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Index Ionosphere

The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere. [1]

169 relations: Abel transform, AEROS (satellite), Alouette 1, Alouette 2, Amateur radio frequency allocations, Amateur radio operator, Angle of attack, Angle of incidence (optics), Arecibo Observatory, Arthur E. Kennelly, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmosphere of Titan, Atmospheric electricity, Atom, Aurora, Boulder Geomagnetic Observatory, Broadcast band, Canada, Canadian Geospace Monitoring, Carl Friedrich Gauss, CHAMP (satellite), Coherence (physics), Committee on Space Research, Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate, Coronal mass ejection, Cosmic ray, Critical frequency, Cutoff frequency, Day, Dispersion (optics), Dissociation (chemistry), Earth, Earth's magnetic field, Earth–ionosphere waveguide, Edward Victor Appleton, EISCAT, Electric field, Electrodynamic tether, Electromagnetic induction, Electron, Electron precipitation, Equator, Equatorial electrojet, Exosphere, Extreme ultraviolet, F region, Fading, Frequency, Galileo (satellite navigation), Gauss (unit), ..., Geomagnetic storm, Geometrical optics, Geophysics, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, Glace Bay, Global Positioning System, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, Guglielmo Marconi, Haystack Observatory, Hertz, High frequency, High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program, Hop (telecommunications), Horizon, Horizontal plane, Incoherent scatter, Index of electronics articles, International Geophysical Year, International Reference Ionosphere, International System of Units, International Union of Radio Science, Interplanetary scintillation, Ion, Ionization, Ionogram, Ionosonde, Ionospheric absorption, Ionospheric dynamo region, Ionospheric heater, ISIS (satellite), J. A. Ratcliffe, Jack Belrose, Jicamarca Radio Observatory, K-index, Karl Rawer, Kennelly–Heaviside layer, Lightning, Line-of-sight propagation, List of plasma physics articles, Lloyd Berkner, Lyman series, Magnetic field, Magnetosphere, Magnetospheric electric convection field, Mars, Maurice Wilkes, Mesosphere, Middle latitudes, Miles Aylmer Fulton Barnett, Molecule, Morse code, Nanometre, NASA, Natural satellite, Nature (journal), New Horizons, Nitric oxide, Nobel Prize, Nozomi (spacecraft), Oliver Heaviside, Open system (systems theory), Oscillation, Outline of astronomy, Oxygen, Ozone layer, Photon, Pioneer Venus project, Plasma (physics), Plasma oscillation, Plasmasphere, Poldhu, Puerto Rico, Radio, Radio Act of 1912, Radio atmospheric, Radio Luxembourg, Radio occultation, Radio propagation, Radio telescope, Radio wave, Refraction, Refractive index, Robert Watson-Watt, Schumann resonances, Shortwave radio, Sine, Skywave, Soft gamma repeater, Solar cycle, Solar flare, Solar irradiance, Solar particle event, Solar wind, Space tether, Space weather, Sporadic E propagation, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Stratosphere, Sudden ionospheric disturbance, Sun, Super Dual Auroral Radar Network, Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility, Temperature, Tesla (unit), Thermosphere, Tide, TIMED, Total electron content, Transmitter, Triple J, Troposphere, Ultraviolet, United States Congress, Upper-atmospheric lightning, Van Allen radiation belt, Vitaly Ginzburg, Wavelength, William Roy Piggott, X-ray. Expand index (119 more) »

Abel transform

In mathematics, the Abel transform, named for Niels Henrik Abel, is an integral transform often used in the analysis of spherically symmetric or axially symmetric functions.

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AEROS (satellite)

AEROS satellites were to study the aeronomy i. e. the science of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, in particular the F region under the strong influence of solar extreme ultraviolet radiation.

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Alouette 1

Alouette 1 is a deactivated Canadian satellite that studied the ionosphere.

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Alouette 2

Alouette 2 was a Canadian research satellite launched at 04:48 UTC on November 29, 1965 by a Thor Agena rocket with Explorer 31 from the Western test range at Vandenberg AFB in California.

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Amateur radio frequency allocations

Amateur radio frequency allocation is done by national telecommunications authorities.

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Amateur radio operator

An amateur radio operator is someone who uses equipment at an amateur radio station to engage in two-way personal communications with other amateur operators on radio frequencies assigned to the amateur radio service.

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Angle of attack

In fluid dynamics, angle of attack (AOA, or \alpha (Greek letter alpha)) is the angle between a reference line on a body (often the chord line of an airfoil) and the vector representing the relative motion between the body and the fluid through which it is moving.

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Angle of incidence (optics)

In geometric optics, the angle of incidence is the angle between a ray incident on a surface and the line perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence, called the normal.

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Arecibo Observatory

The Arecibo Observatory is a radio telescope in the municipality of Arecibo, Puerto Rico.

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Arthur E. Kennelly

Arthur Edwin Kennelly (December 17, 1861 – June 18, 1939), was an Irish-American electrical engineer.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmosphere of Titan

The atmosphere of Titan is the layer of gases surrounding Titan, the largest moon of Saturn.

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Atmospheric electricity

Atmospheric electricity is the study of electrical charges in the Earth's atmosphere (or that of another planet).

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).

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Boulder Geomagnetic Observatory

Boulder Geomagnetic Observatory (BOU) is a geomagnetic observation facility operated by the United States Geological Survey (USGS).

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Broadcast band

A broadcast band is a segment of the radio spectrum used for broadcasting.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canadian Geospace Monitoring

Canadian Geospace Monitoring (CGSM) is a Canadian space science program that was initiated in 2005.

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Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.

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CHAMP (satellite)

Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) was a German satellite launched July 15, 2000 from Plesetsk, Russia and was used for atmospheric and ionospheric research, as well as other geoscientific applications, such as GPS radio occultation.

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Coherence (physics)

In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.

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Committee on Space Research

The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) was established by the International Council for Science (ICSU) in 1958.

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Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate

Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) is a program designed to provide advances in meteorology, ionospheric research, climatology, and space weather by using GPS satellites in conjunction with low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites.

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Coronal mass ejection

A coronal mass ejection (CME) is a significant release of plasma and magnetic field from the solar corona.

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Cosmic ray

Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.

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Critical frequency

In telecommunication, the term critical frequency has the following meanings.

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Cutoff frequency

In physics and electrical engineering, a cutoff frequency, corner frequency, or break frequency is a boundary in a system's frequency response at which energy flowing through the system begins to be reduced (attenuated or reflected) rather than passing through.

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A day, a unit of time, is approximately the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation with respect to the Sun (solar day).

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Dispersion (optics)

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.

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Dissociation (chemistry)

Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth's magnetic field

Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.

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Earth–ionosphere waveguide

The Earth–ionosphere waveguide refers to the phenomenon in which certain radio waves can propagate in the space between the ground and the boundary of the ionosphere.

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Edward Victor Appleton

Sir Edward Victor Appleton (6 September 1892 – 21 April 1965) was an English physicist, Nobel Prize winner (1947) and pioneer in radiophysics.

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EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association) operates three incoherent scatter radar systems, at 224 MHz, 931 MHz in Northern Scandinavia and one at 500 MHz on Svalbard, used to study the interaction between the Sun and the Earth as revealed by disturbances in the ionosphere and magnetosphere.

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Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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Electrodynamic tether

Electrodynamic tethers (EDTs) are long conducting wires, such as one deployed from a tether satellite, which can operate on electromagnetic principles as generators, by converting their kinetic energy to electrical energy, or as motors, converting electrical energy to kinetic energy.

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Electromagnetic induction

Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron precipitation

Electron precipitation (also called energetic electron precipitation or EEP) is an atmospheric phenomenon that occurs when previously trapped electrons enter the Earth's atmosphere, thus creating communications interferences and other disturbances.

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An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).

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Equatorial electrojet

The equatorial electrojet (EEJ) is a narrow ribbon of current flowing eastward in the day time equatorial region of the Earth's ionosphere.

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The exosphere (ἔξω éxō "outside, external, beyond", σφαῖρα sphaĩra "sphere") is a thin, atmosphere-like volume surrounding a planet or natural satellite where molecules are gravitationally bound to that body, but where the density is too low for them to behave as a gas by colliding with each other.

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Extreme ultraviolet

Extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV or XUV) or high-energy ultraviolet radiation is electromagnetic radiation in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum spanning wavelengths from 124 nm down to 10 nm, and therefore (by the Planck–Einstein equation) having photons with energies from 10 eV up to 124 eV (corresponding to 124 nm to 10 nm respectively).

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F region

The F region of the ionosphere is home to the F layer of ionization, also called the Appleton–Barnett layer, after the English physicist Edward Appleton and New Zealander Miles Barnett.

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In wireless communications, fading is variation or the attenuation of a signal with various variables.

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Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Galileo (satellite navigation)

Galileo is the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that is being created by the European Union (EU) through the European Space Agency (ESA), headquartered in Prague in the Czech Republic, with two ground operations centres, Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich in Germany and Fucino in Italy.

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Gauss (unit)

The gauss, abbreviated as G or Gs, is the cgs unit of measurement of magnetic flux density (or "magnetic induction") (B).

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Geomagnetic storm

A geomagnetic storm (commonly referred to as a solar storm) is a temporary disturbance of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth's magnetic field.

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Geometrical optics

Geometrical optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of rays.

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Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.

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Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES), operated by the United States' National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service division, supports weather forecasting, severe storm tracking, and meteorology research.

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Glace Bay

Glace Bay (Scottish Gaelic: Glasbaidh) is a community in the eastern part of the Cape Breton Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia, Canada.

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Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

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Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) was a joint mission of NASA and the German Aerospace Center.

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Guglielmo Marconi

Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (25 April 187420 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system.

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Haystack Observatory

Haystack Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

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The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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High frequency

High frequency (HF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) between 3 and 30 megahertz (MHz).

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High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program

The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) was initiated as an ionospheric research program jointly funded by the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Navy, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

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Hop (telecommunications)

In telecommunication, a hop is a portion of a signal's journey from source to receiver.

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The horizon or skyline is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not.

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Horizontal plane

In geometry, physics, astronomy, geography, and related sciences, a plane is said to be horizontal at a given point if it is perpendicular to the gradient of the gravity field at that point – in other words, if apparent gravity makes a plumb bob hang perpendicular to the plane at that point.

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Incoherent scatter

Incoherent scattering is a type of scattering phenomenon in physics.

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Index of electronics articles

This is an index of articles relating to electronics and electricity or natural electricity and things that run on electricity and things that use or conduct electricity.

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International Geophysical Year

The International Geophysical Year (IGY; Année géophysique internationale) was an international scientific project that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958.

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International Reference Ionosphere

International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is a common permanent scientific project of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) started 1968/69.

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International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

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International Union of Radio Science

The International Union of Radio Science (abbreviated URSI, after its French name, Union Radio-Scientifique Internationale) is one of 26 international scientific unions affiliated to the International Council for Science (ICSU).

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Interplanetary scintillation

In astronomy, interplanetary scintillation refers to random fluctuations in the intensity of radio waves of celestial origin, on the timescale of a few seconds.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.

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An ionogram is a display of the data produced by an ionosonde.

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An ionosonde, or chirpsounder, is a special radar for the examination of the ionosphere.

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Ionospheric absorption

Ionospheric absorption (or ISAB) is the scientific name for absorption occurring as a result of the interaction between various types of electromagnetic waves and the free electrons in the ionosphere, which can interfere with radio transmissions.

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Ionospheric dynamo region

In the height region between about 85 and 200 km altitude on Earth, the ionospheric plasma is electrically conducting.

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Ionospheric heater

An ionospheric heater, or an ionospheric HF pump facility, is a powerful radio wave transmitter with an array of antennas which is used for research of plasma turbulence, the ionosphere and upper atmosphere.

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ISIS (satellite)

ISIS 1 and 2 ("International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies") were the third and fourth in a series of Canadian satellites launched to study the ionosphere.

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J. A. Ratcliffe

John Ashworth Ratcliffe CB OBE FRS (12 December 1902 – 25 October 1987), "JAR" or "Jack", was an influential British radio physicist.

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Jack Belrose

John S. (Jack) Belrose (born 24 November 1926), is a Canadian radio scientist He was born in the small town of Warner, Alberta.

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Jicamarca Radio Observatory

The Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO) is the equatorial anchor of the Western Hemisphere chain of Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) observatories extending from Lima, Peru to Søndre Strømfjord, Greenland.

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The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm.

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Karl Rawer

Professor Rawer at his 104th birthday in 2017 Karl Maria Alois Rawer (April 19, 1913 – April 17, 2018) was a German specialist in radio wave propagation and the ionosphere.

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Kennelly–Heaviside layer

The Kennelly–Heaviside layer, named after Arthur E. Kennelly and Oliver Heaviside, also known as the E region or simply the Heaviside layer, is a layer of ionised gas occurring between roughly 90–150 km (56–93 mi) above the ground — one of several layers in the Earth's ionosphere.

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Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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Line-of-sight propagation

Line-of-sight propagation is a characteristic of electromagnetic radiation or acoustic wave propagation which means waves travel in a direct path from the source to the receiver.

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List of plasma physics articles

This is a list of plasma physics topics.

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Lloyd Berkner

Lloyd Viel Berkner (February 1, 1905 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin – June 4, 1967 in Washington, D.C.) was an American physicist and engineer.

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Lyman series

In physics and chemistry, the Lyman series is a hydrogen spectral series of transitions and resulting ultraviolet emission lines of the hydrogen atom as an electron goes from n ≥ 2 to n.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.

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Magnetospheric electric convection field

The impact of the solar wind onto the magnetosphere generates an electric field within the inner magnetosphere (r the Earth's radius) - the convection field-.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Maurice Wilkes

Sir Maurice Vincent Wilkes (26 June 1913 – 29 November 2010) was a British computer scientist who designed and helped build the electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC), one of the earliest stored program computers and invented microprogramming, a method for using stored-program logic to operate the control unit of a central processing unit's circuits.

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The mesosphere (from Greek mesos "middle" and sphaira "sphere") is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere.

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Middle latitudes

The middle latitudes (also called the mid-latitudes, sometimes midlatitudes, or moderate latitudes) of Earth lie between 23°26'22" and 66°33'39" north, and between 23°26'22" and 66°33'39" south.

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Miles Aylmer Fulton Barnett

Miles Aylmer Fulton Barnett (30 April 1901 – 27 March 1979) was a New Zealand physicist and meteorologist.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Morse code

Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.

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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Natural satellite

A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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New Horizons

New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.

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Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Nozomi (spacecraft)

Nozomi (のぞみ) (Japanese for "Wish" or "Hope," and known before launch as Planet-B) was a planned and launched Mars-orbiting aeronomy probe.

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Oliver Heaviside

Oliver Heaviside FRS (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis.

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Open system (systems theory)

An open system is a system that has external interactions.

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Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.

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Outline of astronomy

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to astronomy: Astronomy – studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic background radiation).

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Ozone layer

The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Pioneer Venus project

The Pioneer Venus project was part of the Pioneer program consisting of two spacecraft, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe, launched to Venus in 1978.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Plasma oscillation

Plasma oscillations, also known as Langmuir waves (after Irving Langmuir), are rapid oscillations of the electron density in conducting media such as plasmas or metals in the ultraviolet region.

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The plasmasphere, or inner magnetosphere, is a region of the Earth's magnetosphere consisting of low energy (cool) plasma.

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Poldhu is a small area in south Cornwall, England, UK, situated on the Lizard Peninsula; it comprises Poldhu Point and Poldhu Cove.

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Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.

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Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.

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Radio Act of 1912

The Radio Act of 1912 is a United States federal law that mandated that all radio stations in the United States be licensed by the federal government, as well as mandating that seagoing vessels continuously monitor distress frequencies.

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Radio atmospheric

A radio atmospheric signal or sferic (sometimes also spelled "spheric") is a broadband electromagnetic impulse that occurs as a result of natural atmospheric lightning discharges.

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Radio Luxembourg

Radio Luxembourg was a multilingual commercial broadcaster in Luxembourg.

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Radio occultation

Radio occultation (RO) is a remote sensing technique used for measuring the physical properties of a planetary atmosphere or ring system.

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Radio propagation

Radio propagation is the behavior of radio waves as they travel, or are propagated, from one point to another, or into various parts of the atmosphere.

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Radio telescope

A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.

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Radio wave

Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.

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Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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Robert Watson-Watt

Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, KCB, FRS, FRAeS (13 April 1892 – 5 December 1973) was a Scottish pioneer of radio direction finding and radar technology.

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Schumann resonances

The Schumann resonances (SR) are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum.

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Shortwave radio

Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies.

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In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle.

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In radio communication, skywave or skip refers to the propagation of radio waves reflected or refracted back toward Earth from the ionosphere, an electrically charged layer of the upper atmosphere.

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Soft gamma repeater

A soft gamma repeater (SGR) is an astronomical object which emits large bursts of gamma-rays and X-rays at irregular intervals.

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Solar cycle

The solar cycle or solar magnetic activity cycle is the nearly periodic 11-year change in the Sun's activity (including changes in the levels of solar radiation and ejection of solar material) and appearance (changes in the number and size of sunspots, flares, and other manifestations).

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Solar flare

A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun's brightness, usually observed near its surface.

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Solar irradiance

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

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Solar particle event

A solar proton event (SPE), or "proton storm", occurs when particles (mostly protons) emitted by the Sun become accelerated either close to the Sun during a flare or in interplanetary space by CME shocks.

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Solar wind

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.

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Space tether

Space tethers are long cables which can be used for propulsion, momentum exchange, stabilization and attitude control, or maintaining the relative positions of the components of a large dispersed satellite/spacecraft sensor system.

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Space weather

Space weather is a branch of space physics and aeronomy concerned with the time varying conditions within the Solar System, including the solar wind, emphasizing the space surrounding the Earth, including conditions in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.

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Sporadic E propagation

Sporadic E or Es is an unusual form of radio propagation using characteristics of the Earth's ionosphere.

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St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador


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The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.

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Sudden ionospheric disturbance

A sudden ionospheric disturbance (SID) is an abnormally high ionization/plasma density in the D region of the ionosphere caused by a solar flare.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Super Dual Auroral Radar Network

The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) is an international scientific radar network consisting of 35 high frequency (HF) radars located in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

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Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility

The Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility, located near the small town of Vasilsursk about 100 km eastward from Nizhniy Novgorod in Russia, is a laboratory for ionosphere research.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Tesla (unit)

The tesla (symbol T) is a derived unit of magnetic flux density (informally, magnetic field strength) in the International System of Units.

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The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere.

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Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.

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The TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) is an orbiter mission dedicated to study the dynamics of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) portion of the Earth's atmosphere.

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Total electron content

Total electron content (or TEC) is an important descriptive quantity for the ionosphere of the Earth.

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In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.

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Triple J

Triple J (often triple j) is a government-funded, national Australian radio station intended to appeal to listeners between the ages of 18 and 34 which began broadcasting in January 1975.

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The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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Upper-atmospheric lightning

Upper-atmospheric lightning or ionospheric lightning are terms sometimes used by researchers to refer to a family of short-lived electrical-breakdown phenomena that occur well above the altitudes of normal lightning and storm clouds.

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Van Allen radiation belt

A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field.

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Vitaly Ginzburg

Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg, ForMemRS (Вита́лий Ла́заревич Ги́нзбург; 4 October 1916 – 8 November 2009) was a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist, astrophysicist, Nobel laureate, a member of the Soviet and Russian Academies of Sciences and one of the fathers of the Soviet hydrogen bomb.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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William Roy Piggott

William Roy Piggott (18 July 1914 – 20 May 2008) was a student of Sir Edward Appleton who transferred a large group of German specialists from Austria into the British Zone of Occupation in Germany in 1945.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Redirects here:

D Layer, D layer, D region, D-Layer, D-layer, D-region, Electrosphere, Ionospheric, Ionospheric Studies, Ionospheric layer, Ionospheric model, Protonosphere.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionosphere

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