203 relations: Absorption band, Acid, Acid salt, Acid strength, Alfred Landé, Alkali metal, Alkali salt, Alkaline earth metal, Aluminium chloride, Aluminium hydroxide, Aluminium oxide, Ammonium, Ammonium acetate, Ammonium carbonate, Amphoterism, Anhydrous, Arabic numerals, Atom, Atomic orbital, Base (chemistry), Bismuth(III) iodide, Boiling point, Boiling-point elevation, Bonding in solids, Borax, Born–Haber cycle, Born–Landé equation, Born–Mayer equation, Brittleness, Cadmium chloride, Cadmium iodide, Caesium chloride, Caesium fluoride, Calcium fluoride, Calcium hydroxide, Calomel, Carbonate, Carnallite, Cation-anion radius ratio, Cerium(III) sulfate, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemistry, Chloride, Chromium(III) chloride, Cleavage (crystal), Close-packing of equal spheres, Cobalt(II) chloride, Colligative properties, Colloid, ..., Compressibility, Conjugate acid, Coordination number, Coordination sphere, Corundum, Coulomb's law, Counterion, Covalent bond, Crystal field theory, Crystal structure, Deformation (engineering), Dislocation, Dissociation (chemistry), Double layer (surface science), Ductility, Electric battery, Electrical mobility, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrode, Electrolysis, Electrolyte, Electron shell, Electron transfer, Electronegativity, Electronic structure, Empirical formula, Emulsion, Enthalpy change of solution, Entropy of mixing, Erwin Madelung, Evaporation, Evaporite, Ewald summation, F-center, Fajans' rules, Fast ion conductor, Ferrous, Fluoride, Fluorite, Formula unit, Fracture, Freezing, Freezing-point depression, Frenkel defect, Fritz Haber, Fuel cell, Gasoline, Glass, Halogen, Hardness, HSAB theory, Hydrate, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen ion, Hydroxide, Ilmenite, Inorganic compound, Insulator (electricity), International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Interstitial defect, Ioliomics, Ion, Ionic bonding, Ionic conductivity (solid state), Ionic liquid, Ionic strength, Iron(II) sulfate, Iron(III) chloride, Iron(III) sulfate, Kapustinskii equation, Kazimierz Fajans, Latin, Lattice constant, Lattice energy, Lawrence Bragg, Lead(II) oxide, Liquid, Lithium oxide, Madelung constant, Magnesium chloride, Magnesium hydroxide, Max Born, Melting, Melting point, Michael Faraday, Mineral, Molten salt, Molybdenum(III) chloride, Monatomic ion, Neutralization (chemistry), Niter, Nomenclature, Non-stoichiometric compound, Nucleation, Olivine, Open shell, Ore, Osmotic pressure, Oxidation state, Oxide, Paul Peter Ewald, Pauli exclusion principle, Pauling's rules, Polyatomic ion, Potassium, Precipitation (chemistry), Pyrotechnician, Reactivity series, Redox, Roman numerals, Salt, Salt (chemistry), Schottky defect, Sensor, Smelting, Sodium, Sodium chloride, Sodium sulfate, Solid-state chemistry, Solid-state reaction route, Solubility, Solution, Solvation, Solvent, Spectator ion, Spectrochemical series, Sphalerite, Spinel, Spinel group, Stock nomenclature, Stoichiometry, Strong electrolyte, Substituent, Sulfate, Sulfuric acid, Supercapacitor, Supersaturation, Suspension (chemistry), Symbol (chemistry), Thermochemistry, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Uranyl, Van der Waals force, Vapor pressure, Water, Water fluoridation, Water of crystallization, Weak base, William Henry Bragg, Wurtzite, X-ray reflectivity, Yttrium(III) chloride, Zinc oxide. Expand index (153 more) » « Shrink index
According to quantum mechanics, atoms and molecules can only hold certain defined quantities of energy, or exist in specific states.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acid salt is a class of salts that produces an acidic solution after being dissolved in a solvent.
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
Alfred Landé (13 December 1888 – 30 October 1976) was a German-American physicist known for his contributions to quantum theory.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
Alkali salts or basic salts are salts that are the product of the neutralization of a strong base and a weak acid.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is the main compound of aluminium and chlorine.
Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Ammonium acetate, also known as spirit of Mindererus in aqueous solution, is a chemical compound with the formula NH4CH3CO2.
Ammonium carbonate is a salt with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Bismuth(III) iodide is the inorganic compound with the formula BiI3.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Boiling-point elevation describes the phenomenon that the boiling point of a liquid (a solvent) will be higher when another compound is added, meaning that a solution has a higher boiling point than a pure solvent.
Solids can be classified according to the nature of the bonding between their atomic or molecular components.
Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.
The Born–Haber cycle is an approach to analyze reaction energies.
The Born–Landé equation is a means of calculating the lattice energy of a crystalline ionic compound.
The Born–Mayer equation is an equation that is used to calculate the lattice energy of a crystalline ionic compound.
# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation.
Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chlorine, with the formula CdCl2.
Cadmium iodide, CdI2, is a chemical compound of cadmium and iodine.
Caesium chloride or cesium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula CsCl.
Caesium fluoride or cesium fluoride is an inorganic compound usually encountered as a hygroscopic white solid.
Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound of the elements calcium and fluorine with the formula CaF2.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
Calomel is a mercury chloride mineral with formula (Hg2)2+Cl2 (see mercury(I) chloride).
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
Carnallite (also carnalite) is an evaporite mineral, a hydrated potassium magnesium chloride with formula KMgCl3·6(H2O).
In condensed matter physics and inorganic chemistry the cation-anion radius ratio (also: radius ratio rule) is the ratio of the ionic radius of the cation to the ionic radius of the anion in a cation-anion compound.
Cerium(III) sulfate, also called cerous sulfate, is an inorganic compound with the formula Ce2(SO4)3.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chromium(III) chloride (also called chromic chloride) describes any of several compounds of with the formula CrCl3(H2O)x, where x can be 0, 5, and 6.
Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes.
In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).
Cobalt(II) chloride is an inorganic compound of cobalt and chlorine, with the formula CoCl2.
In chemistry, colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution, and not on the nature of the chemical species present.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, compressibility (also known as the coefficient of compressibility or isothermal compressibility) is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change.
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
In chemistry, crystallography, and materials science the coordination number, also called ligancy, of a central atom in a molecule or crystal is the number of atoms, molecules or ions bonded to it.
In coordination chemistry, the coordination sphere refers to a central atom or ion and an array of molecules or anions, the ligands, around.
Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
Polystyrene sulfonate, a cation exchange resin, is typically supplied with Na+ as the counterion. A counterion (pronounced as two words, i.e. "counter" "ion", and sometimes written as two words) is the ion that accompanies an ionic species in order to maintain electric neutrality.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Crystal Field Theory (CFT) is a model that describes the breaking of degeneracies of electron orbital states, usually d or f orbitals, due to a static electric field produced by a surrounding charge distribution (anion neighbors).
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-.
In materials science, a dislocation or Taylor's dislocation is a crystallographic defect or irregularity within a crystal structure.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
A double layer (DL, also called an electrical double layer, EDL) is a structure that appears on the surface of an object when it is exposed to a fluid.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
Electrical mobility is the ability of charged particles (such as electrons or protons) to move through a medium in response to an electric field that is pulling them.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron relocates from an atom or molecule to another such chemical entity.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
In quantum chemistry, electronic structure is the state of motion of electrons in an electrostatic field created by stationary nuclei.
In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
The enthalpy of solution, enthalpy of dissolution, or heat of solution is the enthalpy change associated with the dissolution of a substance in a solvent at constant pressure resulting in infinite dilution.
In thermodynamics the entropy of mixing is the increase in the total entropy when several initially separate systems of different composition, each in a thermodynamic state of internal equilibrium, are mixed without chemical reaction by the thermodynamic operation of removal of impermeable partition(s) between them, followed by a time for establishment of a new thermodynamic state of internal equilibrium in the new unpartitioned closed system.
Erwin Madelung (18 May 1881 – 1 August 1972) was a German physicist.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
Ewald summation, named after Paul Peter Ewald, is a method for computing long-range interactions (e.g., electrostatic interactions) in periodic systems.
An F-center, Farbe center or color center (from the original German Farbzentrum; Farbe means color, and zentrum center) is a type of crystallographic defect in which an anionic vacancy in a crystal is filled by one or more unpaired electrons.
In inorganic chemistry, Fajans' rules, formulated by Kazimierz Fajans in 1923, are used to predict whether a chemical bond will be covalent or ionic, and depend on the charge on the cation and the relative sizes of the cation and anion.
In materials science, fast ion conductors are solids with highly mobile ions.
In chemistry, ferrous (Fe2+), indicates a divalent iron compound (+2 oxidation state), as opposed to ferric, which indicates a trivalent iron compound (+3 oxidation state).
Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.
A formula unit in chemistry is the empirical formula of any ionic or covalent network solid compound used as an independent entity for stoichiometric calculations.
A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress.
Freezing, or solidification, is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.
Freezing-point depression is the decrease of the freezing point of a solvent on addition of a non-volatile solute.
A Frenkel defect or dislocation defect is a type of defect in crystalline solids wherein an atom is displaced from its lattice position to an interstitial site, creating a vacancy at the original site and an interstitial defect at the new location without any changes in chemical properties.
Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases".
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
A hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
Ilmenite, also known as Manaccanite, is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Interstitials defects are a variety of crystallographic defects where atoms assume a normally unoccupied site in the crystal structure.
Ioliomics is a research discipline dealing with the studies of ions in liquids (or liquid phases) and stipulated with fundamental differences of ionic interactions.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
Ionic conduction (denoted by -lambda) is the movement of an ion from one site to another through defects in the crystal lattice of a solid or aqueous solution.
An ionic liquid (IL) is a salt in the liquid state.
The concept of ionic strength was first introduced by Lewis and Randall in 1921 while describing the activity coefficients of strong electrolytes.
Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO4·xH2O.
Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state.
Iron(III) sulfate (or ferric sulfate), is the chemical compound with the formula Fe2(SO4)3.
The Kapustinskii equation calculates the lattice energy UL for an ionic crystal, which is experimentally difficult to determine.
Kazimierz Fajans (Kasimir Fajans in many American publications; 27 May 1887 – 18 May 1975) was a Polish American physical chemist of Polish-Jewish origin, a pioneer in the science of radioactivity and the discoverer of chemical element protactinium.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The lattice constant, or lattice parameter, refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice.
The lattice energy of a crystalline solid is often defined as the energy of formation of a crystal from infinitely-separated ions and as such is invariably negative.
Sir William Lawrence Bragg, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of Bragg's law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure.
Lead(II) oxide, also called lead monoxide, is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Lithium oxide (2O) or lithia is an inorganic chemical compound.
The Madelung constant is used in determining the electrostatic potential of a single ion in a crystal by approximating the ions by point charges.
Magnesium chloride is the name for the chemical compound with the formula MgCl2 and its various hydrates MgCl2(H2O)x.
Magnesium hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2.
Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Molten salt is salt which is solid at standard temperature and pressure (STP) but enters the liquid phase due to elevated temperature.
Molybdenum(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula MoCl3.
A monatomic ion is an ion consisting of exactly one atom.
In chemistry, neutralization or neutralisation (see spelling differences), is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react quantitatively with each other.
Niter, or nitre (chiefly British), is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter or saltpetre.
Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.
Non-stoichiometric compounds are chemical compounds, almost always solid inorganic compounds, having elemental composition whose proportions cannot be represented by integers; most often, in such materials, some small percentage of atoms are missing or too many atoms are packed into an otherwise perfect lattice work.
Nucleation is the first step in the formation of either a new thermodynamic phase or a new structure via self-assembly or self-organization.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
In the context of atomic orbitals, an open shell is a valence shell which is not completely filled with electrons or that has not given all of its valence electrons through chemical bonds with other atoms or molecules during a chemical reaction.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Paul Peter Ewald, FRS (January 23, 1888 in Berlin, Germany – August 22, 1985 in Ithaca, New York) was a German crystallographer and physicist, a pioneer of X-ray diffraction methods.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
Pauling's rules are five rules published by Linus Pauling in 1929 for predicting and rationalizing the crystal structures of ionic compounds.
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
A pyrotechnician is a person who is responsible for the safe storage, handling, and functioning of pyrotechnics and pyrotechnic devices.
In chemistry, a reactivity series (or activity series) is an empirical, calculated, and structurally analytical progression of a series of metals, arranged by their "reactivity" from highest to lowest.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
A Schottky defect is a type of point defect in a crystal lattice named after Walter H. Schottky.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.
Solid-state chemistry, also sometimes referred to as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids.
The solid-state reaction route is the most widely used method for the preparation of polycrystalline solids from a mixture of solid starting materials.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
A spectator ion is an ion that exists as a reactant and a product in a chemical equation.
A spectrochemical series is a list of ligands ordered on ligand strength and a list of metal ions based on oxidation number, group and its identity.
Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.
Spinel is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals.
The spinels are any of a class of minerals of general formulation which crystallise in the cubic (isometric) crystal system, with the X anions (typically chalcogens, like oxygen and sulfur) arranged in a cubic close-packed lattice and the cations A and B occupying some or all of the octahedral and tetrahedral sites in the lattice.
Stock nomenclature for inorganic compounds is a widely used system of chemical nomenclature developed by the German chemist Alfred Stock and first published in 1919.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
A strong electrolyte is a solution/solute that completely, or almost completely, ionizes or dissociates in a solution.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
A supercapacitor (SC) (also called a supercap, ultracapacitor or Goldcap) is a high-capacity capacitor with capacitance values much higher than other capacitors (but lower voltage limits) that bridge the gap between electrolytic capacitors and rechargeable batteries.
Supersaturation is a state of a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
In relation to the chemical elements, a symbol is a code for a chemical element.
Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy associated with chemical reactions and/or physical transformations.
Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.
The uranyl ion is an oxycation of uranium in the oxidation state +6, with the chemical formula.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay.
In chemistry, water of crystallization or water of hydration or crystallization water is water molecules that are present inside crystals.
In chemistry, a weak base is a base that does not ionize fully in an aqueous solution.
Sir William Henry Bragg (2 July 1862 – 12 March 1942) was a British physicist, chemist, mathematician and active sportsman who uniquelyThis is still a unique accomplishment, because no other parent-child combination has yet shared a Nobel Prize (in any field).
Wurtzite is a zinc iron sulfide mineral ((Zn,Fe)S) a less frequently encountered mineral form of sphalerite.
X-ray reflectivity (sometimes known as X-ray specular reflectivity, X-ray reflectometry, or XRR) is a surface-sensitive analytical technique used in chemistry, physics, and materials science to characterize surfaces, thin films and multilayers.
Yttrium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound of yttrium and chloride.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.