Tetrodotoxin, Transient receptor potential channel, Transmembrane domain, TRPA (ion channel), TRPC, TRPM, TRPM8, TRPML, TRPP, TRPV, TRPV1, Two-pore channel, Two-pore-domain potassium channel, Ventricle (heart), Voltage clamp, Voltage-gated calcium channel, Voltage-gated ion channel, Voltage-gated potassium channel, Voltage-gated proton channel, X-ray crystallography. Expand index (125 more) »

Acetylcholine receptor

An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.

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Action potential

In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.

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Active transport

Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Alan Lloyd Hodgkin

Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (5 February 1914 – 20 December 1998) was an English physiologist and biophysicist, who shared the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Andrew Huxley and John Eccles.

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Alpha helix

The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Andrew Huxley

Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (22 November 191730 May 2012) was a Nobel Prize-winning English physiologist and biophysicist.

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Application-specific integrated circuit

An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.

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Bernard Katz

Sir Bernard Katz, FRS (26 March 1911 – 20 April 2003) was a German-born Australian physician and biophysicist, noted for his work on nerve physiology.

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Bert Sakmann

Bert Sakmann (born 12 June 1942) is a German cell physiologist.

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Bertil Hille

Bertil Hille (born October 10, 1940) is a professor in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics at the University of Washington.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.

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Brugada syndrome

Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a genetic condition that results in abnormal electrical activity within the heart, increasing the risk of sudden cardiac death.

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Buthus is a genus of scorpion belonging and being eponymous to the family Buthidae.

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Calcium channel

A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.

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Calcium-activated potassium channel

Calcium-activated potassium channels are potassium channels gated by calcium, or that are structurally or phylogenetically related to calcium gated channels.

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Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.

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Cardiac pacemaker

Image showing the cardiac pacemaker or SA node, the normal pacemaker within the electrical conduction system of the heart. The contraction of cardiac muscle (heart muscle) in all animals is initiated by electrical impulses known as action potentials.

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Cation channel superfamily

The transmembrane cation channel superfamily was defined in InterPro and Pfam as the family of tetrameric ion channels.

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Cation channels of sperm

The cation channels of sperm also known as Catsper channels or CatSper, are ion channels that are related to the two-pore channels and distantly related to TRP channels.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cell surface receptor

Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells.

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The channelome, sometimes called the "ion channelome", is the complete set of ion channelsDoyle, D. A., Morais-Cabral, J., Pfuetzner, R. A., Kuo, A, Gulbis, JM, Cohen, SL, Chait, BT, MacKinnon, R (1998) The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivity.

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Channelopathies are diseases caused by disturbed function of ion channel subunits or the proteins that regulate them.

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Channelrhodopsins are a subfamily of retinylidene proteins (rhodopsins) that function as light-gated ion channels.

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The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.

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Chloride channel

Chloride channels are a superfamily of poorly understood ion channels specific for chloride.

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Clay Armstrong

Clay Margarave Armstrong (born 1934) is an American physiologist and a former student of Dr.

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Cone snail

Cone snails, cone shells, or cones are common names for a large group of small to large-sized extremely venomous predatory sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs.

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A conotoxin is one of a group of neurotoxic peptides isolated from the venom of the marine cone snail, genus Conus.

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Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).

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Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.

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Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP).

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Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channel

Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channels or CNG channels are ion channels that function in response to the binding of cyclic nucleotides.

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Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.

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Dendrotoxins are a class of presynaptic neurotoxins produced by mamba snakes (Dendroaspis) that block particular subtypes of voltage-gated potassium channels in neurons, thereby enhancing the release of acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions.

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The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.

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Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.

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Electrochemical gradient

An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.

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Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

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Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.

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Episodic ataxia

Episodic ataxia (EA) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sporadic bouts of ataxia (severe discoordination) with or without myokymia (continuous muscle movement).

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Epithelial sodium channel

The epithelial sodium channel (short: eNaC, also: amiloride-sensitive sodium channel) is a membrane-bound ion channel that is selectively permeable to Na+ ions and that is assembled as a heterotrimer composed of three homologous subunits α or δ, β, and γ, These subunits are encoded by four genes: SCNN1A, SCNN1B, SCNN1G, and SCNN1D.

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Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Erwin Neher

Erwin Neher (born 20 March 1944) is a German biophysicist, specializing in the field of cell physiology.

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Familial hemiplegic migraine

Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is an autosomal dominant type of hemiplegic migraine that typically includes weakness of half the body which can last for hours, days or weeks.

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Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.

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G protein

G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.

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GABA receptor

The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.

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Gating (electrophysiology)

In electrophysiology, the term gating refers to the opening (activation) or closing (by deactivation or inactivation) of ion channels.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus

Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is a syndromic autosomal dominant disorder where afflicted individuals can exhibit numerous epilepsy phenotypes.

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GHK flux equation

The Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz flux equation (or GHK flux equation or GHK current density equation) describes the ionic flux across a cell membrane as a function of the transmembrane potential and the concentrations of the ion inside and outside of the cell.

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Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most aggressive cancer that begins within the brain.

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Glutamate receptor

Glutamate receptors are synaptic and non synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal and glial cells.

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Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).

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Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Heteropoda venatoria

Heteropoda venatoria is a species of spider in the family Sparassidae, the huntsman spiders.

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Heteropodatoxins are peptide toxins from the venom of the giant crab spider Heteropoda venatoria, which block Kv4.2 voltage-gated potassium channels.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP, HyperKPP) is a genetic disorder.

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Hyperpolarization (biology)

Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.

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Iberiotoxin (IbTX) is an ion channel toxin purified from the Eastern Indian red scorpion Buthus tamulus.

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Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Integral membrane protein

An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.

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InterPro is a database of protein families, domains and functional sites in which identifiable features found in known proteins can be applied to new protein sequences in order to functionally characterise them.

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Inward-rectifier potassium channel

Inward-rectifier potassium channels (Kir, IRK) are a specific subset of potassium channels.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ion transporter

In biology, an ion transporter (or ion pump) is a transmembrane protein that moves ions across a plasma membrane against their concentration gradient through active transport.

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An ionophore is a chemical species that reversibly binds ions.

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KcsA potassium channel

KcsA is a prokaryotic potassium channel from the soil bacteria ''Streptomyces lividans'' that has been studied extensively in ion channel research.

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Ki Database

The Ki Database (or Ki DB) is a public domain database of published binding affinities (Ki) of drugs and chemical compounds for receptors, neurotransmitter transporters, ion channels, and enzymes.

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Lidocaine, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area.

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Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

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Light-gated ion channel

Light-gated ion channels are a family of ion channels regulated by electromagnetic radiation.

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Lipid bilayer

The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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Local anesthetic

A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well.

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Long QT syndrome

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a condition which affects repolarization of the heart after a heartbeat.

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Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).

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Magnesium transporter

Magnesium transporters are proteins that transport magnesium across the cell membrane.

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Mambas are fast-moving venomous snakes of the genus Dendroaspis (which literally means "tree asp") in the family Elapidae.

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Mucolipin-1 also known as TRPML1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, mucolipin subfamily, member 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCOLN1 gene.

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Mechanosensitive channels

Mechanosensitive channels, mechanosensitive ion channels or stretch-gated ion channels.

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Membrane potential

The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.

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Membrane protein

Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with, or are part of, biological membranes.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Mucolipidosis type IV

Mucolipidosis type IV (ML IV, ganglioside sialidase deficiency, or ML4) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder.

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Muscle contraction

Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.

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Mutagenesis is a process by which the genetic information of an organism is changed, resulting in a mutation.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Myokymia (from the Greek -mŷs – "muscle," + kŷm, -kŷmia – "something swollen" or -kŷmos – "wave"), french, tic facial, is an involuntary, spontaneous, localised quivering of a few muscles, or bundles within a muscle, but which are insufficient to move a joint.

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-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.

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NADPH oxidase

The NADPH oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) is a membrane-bound enzyme complex that faces the extracellular space.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.

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Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).

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Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.

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A newt is a salamander in the subfamily Pleurodelinae, also called eft during its terrestrial juvenile phase.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Osmotic concentration

Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L).

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P2X purinoreceptor

The ATP-gated P2X receptor cation channel family, or simply P2X receptor family, consists of cation-permeable ligand-gated ion channels that open in response to the binding of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP).

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The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

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Paramyotonia congenita

Paramyotonia congenita (PC), also known as paramyotonia congenita of von Eulenburg or Eulenburg disease, is a rare congenital autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder characterized by “paradoxical” myotonia.

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Passive transport

Passive transport is a movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input.

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Patch clamp

The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology used to study ionic currents in individual isolated living cells, tissue sections, or patches of cell membrane.

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Pfam is a database of protein families that includes their annotations and multiple sequence alignments generated using hidden Markov models.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).

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In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Potassium channel

Potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.

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Potassium-aggravated myotonia

Potassium-aggravated myotonia is a rare genetic disorder that affects skeletal muscle.

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Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group.

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Protein structure

Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.

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Protein subunit

In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.

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Reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.

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Receptor (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.

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A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction.

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Red tide

Red tide is a common name for a worldwide phenomenon known as an algal bloom (large concentrations of aquatic microorganisms—protozoans or unicellular algae) when it is caused by species of dinoflagellates and other organisms.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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In neuroscience, repolarization refers to the change in membrane potential that returns it to a negative value just after the depolarization phase of an action potential has changed the membrane potential to a positive value.

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Resting potential

The relatively static membrane potential of quiescent cells is called the resting membrane potential (or resting voltage), as opposed to the specific dynamic electrochemical phenomena called action potential and graded membrane potential.

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Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a variant of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is a technique commonly used in molecular biology to detect RNA expression.

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Ricardo Miledi

Ricardo Miledi (15 September, 1927 – 18 December, 2017) was a Mexican neuroscientist.

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Roderick MacKinnon

Roderick MacKinnon (born 19 February 1956) is a professor of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics at Rockefeller University who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry together with Peter Agre in 2003 for his work on the structure and operation of ion channels.

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Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent neurotoxin and the best-known paralytic shellfish toxin (PST).

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Second messenger system

Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.

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Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.

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Semipermeable membrane

A semipermeable membrane is a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion—or occasionally by more specialized processes of facilitated diffusion, passive transport or active transport.

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Shaker gene

The shaker (Sh) gene, when mutated, causes a variety of atypical behaviors in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

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Sinoatrial node

The sinoatrial node (SA node), also known as sinus node, is a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.

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Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.

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Smooth muscle tissue

Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.

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Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium channel

Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.

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Sodium-calcium exchanger

The sodium-calcium exchanger (often denoted Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, NCX, or exchange protein) is an antiporter membrane protein that removes calcium from cells.

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Sodium-glucose transport proteins

Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters (or sodium-glucose linked transporter, SGLT) are a family of glucose transporter found in the intestinal mucosa (enterocytes) of the small intestine (SGLT1) and the proximal tubule of the nephron (SGLT2 in PCT and SGLT1 in PST).

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Spinocerebellar ataxia type-13

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 (SCA13) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, which, like other types of SCA, is characterized by dysarthria, nystagmus, and ataxia of gait, stance and the limbs due to cerebellar dysfunction.

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Squid giant axon

The squid giant axon is the very large (up to 1 mm in diameter; typically around 0.5 mm) axon that controls part of the water jet propulsion system in squid.

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In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

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A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated with each other and, often, with a particular disease or disorder.

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Synthetic ion channels

Synthetic ion channels are de novo chemical compounds that insert into lipid bilayers, form pores, and allow ions to flow from one side to the other.

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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Tetrameric protein

A tetrameric protein is a protein with a quaternary structure of four subunits (tetrameric).

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The Tetraodontidae are a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the order Tetraodontiformes.

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Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin.

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Transient receptor potential channel

Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are a group of ion channels located mostly on the plasma membrane of numerous animal cell types.

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Transmembrane domain

Transmembrane domain usually denotes a transmembrane segment of single alpha helix of a transmembrane protein.

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TRPA (ion channel)

TRPA is a family of transient receptor potential ion channels.

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TRPC is a family of transient receptor potential cation channels in animals.

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TRPM is a family of transient receptor potential ion channels (M standing for melastatin).

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Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8), also known as the cold and menthol receptor 1 (CMR1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPM8 gene.

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TRPML (transient receptor potential cation channel, mucolipin subfamily) comprises a group of three evolutionarily related proteins that belongs to the large family of transient receptor potential ion channels.

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TRPP (transient receptor potential polycystic) is a family of transient receptor potential ion channels which when mutated can cause polycystic kidney disease.

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TRPV is a family of transient receptor potential cation channels (TRP channels) in animals.

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The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TrpV1), also known as the capsaicin receptor and the vanilloid receptor 1, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TRPV1 gene.

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Two-pore channel

Two-pore channels (TPCs) are eukaryotic intracellular voltage-gated and ligand gated cation selective ion channels.

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Two-pore-domain potassium channel

The two-pore-domain potassium channel is a family of 15 members that form what is known as "leak channels" which possess Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (open) rectification.

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Ventricle (heart)

A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

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Voltage clamp

The voltage clamp is an experimental method used by electrophysiologists to measure the ion currents through the membranes of excitable cells, such as neurons, while holding the membrane voltage at a set level.

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Voltage-gated calcium channel

Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.

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Voltage-gated ion channel

Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the electrical membrane potential near the channel.

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Voltage-gated potassium channel

Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) are transmembrane channels specific for potassium and sensitive to voltage changes in the cell's membrane potential.

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Voltage-gated proton channel

Voltage-gated proton channels are ion channels that have the unique property of opening with depolarization, but in a strongly pH-sensitive manner.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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Anion channel, Cation channel, Channel (biochemistry), Channel protein, General ion channel, Ion channel gating, Ion channel pore, Ion channels, Ion current, Ion-channel, Ion-channels, Ionic channel, Ionic channels, Pore-forming loop, Protein channel.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ion_channel

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