46 relations: Above-threshold ionization, Alkali metal, Anode, Argon, Atmosphere of Earth, Atom, Atomic orbital, Bohr model, Cathode, Chemical ionization, Classical physics, Dissociation (chemistry), Electric discharge, Electric field, Electrolyte, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electron capture ionization, Electron ionization, Energy level, Few-body systems, Fluorescent lamp, Geiger counter, Heterolysis (chemistry), Internal conversion, Ion, Ion source, Ionization, Ionization chamber, Ionization energy, Kinematically complete experiment, Mass spectrometry, Molecule, Periodic table, Photoionization, Photoionization mode, Quantum mechanics, Quantum tunnelling, Radiation therapy, Sodium chloride, Subatomic particle, Substitution reaction, Thermal ionization, Townsend discharge, Tunnel ionization, Wavelet.
In atomic, molecular, and optical physics, above-threshold ionization (ATI), is a multi-photon effect where an atom is ionized with more than the energetically required number of photons.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
Chemical ionization (CI) is a soft ionization technique used in mass spectrometry.
Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
An electric discharge is the release and transmission of electricity in an applied electric field through a medium such as a gas.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electron capture ionization is the ionization of a gas phase atom or molecule by attachment of an electron to create an ion of the form A. The reaction is where the M over the arrow denotes that to conserve energy and momentum a third body is required (the molecularity of the reaction is three).
Electron ionization (EI, formerly known as electron impact ionization and electron bombardment ionization) is an ionization method in which energetic electrons interact with solid or gas phase atoms or molecules to produce ions.
A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
In mechanics, a few-body system consists of a small number of well-defined structures or point particles.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
The Geiger counter is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation used widely in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.
In chemistry, heterolysis or heterolytic fission (from Greek ἕτερος, heteros, "different", and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") is the process of cleaving a covalent bond where one previously bonded species takes both original bonding electrons from the other species.
Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process wherein an excited nucleus interacts electromagnetically with one of the orbital electrons of the atom.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
An ion source is a device that creates atomic and molecular ions.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
In accelerator physics a kinematically complete experiment is an experiment in which all kinematic parameters of all collision products are determined.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
Photoionization is the physical process in which an ion is formed from the interaction of a photon with an atom or molecule.
A photoionization mode is a mode of interaction between a laser beam and matter involving photoionization.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
Substitution reaction (also known as single displacement reaction or single substitution reaction) is a chemical reaction during which one functional group in a chemical compound is replaced by another functional group.
Thermal ionization, also known as surface ionization or contact ionization, is a physical process whereby the atoms are desorbed from a hot surface, and in the process are spontaneously ionized.
The Townsend discharge or Townsend avalanche is a gas ionisation process where free electrons are accelerated by an electric field, collide with gas molecules, and consequently free additional electrons.
Tunnel ionization is a process in which electrons in an atom (or a molecule) pass through the potential barrier and escape from the atom (or molecule).
A wavelet is a wave-like oscillation with an amplitude that begins at zero, increases, and then decreases back to zero.
Adiabatic ionization, Ionisability, Ionisable, Ionisation, Ionisational, Ionisations, Ionise, Ionised, Ionises, Ionising, Ionizability, Ionizable, Ionization efficiency, Ionizational, Ionizations, Ionize, Ionized, Ionizes, Ionizing.