112 relations: Absorption (chemistry), Actinide, Adsorption, Americium, Amine, Amino acid, Amphoterism, Anion exchange membrane, Biochemistry, Biomolecule, Brine, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Carboxylic acid, Cation-exchange capacity, Cerium, Chemical structure, Chemically strengthened glass, Chloralkali process, Chloride, Chromatography, Clay, Control rod, Coordination complex, Curium, Dealkalization, Decontamination, Desalination, Didymium, DNA, Electric charge, Electrodialysis, Electrolyte, Electrophoresis, Equivalent concentration, Europium, Expansive clay, Frank Spedding, Fuel cell, Functional group, Gel, Geotechnical engineering, Glass, Hafnium, Humus, Hydroxide, Inorganic compound, Ion, Ion chromatography, Ion-exchange membranes, ..., Ion-exchange resin, Lanthanide, Lanthanum, Laundry detergent, Magnesium, Metal, Mineral, Molecule, Montmorillonite, Neodymium, Neptunium, Nitrate, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reprocessing, Nuclear weapon, Organic acid, Organic base, Organic matter, Peptide, Phosphate, Plutonium, Plutonium-239, Polymer, Potassium, Power engineering, Praseodymium, Protein, Proton, Proton-exchange membrane, PUREX, Radioactive waste, Rare-earth element, Refractive index, Resin, Reverse osmosis, Reversible reaction, RNA, Soda–lime glass, Sodium, Sodium chloride, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium sulfate, Soft water, Soil, Soil science, Solubility, Solution, Sorption, Sulfate, Sulfuric acid, Thorium, Uranium, Vanadium redox battery, Wastewater, Wastewater treatment, Water filter, Water purification, Water softening, Waveguide, Ytterbium, Zeolite, Zirconium. Expand index (62 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorption is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules or ions enter some bulk phase – liquid or solid material.
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
An anion exchange membrane (AEM) is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct anions while being impermeable to gases such as oxygen or hydrogen.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Cation-exchange capacity (CEC) is a measure of how many cations can be retained on soil particle surfaces.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Chemically strengthened glass is a type of glass that has increased strength as a result of a post-production chemical process.
The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor alkali) is an industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Curium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Cm and atomic number 96.
Dealkalization is a process of surface modification applicable to glasses containing alkali ions, wherein a thin surface layer is created that has a lower concentration of alkali ions than is present in the underlying, bulk glass.
Decontamination (sometimes abbreviated as decon, dcon, or decontam) is the process of cleansing an object or substance to remove contaminants such as micro-organisms or hazardous materials, including chemicals, radioactive substances, and infectious diseases.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
Didymium (twin element) is a mixture of the elements praseodymium and neodymium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
Electrodialysis (ED) is used to transport salt ions from one solution through ion-exchange membranes to another solution under the influence of an applied electric potential difference.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.
In chemistry, the equivalent concentration or normality of a solution is defined as the molar concentration ci divided by an equivalence factor feq.
Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.
Expansive clay is a clay soil that is prone to large volume changes (swelling and shrinking) that are directly related to changes in water content.
Frank Harold Spedding (22 October 1902 – 15 December 1984) was a Canadian American chemist.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
A gel is a solid jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough.
Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
In soil science, humus (derived in 1790–1800 from the Latin humus for earth, ground) denominates the fraction of soil organic matter that is amorphous and without the "cellular cake structure characteristic of plants, micro-organisms or animals." Humus significantly affects the bulk density of soil and contributes to its retention of moisture and nutrients.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) is a chromatography process that separates ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to the ion exchanger.
An ion-exchange membrane is a semi-permeable membrane that transports certain dissolved ions, while blocking other ions or neutral molecules.
An ion-exchange resin or ion-exchange polymer is a resin or polymer that acts as a medium for ion exchange.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
Laundry detergent, or washing powder, is a type of detergent (cleaning agent) that is added for cleaning laundry.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Montmorillonite is a very soft phyllosilicate group of minerals that form when they precipitate from water solution as microscopic crystals, known as clay. It is named after Montmorillon in France. Montmorillonite, a member of the smectite group, is a 2:1 clay, meaning that it has two tetrahedral sheets of silica sandwiching a central octahedral sheet of alumina. The particles are plate-shaped with an average diameter around 1 μm and a thickness of 9.6 nm; magnification of about 25,000 times, using an electron microscope, is required to "see" individual clay particles. Members of this group include saponite. Montmorillonite is a subclass of smectite, a 2:1 phyllosilicate mineral characterized as having greater than 50% octahedral charge; its cation exchange capacity is due to isomorphous substitution of Mg for Al in the central alumina plane. The substitution of lower valence cations in such instances leaves the nearby oxygen atoms with a net negative charge that can attract cations. In contrast, beidellite is smectite with greater than 50% tetrahedral charge originating from isomorphous substitution of Al for Si in the silica sheet. The individual crystals of montmorillonite clay are not tightly bound hence water can intervene, causing the clay to swell. The water content of montmorillonite is variable and it increases greatly in volume when it absorbs water. Chemically, it is hydrated sodium calcium aluminium magnesium silicate hydroxide (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2·nH2O. Potassium, iron, and other cations are common substitutes, and the exact ratio of cations varies with source. It often occurs intermixed with chlorite, muscovite, illite, cookeite, and kaolinite.
Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.
An organic base is an organic compound which acts as a base.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Power engineering, also called power systems engineering, is a subfield of electrical engineering that deals with the generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electric power, and the electrical apparatus connected to such systems.
Praseodymium is a chemical element with symbol Pr and atomic number 59.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A proton-exchange membrane, or polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM), is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct protons while acting as an electronic insulator and reactant barrier, e.g. to oxygen and hydrogen gas.
PUREX is a chemical method used to purify fuel for nuclear reactors or nuclear weapons.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.
A reversible reaction is a reaction where the reactants form products, which react together to give the reactants back.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Soda–lime glass, also called soda–lime–silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes and glass containers (bottles and jars) for beverages, food, and some commodity items.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.
Soft water is surface water that contains low concentrations of ions and in particular is low in ions of calcium and magnesium.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Sorption is a physical and chemical process by which one substance becomes attached to another.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
The vanadium redox battery (VRB), also known as vanadium flow battery (VFB) or vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), is a type of rechargeable flow battery that employs vanadium ions in different oxidation states to store chemical potential energy.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater into an effluent (outflowing of water to a receiving body of water) that can be returned to the water cycle with minimal impact on the environment or directly reused.
A water filter removes impurities by lowering contamination of water using a fine physical barrier, a chemical process, or a biological process.
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water.
Water softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water.
A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting expansion to one dimension or two.
Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
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