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Ionization energy

Index Ionization energy

The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation. [1]

63 relations: Adiabatic theorem, Aluminium, Argon, Atomic orbital, Atomic radius, Binding energy, Bohr model, Bohr radius, Bond length, Calorie, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemistry, Chlorine, Computational chemistry, Ditungsten tetra(hpp), Effective nuclear charge, Electric potential, Electron, Electron affinity, Electron shell, Electronegativity, Electronic correlation, Electronvolt, Elementary charge, Endothermic process, Enthalpy, Excited state, F. Albert Cotton, Franck–Condon principle, Gaussian units, Geoffrey Wilkinson, Ground state, Group (periodic table), Hartree–Fock method, Infrared spectroscopy, Ion, Joule, Koopmans' theorem, Magnesium, Mole (unit), Molecular geometry, Molecular orbital, Molecular vibration, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Neon, Noble gas, Pauli exclusion principle, Period (periodic table), Periodic table, ..., Phosphorus, Physics, Potential energy surface, Quantum harmonic oscillator, Quantum mechanics, Shielding effect, Silicon, Slater determinant, Sodium, Sulfur, Valence electron, Wave function, Work function. Expand index (13 more) »

Adiabatic theorem

The adiabatic theorem is a concept in quantum mechanics.

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Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.

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Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Atomic radius

The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.

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Binding energy

Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.

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Bohr model

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.

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Bohr radius

The Bohr radius (a0 or rBohr) is a physical constant, approximately equal to the most probable distance between the nucleus and the electron in a hydrogen atom in its ground state.

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Bond length

In molecular geometry, bond length or bond distance is the average distance between nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule.

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A calorie is a unit of energy.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Computational chemistry

Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.

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Ditungsten tetra(hpp)

Tetrakis(hexahydropyrimidinopyrimidine)ditungsten(II), known as ditungsten tetra(hpp), is the name of the coordination compound with the formula W2(hpp)4.

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Effective nuclear charge

The effective nuclear charge (often symbolized as Z_ or Z^\ast) is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom.

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Electric potential

An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron affinity

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.

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Electron shell

In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.

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Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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Electronic correlation

Electronic correlation is the interaction between electrons in the electronic structure of a quantum system.

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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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Elementary charge

The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.

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Endothermic process

The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.

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Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.

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Excited state

In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).

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F. Albert Cotton

Frank Albert Cotton (April 9, 1930 – February 20, 2007) was an American chemist.

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Franck–Condon principle

The Franck–Condon principle is a rule in spectroscopy and quantum chemistry that explains the intensity of vibronic transitions.

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Gaussian units

Gaussian units constitute a metric system of physical units.

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Geoffrey Wilkinson

Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson FRS (14 July 1921 – 26 September 1996) was a Nobel laureate English chemist who pioneered inorganic chemistry and homogeneous transition metal catalysis.

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Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.

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Group (periodic table)

In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.

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Hartree–Fock method

In computational physics and chemistry, the Hartree–Fock (HF) method is a method of approximation for the determination of the wave function and the energy of a quantum many-body system in a stationary state.

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Infrared spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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Koopmans' theorem

Koopmans' theorem states that in closed-shell Hartree–Fock theory (HF), the first ionization energy of a molecular system is equal to the negative of the orbital energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO).

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

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Molecular geometry

Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule.

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Molecular orbital

In chemistry, a molecular orbital (MO) is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule.

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Molecular vibration

A molecular vibration occurs when atoms in a molecule are in periodic motion while the molecule as a whole has constant translational and rotational motion.

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National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.

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Noble gas

The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.

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Pauli exclusion principle

The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.

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Period (periodic table)

A period in the periodic table is a horizontal row.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Potential energy surface

A potential energy surface (PES) describes the energy of a system, especially a collection of atoms, in terms of certain parameters, normally the positions of the atoms.

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Quantum harmonic oscillator

The quantum harmonic oscillator is the quantum-mechanical analog of the classical harmonic oscillator.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Shielding effect

The shielding effect describes the attraction between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with more than one electron.

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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Slater determinant

In quantum mechanics, a Slater determinant is an expression that describes the wave function of a multi-fermionic system that satisfies anti-symmetry requirements, and consequently the Pauli principle, by changing sign upon exchange of two electrons (or other fermions).

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Valence electron

In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.

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Wave function

A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.

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Work function

In solid-state physics, the work setting (sometimes spelled workfunction) is the minimum thermodynamic work (i.e. energy) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface.

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Electron binding energy, First ionization energy, Ionisation energies, Ionisation energy, Ionisation enthalpy, Ionisation potential, Ionization Energy, Ionization Potential, Ionization energies, Ionization enthalpy, Ionization potential, Second ionization energy.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionization_energy

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