588 relations: A City Under Siege: Tales of the Iran–Iraq War, Aérospatiale Gazelle, Abadan, Iran, Abd al-Karim Qasim, Abdul Aziz al-Hakim, Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou, Abid Hamid Mahmud, Abolhassan Banisadr, Abu Musa, Adnan Khairallah, AGM-65 Maverick, Ahvaz, AIM-54 Phoenix, Airborne early warning and control, Airbus A300, AirLand Battle, Airspace, Airstrike, AK-47, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Al Hussein (missile), Al-Fakkah Field, Al-Faw Peninsula, Al-Qurnah, Al-Shaheed Monument, Ali, Ali Akbar Velayati, Ali Hassan al-Majid, Ali Khamenei, Ali Sayad Shirazi, Ali Shahbazi, Amarah, Amphibious vehicle, Amphibious warfare, Anfal genocide, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-radiation missile, Anti-ship missile, Anti-tank mine, Anti-tank warfare, Antidote, Arab League, Arab nationalism, Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region, Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Arab world, Arabic, Arabs, Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Armoured personnel carrier, ..., Arms-to-Iraq, Ashura, Assassination, Atlanta, Attack aircraft, Attrition warfare, Australia, Ayatollah, Ba'ath Party (Iraqi-dominated faction), Ba'athism, Ba'athist Iraq, Badr Organization, Baghdad Pact, Bahrain, Ballistic missile, Baloch people, Baluchi Autonomist Movement, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, Baneh, Barbed wire, Barzani Kurds, Basij, Basra, Battalion, Battle, Battle of al-Qādisiyyah, Battle of Badr, Battle of Karbala, Battle of Khorramshahr, Bayat, Razavi Khorasan, Behbahan, Belgium, Bell AH-1 Cobra, Bell AH-1 SuperCobra, Bell UH-1 Iroquois, BGM-71 TOW, Blood agent, BM-21 Grad, Boeing 707, Boeing 747, Boeing CH-47 Chinook, Boghammar, Borujerd, Bostan, Iran, Bridgehead, Brigade, British support for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq war, Cambridge University Press, Cannibalization (parts), Cargo ship, Casus belli, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Chaff (countermeasure), Chargé d'affaires, Chemical warfare, Chemical weapon, Chemical Weapons Convention, Chieftain (tank), China, Civilian casualties, Coalition of the Gulf War, Cold peace, Cold war (general term), Command and control, Commander-in-chief, Commando, Company (military unit), Conscription, Contras, Council on Foreign Relations, Counter-revolutionary, Cult of personality, Cyanide, Cyclosarin, Damals, Darbandikhan Dam, Dassault Falcon 50, Dassault Mirage F1, Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard, Debt-to-GDP ratio, Defence in depth, Defense Intelligence Agency, Dehloran, Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, Democratic Revolutionary Front for the Liberation of Arabistan, Demonstration (protest), Destroyer, Dezful, Diplomacy, Directional drilling, Disabled Iranian veterans, Discrimination, Draft evasion, Dual-use technology, Dujail, Dujail Massacre, East Germany, Ebrahim Hatamikia, Economic growth, Efraim Karsh, Egypt, Elam, Electrical wiring, Electrode, Electronic countermeasure, Encyclopædia Britannica, End-user certificate, Escort fighter, Eslamabad-e Gharb, Esmaeil Sohrabi, Eternal Fragrance, Exile, Exocet, Export of revolution, External debt, Fatwa, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federation of American Scientists, Fighter-bomber, Financial Times, Flag of convenience, Flare, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, France, Frans van Anraat, Freedom of navigation, Frigate, Front organization, Gabrielle Giffords, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gary Sick, Geneva, George H. W. Bush, Ghods Mohajer, Government in exile, Greater and Lesser Tunbs, Grumman F-14 Tomcat, Guided bomb, Gulf Cooperation Council, Gulf War, Gulf War (disambiguation), H-3 Air Base, H-3 airstrike, Halabja, Halabja chemical attack, Hardened aircraft shelter, Hashemites, Hawizeh Marshes, Hegemony, Henry Kissinger, Hewlett-Packard, HighBeam Research, Highway 8 (Iraq), Historian, History of Iran, History of Iraq, History of the Iranian Air Force, History of the Iranian Navy, HOT (missile), Howitzer, Human capital flight, Human Rights Watch, Human wave attack, Husayn ibn Ali, Impeachment, Incubation period, Insurance, Insurgency, Interception, Interceptor aircraft, International aid to combatants in the Iran–Iraq War, International community, International Court of Justice, International Energy Agency, Internment, Invasion of Kuwait, Iran, Iran Air, Iran Air Flight 655, Iran Ajr, Iran hostage crisis, Iran–Contra affair, Iran–United States relations, Iranian Arabs, Iranian Embassy siege, Iranian Revolution, Iraq, Iraq War, Iraq–United States relations, Iraqi Air Force, Iraqi chemical attacks against Iran, Iraqi Kurdistan, Islamic calendar, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic Dawa Party, Islamic republic, Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force, Islamic Republic of Iran Army, Islamic Republic of Iran Army Aviation, Islamic Revolutionary Court, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Islamic socialism, Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq, Islamization, Israel, Israeli Air Force, Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri, Jalal Talabani, Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, Jihad, Jihad of Construction, Joint Operation Arvand, Joost Hiltermann, Jordan, Karkheh River, Karun, Kaveh Farrokh, Kaveh Golestan, Kerend-e Gharb, Kermanshah, Kharg Island, Khorramshahr, Khuzestan Province, Killed in action, Kirkuk, Kirkuk–Baniyas pipeline, Kirkuk–Ceyhan Oil Pipeline, Kurdistan, Kurdistan Democratic Party, Kurds, Kut, Kuwait, Lake Dukan, Larak Island, Laser guidance, Lebanon, Liberation of Khorramshahr, Library of Congress Country Studies, Libya, Light infantry, List of Iranian commanders in the Iran–Iraq War, List of Iraqi Information Ministers, List of modern conflicts in the Middle East, Lloyd's of London, Logistics, M60 Patton, Machine gun, Mafatih al-Janan, Maher Abd al-Rashid, Majnoon Island, Man-portable air-defense system, Mandali, Mandali, Iraq, Maneuver warfare, Margaret Thatcher, Marivan, Marjane Satrapi, Marsh, Maryam Rajavi, Masjed Soleyman, Masoud Barzani, Massoud Rajavi, Materiel, MBB Bo 105, McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, Mechanized infantry, Mehdi Bazargan, Mehran, Ilam, Mesopotamia, Middle East Institute, Middle Eastern studies, Mikoyan, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25, Mil Mi-24, Mil Mi-8, Minister of Health (Iraq), Mir-Hossein Mousavi, Missile, Missing in action, Modern usage of al-Qādisiyyah, Mohammad Baqir al-Hakim, Mohammad Beheshti, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mohammad-Ali Rajai, Mohammad-Javad Bahonar, Mohsen Rezaee, Molotov cocktail, Morteza Avini, Moscow Kremlin, Mosul International Airport, Motorboat, Muharram, Mullah, Musian, Muslim conquest of Persia, Muslim ibn Aqeel, MV Sea Isle City, Naft shahr, National Council of Resistance of Iran, National security directive, Naval mine, Naval Postgraduate School, Navy of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Nawshirwan Mustafa, Nerve agent, Netherlands, Neurosurgery, News conference, Nicaragua, Nightline, No man's land, North Korea, North Korean support for Iran during the Iran–Iraq war, Northrop F-5, Noureddin, Son of Iran, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear weapon, Oghab, Ohio, Oil platform, Oil Platforms case, Oil tanker, Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate, One Woman's War: Da (Mother), Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas 2, Operation Dawn (1983), Operation Dawn 2, Operation Dawn 3, Operation Dawn 5, Operation Dawn 6, Operation Dawn-4, Operation Eagle Claw, Operation Earnest Will, Operation Forty Stars, Operation Kaman 99, Operation Karbala 10, Operation Kheibar, Operation Mersad, Operation Morvarid, Operation Nasr, Operation Nasr 4, Operation Nimble Archer, Operation Opera, Operation Praying Mantis, Operation Prime Chance, Operation Scorch Sword, Operation Zafar 7, Order of battle during the Iran–Iraq War, Oshnavieh, Osprey Publishing, Ottoman–Persian wars, Pan-Islamism, Paratrooper, Paris, Paris Club, Partisan (military), Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, People's Mujahedin of Iran, Persepolis (comics), Persian Gulf, Persona non grata, Peshmerga, Pilatus PC-7, Plastic Keys to Paradise, Plausible deniability, Politics of Khuzestan Province, Pontoon bridge, Popular Army (Iraq), Portugal and the Iran–Iraq War, Praetorian Guard, Preemptive war, President of Iran, President of Iraq, Prime Minister of Iran, Prisoner of war, Proxy war, Public transport, Pulmonary agent, Qasem-Ali Zahirnejad, Qasr-e Shirin, Qusay Hussein, Ra'ad al-Hamdani, Radar, Radwaniyah Palace, Rahian-e Noor, Ramadan, Ravayat-e Fath, RBS 70, Reagan Doctrine, Recoilless rifle, Regional power, Reparations (transitional justice), Republican Guard (Iraq), Reverse engineering, Revolutionary Army (Syria), Richard W. Murphy, Riegle Report, Rocket-propelled grenade, Roland (missile), Ronald Reagan, Rout, Rowman & Littlefield, RPG-7, Ruhollah Khomeini, Saddam Hussein, Saddam Kamel, Sadegh Khalkhali, Salah Aboud Mahmoud, Sanctions against Iraq, Saqqez, Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Sarin, Sarpol-e Zahab, Sasanian Empire, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Research and Marketing Group, Scud, Seawise Giant, Secession, Second Battle of al-Faw, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Setúbal, Shahab-1, Shahid, Shalamcheh, Shatt al-Arab, Shell (projectile), Shia Islam, Shiraz International Airport, Shush, Iran, Siege of Abadan, Silkworm (missile), Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Six-Day War, Sortie, South Africa, Soviet Union, Special Air Service, Special Republican Guard (Iraq), Squad, Stalemate, State terrorism, Status quo ante bellum, Strait of Hormuz, Strategic bomber, Strategic bombing, Suing for peace, Sukhoi Su-17, Sulaymaniyah, Sulfur mustard, Sultan Hashim Ahmad al-Tai, Superpower, Supply depot, Supreme Leader of Iran, Supreme National Security Council, Surface-to-air missile, Susangerd, Switzerland, Synonym, Syria, T-54/T-55, T-62, T-72, Taha Yassin Ramadan, Tank, Tariq Aziz, Tawakalna ala Allah Operations, Tear gas, Tehran, Tektronix, Telex, Territorial dispute, Thalweg, The Economist, The Majalla, The Middle East Journal, The Star-Ledger, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Tigris, Total war, Traumatic brain injury, Treaty of Saadabad, Treaty of Zuhab, Trench warfare, Trial of Saddam Hussein, Tudeh Party of Iran, Tupolev Tu-16, Tupolev Tu-22, Turkey, Uday Hussein, Umm Qasr, Unemployment, United Arab Emirates, United Nations, United Nations Compensation Commission, United Nations Iran–Iraq Military Observer Group, United Nations peacekeeping, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 612, United Nations Security Council Resolution 619, United Nations Security Council Resolution 620, United States, United States Marine Corps, United States National Security Council, United States Navy, United States Navy SEALs, Urban warfare, USS Stark incident, Valiollah Fallahi, Victory Arch, Volte-face, Vulnerability of nuclear plants to attack, W. Patrick Lang, Waqf, War of aggression, War of the Cities, Warhead, Weapon, Weapon of mass destruction, West Germany, William Flynn Martin, William J. Crowe, World War I, World War II, Wounded in action, Yugoslavia, Zagros Mountains, ZU-23-2, 10th G7 summit, 17 July Revolution, 1973 Samita border skirmish, 1975 Algiers Agreement, 1979 Khuzestan insurgency, 2003 invasion of Iraq, 2011 Tucson shooting. Expand index (538 more) » « Shrink index
A City Under Siege: Tales of the Iran–Iraq War (2000) is a collection of nine stories from the Iran–Iraq War by Habib Ahmadzadeh, an Iranian author.
The Aérospatiale Gazelle is a French five-seat helicopter, commonly used for light transport, scouting and light attack duties.
Abadan (آبادان Ābādān) is a city and capital of Abadan County, Khuzestan Province which is located in southwest of Iran.
Abd Al-Karim Qasim Muhammed Bakr Al-Fadhli Al-Zubaidi (عبد الكريم قاسم) (21 November 1914 – 9 February 1963), was a nationalist Iraqi Army brigadier who seized power in the 14 July Revolution, wherein the Iraqi monarchy was eliminated.
Abdul Aziz al-Hakim (سید عبد العزيز الحكيم; 1952 – 26 August 2009) was an Iraqi theologian and politician and the leader of Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq, a party that has approximately 5% support in the Iraqi Council of Representatives.
Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou (Ebdulrehman Qasimlo, عبدالرحمان قاسملو; 22 December 1930 – 13 July 1989) was a Kurdish political leader.
Lieutenant General Abid Al-Hamid Mahmud al-Tikriti (عبد الحميد محمود التكريتي) (c. 1957 – June 7, 2012) was an Iraqi military officer under Saddam Hussein's deposed government.
Seyyed Abolhassan Banisadr (Seyyed Abolhasan Banisadr; born 22 March 1933) is an Iranian politician and economist.
Abu Musa (ابوموسی, أبو موسى) island is a 12.8 square kilometer (4.9 sq mi) island in the eastern Persian Gulf near the entrance to the Strait of Hormuz.
Adnan Khairallah (عدنان خير الله طلفاح; died 4 May 1989), was Saddam Hussein's brother-in-law (Sajida Talfah's brother and Khairallah Talfah's son) and cousin.
The AGM-65 Maverick is an air-to-surface missile (AGM) designed for close air support.
Ahvaz (or Ahwaz; translit) is a city in the southwest of Iran and the capital of Khuzestan province.
The AIM-54 Phoenix is a radar-guided, long-range air-to-air missile (AAM), carried in clusters of up to six missiles on the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, its only operational launch platform.
An airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) system is an airborne radar picket system designed to detect aircraft, ships and vehicles at long ranges and perform command and control of the battlespace in an air engagement by directing fighter and attack aircraft strikes.
The Airbus A300 is a wide-body twin-engine jet airliner that was developed and manufactured by Airbus.
AirLand Battle was the overall conceptual framework that formed the basis of the US Army's European warfighting doctrine from 1982 into the late 1990s.
Airspace is the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country above its territory, including its territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere.
An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft.
The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī or Hashemi Bahramani; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.
Al Hussein or al-Husayn (Arabic: الحسين) is the designation of an Iraqi short-range ballistic missile.
The Al-Fakkah Field, also known as Jebel Al-Fauqi or Jebal Al-Fauqi, is an oil field located in southern Iraq's Maysan Governorate and Khūzestān Province, Iran.
The al-Faw Peninsula (شبه جزيرة الفاو; also transliterated as Fao or Fawr) is a peninsula in the Persian Gulf, located in the extreme southeast of Iraq.
Al-Qurnah (Qurna) is a town in southern Iraq about 74 km northwest of Basra, within the town of Nahairat.
Al-Shaheed Monument (نصب الشهيد), also known as the Martyr's Memorial, is a monument designed by Iraqi sculptor, Ismail Fatah Al Turk, and is situatied in the Iraqi capital, Baghdad.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Ali Akbar Velayati (علیاکبر ولایتی; born 24 June 1945, Tehran) is an Iranian physician and conservative politician.
Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (علي حسن عبد المجيد التكريتي; 1941? – 25 January 2010) was a Ba'athist Iraqi Defense Minister, Interior Minister, military commander and chief of the Iraqi Intelligence Service.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
Ali Sayad Shirazi (علی صیاد شیرازی, 13 June 1944 – 10 April 1999) was an Iranian regular military (''Artesh'') officer.
Ali Shahbazi (علی شهبازی) is the former commander-in-chief of the Iranian Army.
Amarah (العمارة Al ‘Amārah, also spelled Amara, is a city in south-eastern Iraq, located on a low ridge next to the Tigris River waterway south of Baghdad about 50 km from the border with Iran. It lies at the northern tip of the marshlands between the Tigris and Euphrates. Predominantly Shia Muslim, it had a population of about 340,000 as of 2002 and about 420,000 as of 2005. It is the administrative capital of the Maysan province. A major trading center for the surrounding agricultural area, it is known for woven goods and silverware.
An amphibious vehicle (or simply amphibian), is a vehicle that is a means of transport, viable on land as well as on (or under) water.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
The Anfal genocide was a genocide that killed between 50,000 and 182,000 Kurds.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
An anti-radiation missile (ARM) is a missile designed to detect and home in on an enemy radio emission source.
Anti-ship missiles are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats.
An anti-tank mine (abbreviated to "AT mine") is a type of land mine designed to damage or destroy vehicles including tanks and armored fighting vehicles.
Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.
An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في العراق Hizb Al-Baath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Al-'Iraq), officially the Iraqi Regional Branch, is a regional branch of the Arab Ba'athist political party founded in 1951 by Fuad al-Rikabi.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (نيروهای مسلح جمهوری اسلامی ايران) include the Army (''Artesh''), the Revolutionary Guard Corps (''Sepāh'') and the Law Enforcement Force (Police).
An armoured personnel carrier (APC) is a type of armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.
The Arms-to-Iraq affair concerned the uncovering of the government-endorsed sale of arms by British companies to Iraq, then under the rule of Saddam Hussein.
Ashura (عاشوراء, colloquially:; عاشورا; عاشورا; Azerbaijani and Turkish: Aşura Günü or Day of Remembrance), and in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago 'Hussay' or Hosay, is the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar.
Assassination is the killing of a prominent person, either for political or religious reasons or for payment.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
An attack aircraft, strike aircraft, or attack bomber, is a tactical military aircraft that has a primary role of carrying out airstrikes with greater precision than bombers, and is prepared to encounter strong low-level air defenses while pressing the attack.
Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Ayatullah (or; āyatullāh from llāh "Sign of God") is a high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (spelled "Ba'th" or "Baath", "resurrection" or "renaissance"; حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Ḥizb Al-Ba'aṯ Al-'Arabī Al-Ištirākī), also referred to as the pro-Iraqi Ba'ath movement, is a Ba'athist political party headquartered in Baghdad, Iraq.
Ba'athism (البعثية, al-Ba'athiyah, from بعث ba'ath, meaning "renaissance" or "resurrection") is an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party over a progressive revolutionary government.
Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic, covers the history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule.
The Badr Organization (منظمة بدر Munaẓẓama Badr), previously known as the Badr Brigades or Badr Corps, is an Iraqi political party headed by Hadi Al-Amiri.
The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
The Baluchi Autonomist Movement (BAM) was an ethnic Baluchi guerrilla movement in Iranian Balochistan during the 1980s.
Banca Nazionale del Lavoro S.p.A. (BNL) is an Italian bank headquartered in Rome.
Baneh (بانه; بانه, Bane; also Romanized as Bāneh) is a city and capital of Baneh County, Kurdistan Province, in Iran's western border.
Barbed wire, also known as barb wire, less often as bob wire or, in the southeastern United States, bobbed wire, is a type of steel fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand(s).
The Barzani tribe (Hozî Barzanî) is one of the Kurdish tribes in Iraq.
The Basij (بسيج, lit. "The Mobilization"), Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (نیروی مقاومت بسیج, "Mobilisation Resistance Force"), full name Sāzmān-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed"), is one of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
A battalion is a military unit.
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants.
The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (معركة القادسيّة; transliteration, Ma'rakatu al-Qādisiyyah; alternative spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya, Ghadesiyeh, نبرد قادسیه; transliteration: Nabard-e Qādsieh), fought in 636, was a decisive battle between the Arab Muslim army and the Sassanid Persian army during the first period of Muslim expansion.
The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca.
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, in present-day Iraq.
The Battle of Khorramshahr was a major engagement between Iraq and Iran in the Iran–Iraq War.
Bayat (بيات, also Romanized as Bayāt) is a village in Qara Bashlu Rural District, Chapeshlu District, Dargaz County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran.
Behbahan (بهبهان, also Romanized as Behbahān and Behbehān) is a city and capital of Behbahan County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Bell AH-1 Cobra is a two-blade, single-engine attack helicopter manufactured by Bell Helicopter. It was developed using the engine, transmission and rotor system of the Bell UH-1 Iroquois. A member of the prolific Huey family, the AH-1 is also referred to as the HueyCobra or Snake. The AH-1 was the backbone of the United States Army's attack helicopter fleet, but has been replaced by the AH-64 Apache in Army service. Upgraded versions continue to fly with the militaries of several other nations. The AH-1 twin-engine versions remain in service with United States Marine Corps (USMC) as the service's primary attack helicopter. Surplus AH-1 helicopters have been converted for fighting forest fires.
The Bell AH-1 SuperCobra is a twin-engine attack helicopter based on the United States Army's single-engine AH-1 Cobra.
The Bell UH-1 Iroquois (nicknamed "Huey") is a utility military helicopter powered by a single turboshaft engine, with two-blade main and tail rotors.
The BGM-71 TOW ("Tube-launched, Optically tracked, Wire-guided") is an American anti-tank missile.
A blood agent is a toxic chemical agent that affects the body by being absorbed into the blood.
The BM-21 "Grad" (БМ-21 "Град"), is a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher.
The Boeing 707 is a mid-sized, long-range, narrow-body, four-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from 1958 to 1979.
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is an American twin-engine, tandem-rotor, heavy-lift helicopter developed by American rotorcraft company Vertol and manufactured by Boeing Vertol (later known as Boeing Rotorcraft Systems).
A Boghammar is a High Speed Patrol Boat (HSPB) for use in coastal patrol.
Borujerd (بروجرد Borūjerd) is a city in and capital of Borujerd County, Lorestan Province in western Iran.
Bostan (بستان, also Romanized as Bostān; also known as Basāţīn, Bisaitin, and Bustān) is a city and capital of Bostan District, in Dasht-e Azadegan County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.
A bridgehead (or bridge-head) is the strategically important area of ground around the end of a bridge or other place of possible crossing over a body of water which at time of conflict is sought to be defended/taken over by the belligerent forces.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
In the United Kingdom there were direct sales to both sides in the Iran–Iraq War.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cannibalization of machine parts, in maintenance of mechanical or electronic systems with interchangeable parts, refers to the practice of removing parts or subsystems necessary for repair from another similar device, rather than from inventory, usually when resources become limited.
A cargo ship or freighter ship is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., in the United States.
Chaff, originally called Window by the British and Düppel by the Second World War era German Luftwaffe (from the Berlin suburb where it was first developed), is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallized glass fibre or plastic, which either appears as a cluster of primary targets on radar screens or swamps the screen with multiple returns.
A chargé d'affaires, often shortened to chargé (French) and sometimes to charge-D (abbreviated in colloquial English), is a diplomat who heads an embassy in the absence of the ambassador.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.
The FV4201 Chieftain was the main battle tank of the United Kingdom during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. The main battle tank was further improved by being the first tank in service to incorporate the Chobham armour upgrades. A development of the Centurion, the Chieftain introduced the supine (reclining backwards) driver position to British design enabling a heavily sloped hull with reduced height. A new powerpack and improved transmission gave it higher speed than the Centurion despite being heavier due to major upgrades to armour protection and the armament. It remained in service until replaced by the Challenger 1 which shared a large number of the Chieftain's features.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Civilian casualties occurs in a general sense, when civilians are killed or injured by non-civilians, mostly law enforcement officers, military personnel, or criminals such as terrorists and bank robbers.
Below is the American-led coalition against the Iraqi government in the 1990s.
A cold peace is a state of relative peace between two countries which is marked by the enforcement of a peace treaty ending the state of war while the government or populace of at least one of the parties to the treaty continues to domestically treat the treaty with vocal disgust.
A cold war is a state of conflict between nations that does not involve direct military action but is pursued primarily through economic and political actions, propaganda, acts of espionage or proxy wars waged by surrogates.
Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes...
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
A commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force often specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling.
A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Contras were the various U.S.-backed and funded right-wing rebel groups that were active from 1979 to the early 1990s in opposition to the socialist Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction government in Nicaragua.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
Cyclosarin or GF (cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance used as a chemical weapon.
Damals is a German monthly popular scientific history magazine.
The Darbandikhan Dam (Bandawie Darbandixan) is a multi-purpose embankment dam on the Diyala River in northern As Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Iraq.
The Dassault Falcon 50 is a French super mid-sized, long-range business jet, featuring a trijet layout with an S-duct air intake for the central engine.
The Dassault Mirage F1 is a French fighter and attack aircraft designed and manufactured by Dassault Aviation.
The Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard (Étendard is French for "battle flag", cognate to English "standard") is a French carrier-borne strike fighter aircraft designed by Dassault-Breguet for service with the French Navy.
In economics, the debt-to-GDP ratio is the ratio between a country's government debt (a cumulative amount) and its gross domestic product (GDP) (measured in years).
Defence in depth (also known as deep or elastic defence) is a military strategy that seeks to delay rather than prevent the advance of an attacker, buying time and causing additional casualties by yielding space.
The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is an external intelligence service of the United States federal government specializing in defense and military intelligence.
Dehloran (دهلران; also Romanized as Dehkurdan; also known as Dellêkêrran and Dellojîn) is a city in and the capital of Dehloran County, Ilam Province, Iran.
The Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (PDKI; Hîzbî Dêmukratî Kurdistanî Êran, HDKA; Ḥezb-e Demokrāt-e Kordestān-e Īrān), also known as the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI), is an armed leftist ethnic party of Kurds in Iran, exiled in northern Iraq.
The Democratic Revolutionary Front for the Liberation of Arabistan الجبهة الديمقراطية الثورية لتحرير عربستان, al-Jabha al-dīmuqrāṭiyya al-thawriyya li-taḥrīr ‘Arabistān) was an Iranian Arab militant group founded in 1979, most famous for the Iranian Embassy siege of 1980 in London, United Kingdom. It was led by Oan Ali Mohammed, who was killed during the siege by SAS troops.
A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
Dezful (دزفول, pronounced, in local dialect دسفیل, also Romanized as Dezfūl and Dezfool; also known as Dīzfūl) is a city and capital of Dezful County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
Directional drilling (or slant drilling) is the practice of drilling non-vertical wells.
An Iranian disabled veteran Disabled Iranian veterans, called janbaz (جانباز, literally "those who were willing to lose their lives") in Iran, mostly constitute the disabled veterans of the Iran–Iraq war.
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
Draft evasion is any successful attempt to elude a government-imposed obligation to serve in the military forces of one's nation.
In politics and diplomacy, dual-use is technology that can be used for both peaceful and military aims.
Dujail (Arabic: الدجيل; alternate spelling: Ad Dujayl) is a Shi'a district in the Saladin Province.
The Dujail Massacre refers to the events following an assassination attempt against the Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein, on 8 July 1982 in Dujail.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Ebrahim Hatamikia (born 23 September 1961) is an Iranian screenwriter and film director.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Efraim Karsh (אפרים קארש; born 1953) is an Israeli–British historian, the founding director and emeritus professor of Middle East and Mediterranean Studies at King's College London.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
Electrical wiring is an electrical installation of cabling and associated devices such as switches, distribution boards, sockets and light fittings in a structure.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared (IR) or lasers.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An End-user certificate, or EUC, is a document used in international transfers, including sales and arms provided as aid, of weapons and ammunition to certify that the buyer is the final recipient of the materials, and is not planning on transferring the materials to another party.
The escort fighter was a World War II concept for a fighter aircraft designed to escort bombers to and from their targets.
Eslamabad-e Gharb (Kurdish: Şabad or Arwînawa, اسلام آبادغرب; also Romanized as Eslāmābād-e Gharb; also known as Eslāmābād, Shāhābād, and Shāhābād-e Gharb), originally Hārūnābād, named after the Kurdish Haruni tribe that inhabited the area, it's a city and capital of Eslamabad-e Gharb County, Kermanshah Province, Iran.
Esmaeil Sohrabi (اسماعیل سهرابی) is an Iranian retired military officer who served as the Chief-of-Staff of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army from 25 October 1984 until May 1988.
Eternal Fragrance (یکشنبه آخر, "Last Sunday") is a book written by Masoumeh Ramhormozi about the Iran–Iraq war (1980–88).
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
The Exocet (French for "flying fish" The missile's name was given by M. Guillot, then technical director at Nord Aviation, after the French name for flying fish.) is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft.
Export of revolution is actions by a victorious revolutionary government of one country to promote similar revolutions in unruled areas or other countries, as a manifestation of revolutionary internationalism of certain kind, e.g., the Marxist proletarian internationalism.
External loan (or foreign debt) is the total debt a country owes to foreign creditors, complemented by internal debt owed to domestic lenders.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
A fighter-bomber is a fighter aircraft that has been modified, or used primarily, as a light bomber or attack aircraft.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
Flag of convenience (FOC) is a business practice whereby a ship's owners register a merchant ship in a ship register of a country other than that of the ship's owners, and the ship flies the civil ensign of that country, called the flag state.
A flare, also sometimes called a fusee, is a type of pyrotechnic that produces a brilliant light or intense heat without an explosion.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frans Cornelis Adrianus van Anraat (born August 9, 1942 in Den Helder) is a Dutch war criminal and a businessman.
Freedom of navigation (FON) is a principle of customary international law that ships flying the flag of any sovereign state shall not suffer interference from other states, apart from the exceptions provided for in international law.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
A front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization, such as intelligence agencies, organized crime groups, banned organizations, religious or political groups, advocacy groups, or corporations.
Gabrielle Dee "Gabby" Giffords (born June 8, 1970) is an American politician from Arizona and a gun control advocate.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Gary G. Sick (born 1935) is an American academic and analyst of Middle East affairs, with special expertise on Iran, who served on the U.S. National Security Council under Presidents Ford, Carter, and for a couple weeks under Reagan as well.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
Mohajer (مهاجر, "Migrant") or Mersad series of unmanned aerial vehicles is built by Iran.
A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country.
Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb (تنب بزرگ و تنب کوچک., Tonb-e Bozorg and Tonb-e Kuchak, طنب الكبرى و طنب الصغرى., Tunb el-Kubra and Tunb el-Sughra) are two small islands in the eastern Persian Gulf, close to the Strait of Hormuz.
The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is an American supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, twin-tail, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft.
A guided bomb (also known as a smart bomb, guided bomb unit, or GBU) is a precision-guided munition designed to achieve a smaller circular error probable (CEP).
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
The Gulf War (August 1990 to February 1991) was a war against Iraq by a U.S.-led coalition, following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.
H-3 Air Base (code-named 202C, 202D) is part of a cluster of former Iraqi Air Force bases in the Al-Anbar Governorate of Iraq. It is a cluster of airfields located in a remote stretch of Iraq's western desert, about 435 kilometers from Baghdad in western Iraq. It is close to the Syrian-Iraqi border, and near the highway that connects Jordan with Baghdad. H-3 Main is supported by two dispersal airfields, H-3 Southwest, and H-3 Northwest, and a Highway strip, 42 kilometers to the west. H-3 Southwest is served by a single 9,700 foot runway and has a parallel taxiway that could be used as an alternate runway. The complex was one of eight major operating bases of the Iraqi Air Force prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq by Coalition forces. It was later de-militarized by the Coalition and today is abandoned.
The H-3 airstrike (Persian: عملیات اچ۳) was a surprise air attack by the Iranian Air Force during the Iran–Iraq War on 4 April 1981 against the airbases of the Iraqi Air Force at the H-3 complex in western Iraq.
Halabja (Kurdish: Hełebce) is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan and the capital of Halabja Governorate, located about northeast of Baghdad and from the Iranian border.
The Halabja chemical attack (Kurdish: Kîmyabarana Helebce کیمیابارانی ھەڵەبجە), also known as the Halabja Massacre or Bloody Friday, was a massacre against the Kurdish people that took place on March 16, 1988, during the closing days of the Iran–Iraq War in the Kurdish city of Halabja in Iraq.
A hardened aircraft shelter (HAS) or protective aircraft shelter (PAS) is a reinforced hangar to house and protect military aircraft from enemy attack.
The Hashemites (الهاشميون, Al-Hāshimīyūn; also House of Hashim) are the ruling royal family of Jordan.
The Hawizeh Marshes are a complex of marshes that straddle the Iraq and Iran border.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.
Highway 8 is an Iraqi highway which extends from Baghdad, through Al Hillah, Al-Qādisiyyah, As Samawah, Nasiriyah, Basrah, to the Kuwait frontier.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
The territory of the modern state of Iraq was defined in 1920 as Mandatory Iraq.
The history of the Iranian Air Force can be divided into two phases—before the Islamic Revolution, and after it.
The Iranian Navy (Persian: نیروی دریایی ایران), traditionally located in the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf, has always been the smallest of the country's military forces.
The HOT (Haut subsonique Optiquement Téléguidé Tiré d'un Tube, or High Subsonic Optical Remote-Guided, Tube-Launched) is a second-generation long-range anti-tank missile system developed originally as an effort to meet a joint German-French Army requirement, by the then German firm Bölkow and the French firm Nord, to replace the older SS.11 wire guided missile which was in service with both nations.
A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.
Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
The human wave attack, also known as the human sea attack, is an offensive infantry tactic in which an attacker conducts an unprotected frontal assault with densely concentrated infantry formations against the enemy line, intended to overrun the defenders by engaging in melee combat.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
In ball-playing competitive team sports, an interception or pick is a move by a player involving a pass of the ball—whether by foot or hand, depending on the rules of the sport—in which the ball is intended for a player of the same team but caught by a player of the opposing team, who thereby usually gains possession of the ball for their team.
An interceptor aircraft, or simply interceptor, is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to attack enemy aircraft, particularly bombers and reconnaissance aircraft, as they approach.
During the Iran–Iraq War, Iraq received large quantities of weapons and other material useful to the development of armaments and weapons of mass destruction.
The international community is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
The Invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 was a 2-day operation conducted by Iraq against the neighboring state of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of the country.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iran Air, branded as The Airline of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Havâpeymâyiye Jomhuriye Eslâmiye Irân), is the flag carrier of Iran headquartered on the grounds of Mehrabad Airport in Tehran.
On 3 July 1988, Iran Air Flight 655, a scheduled civilian passenger flight from Tehran to Dubai, was shot down by an SM-2MR surface-to-air missile fired from, a guided missile cruiser of the United States Navy.
Iran Ajr, formerly known as the Arya Rakhsh, was a Japanese-built landing craft used by Iran to lay naval mines during the Iran–Iraq War.
The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States of America.
The Iran–Contra affair (ماجرای ایران-کنترا, caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate, Contragate or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration.
As of 2018, there are no formal diplomatic relations between Iran and the United States.
Iranian Arabs (عربهای ايران Arabhāye Irān) refers to the citizens or residents of Iran who are ethnically Arab.
The Iranian Embassy siege took place from 30 April to 5 May 1980, after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in South Kensington, London.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Diplomatic relations between Iraq and the United States began when the U.S. first recognized Iraq on January 9, 1930, with the signing of the Anglo-American-Iraqi Convention in London by Charles G. Dawes, U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom.
The Iraqi Air Force (IQAF or IrAF; Arabic: القوات الجوية العراقية, Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Iraqiya) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Iraqi Armed Forces, responsible for the policing of international borders and surveillance of national assets.
Iraq chemical attacks against Iran refers to chemical attacks used by the Iraqi armed forces against Iranian combatants and non-combatants.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
The Islamic Dawa Party, also known as the Islamic Call Party (حزب الدعوة الإسلامية Ḥizb Al-Daʿwa Al-Islāmiyya), is a political party in Iraq.
An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF; نیروی هوایی ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is the aviation branch of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Army (ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران), acronymed AJA (آجا), simply known as the Iranian Army or Artesh (Arteš), is the "conventional military of Iran" and part of Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Islamic Republic of Iran Army Aviation (IRIAA) (in هوانوردی نیروی زمینی جمهوری اسلامی ایران), more commonly known as Havānīrūz (هوانیروز), is the army aviation of the Iranian Army.
Islamic Revolutionary Court (also Revolutionary Tribunal, Dadgah-ha-e EnqelabBakhash, Shaul, Reign of the Ayatollahs, Basic Books, 1984, p.59-61) is a special system of courts in the Islamic Republic of Iran designed to try those suspected of crimes such as smuggling, blaspheming, inciting violence or trying to overthrow the Islamic government.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to describe a more spiritual form of socialism.
The Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq (ISCI or SIIC) (المجلس الأعلى الإسلامي العراقي Al-Majlis Al-A'ala Al-Islami Al-'Iraqi), (previously the party was known as the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI)) is an Iraqi Shia Islamist Iraqi political party.
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israeli Air Force (IAF; זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces.
Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri (عزة إبراهيم الدوري ‘Izzat Ibrāhīm ad-Dūrī; born 1 July 1942) is a former Iraqi statesman and military commander.
Jalal Talabani (Kurdish: جەلال تاڵەبانی Celal Tallebanî, جلال طالباني; 1933 – 3 October 2017) was an Iraqi Kurdish politician who served as President of Iraq from 2006 to 2014, as well as the President of the Governing Council of Iraq.
Javier Felipe Ricardo Pérez de Cuéllar de la Guerra KCMG (born January 19, 1920) is a Peruvian diplomat who served as the fifth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1991.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
Jihad of Construction or Construction Jihad (جهاد سازندگی Jahād-e Sāzandegī), or simply Jihad (جهاد Jahād) was one of Organizations of the Iranian Revolution.
The Joint Operation Arvand (عملیات مشترک اروند, more known by its Persian acronym AMA, عما) was a show of force operation orchestrated in April 1969 by the Imperial Iranian Armed Forces following Iraqi claim for the sovereign right to Shatt al-Arab/Arvand Rud and threatening to block passage of vessels unless they fly Iraqi flag.
Joost R. Hiltermann is the Program Director, MENA for International Crisis Group.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Karkheh or Karkhen (perhaps the river known as the Gihon—one of the four rivers of Eden/Paradise to the Bible and as the Choaspes in ancient times; also called Eulæus; Hebrew: אולי Ulai) is a river in Khūzestān Province Andimeshk city, Iran (ancient Susiana) that rises in the Zagros Mountains, and passes west of Shush (ancient Susa), eventually falling in ancient times into the Tigris just below its confluence with the Euphrates very near to the Iran-Iraq border.
The Kārūn (کارون) is Iran's most effluent and only navigable river.
Kaveh Farrokh (کاوه فرخ) (born September 24, 1962) is a Canadian author specializing in Iranian history, and has been a frequent lecturer on Iran-related topics at the University of British Columbia as part of the UBC Continuing Education program.
Kāveh Golestān Taghavi Shirazi (8 July 1950 - 2 April 2003), (کاوه گلستان.) was an Iranian photojournalist and artist.
Kerend-e Gharb (كرن - Kirin, كرندغرب; also known as Kerend, Karand, and Karīnd) is a city and capital of Dalahu County, Kermanshah Province, Iran.
Kermanshah (کرمانشاه, کرماشان, Kirmashan; Kermānshāh; also known as Bākhtarān or Kermānshāhān), the capital of Kermanshah Province, is located from Tehran in the western part of Iran.
Kharg Island (جزیره خارگ) is a continental island in the Persian Gulf belonging to Iran.
Khorramshahr (خرمشهر, also romanized as Khurramshahr and slightly different spellings; also known in Arabic as المحمرة al-Muḥammarah) is a city in and the capital of Khorramshahr County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.
Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.
Kirkuk (كركوك; کەرکووک; Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad.
The Kirkuk–Baniyas pipeline is a crude oil pipeline from the Kirkuk oil field in Iraq to the Syrian port of Baniyas.
The Kirkuk–Ceyhan Oil Pipeline, also known as the Iraq–Turkey Crude Oil Pipeline, is a long pipeline that runs from Kirkuk in Iraq to Ceyhan in Turkey.
Kurdistan (کوردستان; lit. "homeland of the Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.
The Kurdistan Democratic Party (Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistanê), usually abbreviated as KDP or PDK, is one of the main Kurdish parties in Iraqi Kurdistan.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Al-Kūt (الكوت Al Kūt), also spelled Kut al-Imara or Kut El Amara, is a city in eastern Iraq, on the left bank of the Tigris River, about south east of Baghdad.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Lake Dukan (or Lake Dokan) (دەریاچەی دووکان) is the largest lake in Iraqi Kurdistan.
Larak Island (also Lark Island) is an island off the coast of Iran in the Persian Gulf, which has been one of Iran's major oil export points since 1987.The narrowest part of the Strait of Hormuz at distance of lies between the island and the Omani-owned Quoin Island.
Laser guidance directs a robotic system to a target position by means of a laser beam.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Liberation of Khorramshahr (آزادسازی خرمشهر Āzādsāzi-ye Khorramshahr) was the Iranian recapture of the port city of Khorramshahr from the Iraqis on 24 May 1982, during the Iran–Iraq War.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Light infantry is a designation applied to certain types of foot soldiers (infantry) throughout history, typically having lighter equipment or armament or a more mobile or fluid function than other types of infantry, such as heavy infantry or line infantry.
This is a list of commanders of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran during the Iran–Iraq war (1980–88).
This is a list of Iraqi Information Ministers during the presidency of Saddam Hussein.
This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East.
Lloyd's of London, generally known simply as Lloyd's, is an insurance market located in London, United Kingdom.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
The M60 Patton is a main battle tank (MBT) introduced in December 1960.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens) by Abbass Qumi is a Twelver Shi'a compilation of selected chapters (surahs) from Quran, Taaqeebat e namaz (acts of worship after namaz), supplications narrated from the Ahle bayt and text of Ziyarats.
Maher Abd al-Rashid (Arabic: ماهر عبد الرشيد) was a General of the Iraqi army and a member of the Al-Bu Nasir tribe.
Majnoon Island is an island in southern Iraq near Al-Qurnah that is a center for oil production of the Majnoon Oilfield.
Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS or MPADS) are shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles (SLSAMs).
Mandali from the Sanskrit mandala meaning circle, connection, community, is a term that Meher Baba used for his closest disciples.
Mandali (Mendelî., مندلي.) is a town in Balad Ruz District, Diyala Governorate, Iraq, near the Iranian border.
Maneuver warfare, or manoeuvre warfare, is a military strategy that advocates attempting to defeat the enemy by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Mariwan (مريوان,; مەریوان, Merîwan; also Romanized as Persian pronunciation Marīvān) also known as Qal‘eh-ye Marīvān - "Fort Marivan"; formerly, Dezhe Shahpur (Persian: دِژ شاهپور), also Romanized as Dezhe Shāhpūr and Dezhe Shapoor) is a city in – and the capital of – Marivan County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 91,664, in 22,440 families. Before the foundation of the town in 1950s, Marîwan was the name of the region. The spoken language in the city is Kurdish, but the language which is used in schools and offices is Farsi, since the official language in Iran is Persian Almost everyone in the city are fluent in Farsi.
Marjane Satrapi (مرجان ساتراپی) (born 22 November 1969) is an Iranian-born French graphic novelist, cartoonist, illustrator, film director, and children's book author.
A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
Maryam Rajavi (مریم رجوی) is the leader of the People's Mujahedin of Iran, a communist organization trying to overthrow the Iranian government.
Masjed Soleyman (مسجدسليمان, Lurish: مسسلیموو Mas-seleymoo; also Romanized as Masjed Soleymān, Masjed-e Soleymān, Masjed Soleiman, and Masjid-i-Sulaiman) is a city and capital of Masjed Soleyman County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.
Masoud Barzani (Mesûd Barzanî; born 16 August 1946) is a Kurdish politician who had been President of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region from 2005 to 2017.
Massoud Rajavi (مسعود رجوی, born August 18, 1948 – disappeared March 13, 2003) is one of the two leaders of the People's Mujahedin of Iran (MEK), alongside his wife Maryam Rajavi.
Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English and also listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries (both pronounced, from French matériel meaning equipment or hardware), refers to military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
The Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm Bo 105 is a light, twin-engine, multi-purpose helicopter developed by Bölkow of Ottobrunn, Germany.
The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II is a tandem two-seat, twin-engine, all-weather, long-range supersonic jet interceptor and fighter-bomber originally developed for the United States Navy by McDonnell Aircraft.
Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs) or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force).
Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان; 1 September 1907 – 20 January 1995) was an Iranian scholar, academic, long-time pro-democracy activist and head of Iran's interim government, making him Iran's first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979.
Mehran (مهران, also Romanized as Mehrān; formerly, Mansurabad (Persian: منسورآباد), also Romanized as Mansūrābād) is a city in and the capital of Mehran County, Ilam Province, Iran.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Middle East Institute (MEI) is a non-profit, non-partisan think tank and cultural center in Washington, D.C., founded in 1946.
Middle Eastern studies (sometimes referred to as Near Eastern studies) is a name given to a number of academic programs associated with the study of the history, culture, politics, economies, and geography of the Middle East, an area that is generally interpreted to cover a range of nations including Israel, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Oman.
Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG (Rossiyskaya samoletostroitel'naya korporatsiya "MiG") is a Russian aerospace joint stock company.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-21; NATO reporting name: Fishbed) is a supersonic jet fighter and interceptor aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-23; NATO reporting name: Flogger) is a variable-geometry fighter aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau in the Soviet Union.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-25; NATO reporting name: Foxbat) is a supersonic interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft that was among the fastest military aircraft to enter service.
The Mil Mi-24 (Миль Ми-24; NATO reporting name: Hind) is a large helicopter gunship, attack helicopter and low-capacity troop transport with room for eight passengers.
The Mil Mi-8 (Ми-8, NATO reporting name: Hip) is a medium twin-turbine helicopter, originally designed by the Soviet Union, and now produced by Russia.
The Minister of Health is an official within the Government of Iraq responsible for protecting and promoting public health and providing welfare through direct supervision of Ministry of Health As of July 2015, the current minister is Majeed Hamad Ameen.
Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh (Mīr-Hoseyn Mūsavī Khāmené,; born 2 March 1942) is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
Missing in action (MIA) is a casualty classification assigned to combatants, military chaplains, combat medics, and prisoners of war who are reported missing during wartime or ceasefire.
The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (معركة القادسيّة; transliteration, Maʿrakat al-Qādisiyyah; نبرد قادسيه; alternate spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was the decisive engagement between the Arab-Muslim army and the Sāsānian Iranian army during the first period of Muslim expansion which resulted in the Arab-Muslim conquest of Iran.
Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Hakim (1939 – 29 August 2003; سيد محمد باقر الحكيم), also known as Shaheed al-Mehraab, was a senior Iraqi Shia cleric and the leader of the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq.
Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (سیّد محمد حسینی بهشتی; 24 October 1928 – 28 June 1981) was an Iranian jurist, philosopher, cleric and politician who was known as the second person in the political hierarchy of Iran after the revolution.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Mohammad-Ali Rajai (محمدعلی رجائی; 15 June 1933 – 30 August 1981) was the second President of Iran from 2 to 30 August 1981 after serving as prime minister under Abolhassan Banisadr.
Mohammad Javad Bahonar (محمدجواد باهنر, 5 September 1933 – 30 August 1981) was a Shia Iranian theologian and politician who served as the Prime minister of Iran for less than one month in August 1981.
Mohsen Rezaee Mirgha'ed (محسن رضایی میرقائد, born Sabzevar Rezaei Mirgha'ed on 9 September 1954) is an Iranian conservative politician affiliated with the Resistance Front of Islamic Iran and senior military officer in the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps who currently holds office as the secretary of the Expediency Discernment Council.
A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, Molotovin koktaili (Finnish), polttopullo (Finnish), fire bomb (not to be confused with an actual fire bomb) or just Molotov, commonly shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons.
Seyyed Morteza Avini (سید مرتضی آوینی; also spelled Aviny; 23 September 1947 – 9 April 1993) was an Iranian documentary filmmaker, photographer, author, and theoretician of "Islamic Cinema." He studied Architecture at Tehran University in 1965.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
Mosul International Airport is an airport located at Mosul, capital of Nineveh Governorate, Iraq.
A motorboat, speedboat, or powerboat is a boat which is powered by an engine.
Muḥarram (مُحَرَّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar.
Mullah (ملا, Molla, ملا / Mollâ, Molla, মোল্লা) is derived from the Arabic word مَوْلَى mawlā, meaning "vicar", "master" and "guardian".
Musian (موسيان, also Romanized as Mūsīān, Mūseyān, and Mūsīyān; also known as Mīsīan and Tepe Mīslan) is a city in and capital of Musian District, Dehloran County, Ilam Province, Iran.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
Muslim ibn Aqil Al-Hashimi (Arabic: مسلم بن عقيل الهاشمي) was the son of Aqeel ibn Abu Talib and a member of the clan of Bani Hashim, thus, he is a cousin of Husayn ibn Ali.
MV Sea Isle City, ex-Umm al Maradem, was a Kuwait Oil Company oil tanker that reflagged during Operation Earnest Will.
Naft Shahr (Kurdish:نفت شاه, نفت شهر; also known as Naft Shah, Naft Shāh, Naft-e Shah, Naft-e Shāh, Naft-i-Shah, Naft-ī-Shah) is a district of Qasr-e Shirin County, in Kermanshah Province of Iran.
The National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI; Šurā-ye melli-e moqāwemat-e Īrān) is an Iranian political organization based in France.
National security directives are presidential directives issued for the National Security Council (NSC).
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) is a graduate school operated by the United States Navy.
The Navy of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) or Revolutionary Guards' Navy (نیروی دریایی سپاه پاسداران انقلاب اسلامی), acronym NEDSA (ندسا), consists of 20,000 men and 1,500 boats and fast attack boats separate from the regular Navy of ''Artesh'' assuming control over Iranian maritime operations in the Persian Gulf.
Nawshirwan Mustafa (22 December 1944 – 19 May 2017) (نەوشیروان مستەفا) was an Iraqi Kurdish politician who served as the General Coordinator of the Movement for Change and the leader of the official opposition in the Kurdistan Region from 1 April 2009 to his death on 19 May 2017.
Nerve agents, sometimes also called nerve gases, are a class of organic chemicals that disrupt the mechanisms by which nerves transfer messages to organs.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
A news conference or press conference is a media event in which newsmakers invite journalists to hear them speak and, most often, ask questions.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Nightline (or ABC News Nightline) is ABC News' late-night news program broadcast on ABC in the United States with a franchised formula to other networks and stations elsewhere in the world.
No man's land is land that is unoccupied or is under dispute between parties who leave it unoccupied due to fear or uncertainty.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
North Korea supported Iran during the Iran–Iraq War for oil and foreign exchange by selling both domestically produced arms to Iran and serving as an intermediary for deniable sales by the Soviet Union, Soviet satellites, and China.
The Northrop F-5A and F-5B Freedom Fighter and the F-5E and F-5F Tiger II are part of a supersonic light fighter family, initially designed in the late 1950s by Northrop Corporation.
Noureddin, Son of Iran (نورالدین پسر ایران) is the memoirs of Sayyid Noureddin Afi from the 80 months of his participation in the Iran–Iraq war.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The Iranian Oghab (Eagle) missile is an unguided 230 mm (9 in) artillery rocket with a range of 34–45 km (20–28 mi).
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, process petroleum and natural gas which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed.
Oil Platforms case (formally, Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America) ICJ 4) is a public international law case decided by the International Court of Justice in 2003.
An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products.
The Oliver Hazard Perry class is a class of guided missile frigates named after the U.S. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, the hero of the naval Battle of Lake Erie.
One Woman's War: Da (Mother) (دا، جنگ یک زن) is a memoir by Seyyedeh Zahra Hosseini detailing her experiences during the Iran–Iraq War as recorded by Seyedeh Azam Hosseini (no relation).
Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas-2 was an offensive in the Iran–Iraq War that was started by Iran with the code of Ya-Zahra (s.a.) by the command of Sepah in Qomish-Sulaymaniyah axis (in Iraq) on January 15, 1988.
Operation Dawn-1 (also known as Operation Valfajr-1) was an Iranian offensive in the Iran–Iraq War.
Operation Dawn 2 or Operation Valfajr-2 (عملیات والفجر 2) was an Iranian operation during the eight-year-long Iran–Iraq War.
Operation Dawn 3 or Operation Valfajr-3 was Iran's worst defeat out of all the Dawn operations.
As 1984 began, Iran launched the largest offensive up to that date Operation Dawn V, also known as Operation Dawn 5 or Operation Valfajr-5 (Persian).
Operation Dawn 6 (Operation Valfajr 6 in Persian) was a military operation conducted by the forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran against the armed forces of Saddam Hussein's Iraq.
Operation Dawn 4 (عملیات والفجر 4) was an Iranian operation of the Iran–Iraq War launched in 1983.
Operation Eagle Claw, known as Operation Tabas (عملیات طبس) in Iran, was a United States Armed Forces operation ordered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter to attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis by rescuing 52 embassy staff held captive at the Embassy of the United States, Tehran on 24 April 1980.
Operation Earnest Will (24 July 1987 – 26 September 1988) was the American military protection of Kuwaiti-owned tankers from Iranian attacks in 1987 and 1988, three years into the Tanker War phase of the Iran–Iraq War.
Operation Forty Stars, also known as Operation Forty Lights, or Chelcheraq, was an offensive conducted by the PMOI and the Iraqi military at the closing stages of the Iran–Iraq War.
Operation Alborz (عملیات البرز), more commonly known by the code-name Operation Kaman 99 (عملیات کمان 99), was an operation launched by the Iranian Air Force in retaliation to Iraqi surprise aerial attacks on Iran the day before which marked the beginning of the 8-year-long Iran–Iraq War.
Operation Karbala Ten was a joint effort by Iran and the Kurdish rebels in Iraq.
Operation Kheibar was an Iranian offensive in the Iran–Iraq War.
Operation Mersad (عملیات مرصاد, meaning "ambush") was the last major military operation of the Iran–Iraq War, ending in a decisive victory for Iran.
Operation Morvarid (عملیات مروارید, meaning "Pearl") was an operation launched by the Iranian Navy and Air Force against the Iraqi Air Defence sites on 28 November 1980 in response to Iraq positioning radar and monitoring equipment on the Al-Bakr and Khor-al-Amaya oil rigs to counter Iranian air operations.
Operation Nasr, fought in early January 1981, was a major battle of the Iran–Iraq War.
Operation Nasr-4 (عملیات نصر ۴) was a successful Iranian offensive in Iraqi Kurdistan.
Operation Nimble Archer was the 19 October 1987 attack on two Iranian oil platforms in the Persian Gulf by United States Navy forces.
Operation Opera (מבצע אופרה.), also known as Operation Babylon, was a surprise Israeli air strike carried out on 7 June 1981, which destroyed an Iraqi nuclear reactor under construction 17 kilometers (10.5 miles) southeast of Baghdad.
Operation Praying Mantis was an attack on 18 April 1988, by U.S. forces within Iranian territorial waters in retaliation for the Iranian mining of the Persian Gulf during the Iran–Iraq war and the subsequent damage to an American warship.
Operation Prime Chance (August 1987 – June 1989) was a United States Special Operations Command operation intended to protect U.S.-flagged oil tankers from Iranian attack during the Iran–Iraq War.
Operation Scorch Sword (عملیات شمشیر سوزان) was a surprise airstrike carried out by Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) on 30 September 1980, that damaged an almost-complete nuclear reactor 17 km south-east of Baghdad, Iraq.
Operation Zafar 7 (عملیات ظفر ۷) was an Iranian offensive during the Iran–Iraq War.
These are the orders of battle of the Iraqi and Iranian armies for the start of the Iran–Iraq War in 1980.
Oshnavieh (اشنويه; Kurdish:'اشنۆ'شنۆ'شنه; also Romanized as Oshnavīyeh, Oshnooyeh, Ashnooyeh, Oshnovīeh, Oshnovīyeh, and Ushnūīyeh; also known as Ushnū) is a small town in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran & the capital of Oshnavieh County.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
The Ottoman-Persian Wars or Ottoman-Iranian Wars were a series a wars between Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, and Qajar dynasties of Iran (Persia) through the 16th–19th centuries.
Pan-Islamism (الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state – often a Caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles.
Paratroopers are military parachutists—military personnel trained in parachuting into an operation and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Paris Club (Club de Paris) is a group of officials from major creditor countries whose role is to find coordinated and sustainable solutions to the payment difficulties experienced by debtor countries.
A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity.
The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK; Yekêtiy Niştîmaniy Kurdistan; Yekîtiya Nîştimanî ya Kurdistanê) is a Kurdish political party in Iraqi Kurdistan.
The People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran or the Mojahedin-e Khalq (Sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e khalq-e irān, abbreviated MEK, PMOI or MKO), commonly known in Iran as Munafiqin ("hypocrites"), is an Iranian political–militant organization in exile that advocates the violent overthrow of the current government in Iran, while claiming itself as the replacing government in exile.
Persepolis is a graphic autobiography by Marjane Satrapi that depicts her childhood up to her early adult years in Iran during and after the Islamic Revolution.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
In diplomacy, a persona non grata (Latin: "person not appreciated", plural: personae non gratae) is a foreign person whose entering or remaining in a particular country is prohibited by that country's government.
Peshmerga (lit, or Those who face death') are the military forces of the federal region of Iraqi Kurdistan.
The Pilatus PC-7 Turbo Trainer is a low-wing tandem-seat training aircraft, manufactured by Pilatus Aircraft of Switzerland.
Some sources hostile to the Iranian government allege that during the Iran–Iraq War (1980–88), Plastic Keys to Paradise were distributed to young Iranian military volunteers by the Islamic Republic of Iran leadership.
Plausible deniability is the ability of people (typically senior officials in a formal or informal chain of command) to deny knowledge of or responsibility for any damnable actions committed by others in an organizational hierarchy because of a lack of evidence that can confirm their participation, even if they were personally involved in or at least willfully ignorant of the actions.
This article focuses on the politics of Khuzestan Province, a petroleum-rich and ethnically diverse province of southwestern Iran.
A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.
The Iraqi Popular Army also known as the People's Army or People's Militia (Arabic: الجيش الشعبي Al Jaysh ash Shaabi) was a paramilitary organization composed of civilian volunteers to protect the Ba'ath regime against internal opposition and serve as a counterbalance against any coup attempt by the regular Iraqi Army.
Portugal's involvement in the Iran–Iraq War includes Portugal supplying both Iran and Iraq with arms, and playing a role in the Iran–Contra affair.
The Praetorian Guard (Latin: cohortes praetorianae) was an elite unit of the Imperial Roman army whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Roman emperors.
A preemptive war is a war that is commenced in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war shortly before that attack materializes.
The President of Iran (Persian: رییسجمهور ایران Rayis Jomhur-e Irān) is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The President of Iraq is the head of state of Iraq and "safeguards the commitment to the Constitution and the preservation of Iraq's independence, sovereignty, unity, the security of its territories in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution".
The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era (when the country was internationally known as Persia) until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
A pulmonary agent, or choking agent, is a chemical weapon agent designed to impede a victim's ability to breathe.
Qasem-Ali Zahir Nejad (1924 – 13 October 1999) was a major general in the Army of Iran after the 1979 revolution.
Qasr-e Shirin (Kurdish: Qesirî Şîrîn, قصرشيرين; also Romanized as Qaşr-e Shīrīn and Qasr-ī-Shīrīn; also known as Ghasr-ī-shīrīn and Ghasr-shīrīn) is a city and capital of Qasr-e Shirin County, Kermanshah Province, Iran.
Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (or Qusai, قصي صدام حسين; –) was the second son of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
Ra'ad Majid Rashid al-Hamdani (رعد مجيد الحمداني) was a General of the Iraqi Republican Guard, and was one of Saddam Hussein's favourite officers.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radwaniyah Palace (also known as Al Radwaniyah Presidential Complex) is a palace in Baghdad, Iraq, which functioned as a presidential resort for the late Iraqi Dictator Saddam Hussein until it was taken over by coalition forces during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Rahian-e Noor (راهیان نور,"The passenger of light") is the group of religious and political caravans which travel between visiting zones in south and southwestern in Iran to commemorate Iranian efforts and lives lost in the Iran–Iraq War.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Ravayat-e Fath (روایت فتح), variously translated as The Chronicles of Victory, The Tales of Victory, The Narrative of Victory, The Narration of Victory, The Story of Victory, and Witness to Glory, was a war documentary TV series directed by Morteza Aviny and filmed on the front-lines of the Iran–Iraq War.
RBS 70 (Robotsystem 70, "robot" meaning "missile" in this context in Swedish) is a man-portable air-defense system (MANPADS) designed for anti-aircraft warfare in all climate zones and with little to no support from other forces.
The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States under the Reagan Administration to overwhelm the global influence of the Soviet Union in an attempt to end the Cold War.
A recoilless rifle (RCLR) or recoilless gun is a type of lightweight tube artillery that is designed to allow some of the propellant gases to escape out the rear of the weapon at the moment of ignition, creating forward thrust that counteracts some of the weapon's recoil.
In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
Reparations are broadly understood as compensation given for an abuse or injury.
The Iraqi Republican Guard (حرس العراق الجمهوري Ḥaras al-‘Irāq al-Jamhūriyy) was a branch of the Iraqi military from 1964 to 2003, primarily during the presidency of Saddam Hussein.
Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
The Revolutionary Army (جيش الثورة; Jaysh al-Thawra) is a Syrian rebel alliance affiliated with the Southern Front of the Free Syrian Army.
Richard William Murphy (born July 29, 1929) is an American diplomat.
The Riegle Report, officially titled "U.S. Chemical and Biological Warfare-Related Dual Use Exports to Iraq and their Possible Impact on the Health Consequences of the Gulf War", summarized testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs with Respect to Export Administration.
A rocket-propelled grenade (often abbreviated RPG) is a shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon system that fires rockets equipped with an explosive warhead.
The Roland is a Franco-German mobile short-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) system.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
A rout is a chaotic and disorderly retreat or withdrawal of troops from a battlefield, resulting in the victory of the opposing party, or following defeat, a collapse of discipline, or poor morale.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The RPG-7 (РПГ-7) is a portable, reusable, unguided, shoulder-launched, anti-tank rocket-propelled grenade launcher.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Saddam Kamel Hassan al-Majid (1956-1996) was the second cousin and son-in-law of deposed Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
Mohammed Sadeq Givi Khalkhali (27 July 1926 – 26 November 2003) (Sādeq Xalxāli) was a Shia cleric of the Islamic Republic of Iran who is said to have "brought to his job as Chief Justice of the revolutionary courts a relish for summary execution" that earned him a reputation as Iran's "hanging judge".
Salah Aboud Mahmoud (born 1950; Arabic: صلاح عبود محمود) is a former Iraqi Army general, best known for his role in Battle of Khafji and 73 Easting, during the Persian Gulf War.
The sanctions against Iraq were a near-total financial and trade embargo imposed by the United Nations Security Council on Ba'athist Iraq.
Saqqez (سقز), also known as Saghez, Saqez, Saqqiz, Saqiz, and Sakīz, is a city which is the capital of Saqqez County, Kurdistan Province, Iran.
Sardasht (سردشت; سهردهشت, Serdeşt; also Romanized as Sar Dasht) is a city in and the capital of Sardasht County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
Sarin, or NATO designation GB (G-series, 'B'), is a highly toxic synthetic organophosphorus compound.
Sarpol-e Zahab (سرپل ذهاب, Sarpole Zahâb; Serpêllî Zehaw, سەرپێڵی زەهاو; also romanized as Sarpol-e Z̄ahāb, Sar-e Pol-e Z̄ahāb, and Sar-ī-Pūl Zūhāb; also known as Pol-e Z̄ahāb, Pol-e Z̄ohāb, Sarī-Pūl, and Sarpol) is a town and capital of Sarpol-e Zahab County, Kermanshah Province, Iran close to the Iraqi border.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Saudi Research and Marketing Group (SRMG) is a Saudi joint stock company registered in Riyadh.
Scud is the name of a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Seawise Giant, later Happy Giant, Jahre Viking, Knock Nevis, Oppama, and finally Mont, was a ULCC supertanker that was the longest ship ever built.
Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance.
The Second Battle of al-Faw (also known as the Operation Ramadan Mubarak (Blessed Ramadan)), fought on 17 April 1988, was a major battle of the Iran–Iraq War.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
Setúbal (or; Caetobrix) is a city and a municipality in Portugal.
The Shahab-1 (Persian: Ŝahāb 1, meaning "Meteor-1") was the foundation of the long-range Iranian missile program.
Shahid and Shaheed (شهيد, plural: شُهَدَاء; female) originates from the Quranic Arabic word meaning "witness" and is also used to denote a martyr.
Shalamcheh (شَلَمچه) is a town located in Khuzestan Province, Iran.
Arvand Rud (اَروَندرود, Swift River) or Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shiraz Shahid Dastgheib International Airport (فرودگاه بین المللی شیراز) is an international airport located in Shiraz, Iran that is the main international airport of Fars province and southern region of Iran.
Shush (شوش; also Romanized as Shūsh, Shoosh, and by name of the ancient nearby city: Sūsa) is a city and capital of Shush County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.
The Siege of Abadan was a major action during the early part of the Iran–Iraq War.
The Shang You or SY-series, and the Hai Ying or HY-series were early Chinese anti-ship missiles.
Sistan and Baluchestan Province (Sistàn o Balòčestàn)(استان سيستان و بلوچستان, Ostān-e Sīstān-o Balūchestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
A sortie (from the French word meaning ''exit'') is a deployment or dispatch of one military unit, be it an aircraft, ship, or troops, from a strongpoint.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army.
The Iraqi Special Republican Guard (SRG) (الحرس الجمهوري الخاص ""Ḥaris al-‘Irāq al-Jamhūriyy al-Khas"), also known as the Special Forces Brigade of the Presidential Palace, Republican Guard Special Protection Forces, or the Golden Division, was an Iraqi personal security force founded in either early 1992 or March 1995 in Ba'athist Iraq.
In military terminology, a squad or squadron is a sub-subunit led by a non-commissioned officer that is subordinate to an infantry platoon.
Stalemate is a situation in the game of chess where the player whose turn it is to move is not in check but has no legal move.
State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against foreign targets or against its own people.
The term status quo ante bellum (often shortened to status quo ante) is a Latin phrase meaning "the state existing before the war".
The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
A strategic bomber is a medium to long range penetration bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating the enemy's capacity to wage war.
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
Suing for peace is an act by a warring nation to initiate a peace process.
The Sukhoi Su-17 (NATO reporting name: Fitter) is a Soviet variable-sweep wing fighter-bomber developed from the Sukhoi Su-7.
Sulaymaniyah (Iraqi:السليمانية, as-Sulaymāniyyah), also called Slemani, is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
Sulṭān Hāshim Aḥmad Muḥammad al-Ṭāʾī (سلطان هاشم أحمد محمد الطائي) is a former Iraqi military commander, who served as Minister of Defense under Saddam Hussein's regime.
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
Supply depots are a type of military installation used by militaries to store battlefield supplies temporarily on or near the front lines until they can be distributed to military units.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Supreme National Security Council (SNSC; شورای عالی امنیت ملی Showrāye Āliye Amniyate Mellī) is the national security council of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the current secretary of the Supreme National Security Council of which is Rear Admiral Upper Half Ali Shamkhani.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
Susangerd (سوسنگرد, in الخفاجية, also Romanized as Sūsangerd, Sūsangird, and Sūsangurd), also known as Dasht-e Āzādegān (دشت آزادگان), Dashte’ Mishan, Dasht-i-Mishān (دشت میشان), is a city in the Central District of Dasht-e Azadegan County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The T-54 and T-55 tanks are a series of Soviet main battle tanks introduced in the years following the Second World War.
The T-62 is a Soviet main battle tank that was first introduced 1961.
The T-72 is a Soviet second-generation main battle tank that entered production in 1971.
Taha Yasin Ramadan al-Jizrawi (طه ياسين رمضان الجزراوي; 1938 – 20 March 2007) was a prominent Iraqi Kurd, serving as one of the two Vice Presidents of Iraq from March 1991 to the fall of Saddam Hussein in April 2003.
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
Tariq Aziz (طارق عزيز, born Mikhail Yuhanna, ܡܝܟܐܝܠ ܝܘܚܢܢ, ميخائيل يوحنا, baptized Manuel Christo; 28 April 1936 – 5 June 2015) was Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister (1979–2003) and Foreign Minister (1983–1991) and a close advisor of President Saddam Hussein.
The Tawakalna ala Allah Operations (translit "We Have Trusted in the God") were a series of five Iraqi offensives launched in April 1988 and lasting until July 1988, consisting of the Second Battle of al-Faw, the Battle of Fish Lake, the Battle of the Majnoon Islands, the Battle of Dehloran, and the Battle of Qasre Shirin.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Tektronix, Inc., historically widely known as "Tek", is an American company best known for manufacturing test and measurement devices such as oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, and video and mobile test protocol equipment.
The telex network was a public switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network, for the purposes of sending text-based messages.
A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more territorial entities or over the possession or control of land, usually between a new state and the occupying power.
In geography and fluvial geomorphology, a thalweg or talweg is the line of lowest elevation within a valley or watercourse.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Majalla, often directly transliterated as Al Majalla (Arabic:المجلة, "the magazine") is a Saudi-owned, London-based political news journal published in Arabic, English and Persian.
The Middle East Journal is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the Middle East Institute (Washington, D.C.). It was established in 1947 and covers research on the modern Middle East, including political, economic, and social developments and historical events in North Africa, the Middle East, Caucasus, and Central Asia.
The Star-Ledger is the largest circulated newspaper in the U.S. state of New Jersey and is based in Newark.
The Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., focused on the foreign policy of the United States as it pertains to the countries in the Near East.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
The Treaty of Saadabad (or the Saadabad Pact) was a non-aggression pact signed by Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan on July 8, 1937.
The Treaty of Zuhab (عهدنامه زهاب), also called Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin (Kasr-ı Şirin Antlaşması), was an accord signed between the Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire on May 17, 1639.
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
The Trial of Saddam Hussein was the trial of the deposed President of Iraq Saddam Hussein by the Iraqi Interim Government for crimes against humanity during his time in office.
The Tudeh Party of Iran (lit) is an Iranian communist party.
The Tupolev Tu-16 (NATO reporting name: Badger) was a twin-engined jet strategic heavy bomber used by the Soviet Union.
The Tupolev Tu-22 (NATO reporting name: Blinder) was the first supersonic bomber to enter production in the Soviet Union.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Uday Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (عُدي صدّام حُسين) (18 June 1964 – 22 July 2003) was the eldest son of Saddam Hussein by his first wife, Sajida Talfah, and the brother of Qusay Hussein.
Umm Qasr (أم قصر, also transliterated as Um-qasir, Um-qasser), is a port city in southern Iraq.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Compensation Commission was created in 1991 as a subsidiary organ of the United Nations Security Council.
The United Nations Iran–Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG) was a United Nations commission created during the Iran–Iraq War by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 619 of August 9, 1988.
Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are "mutually reinforcing" and that overlap between them is frequent in practice.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council resolution 612 was adopted unanimously on 9 May 1988.
United Nations Security Council resolution 619, adopted unanimously on 9 August 1988, after recalling Resolution 598 (1987), the Council approved a report by the Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar on the implementation of paragraph 2 of Resolution 598.
United Nations Security Council resolution 620, adopted unanimously on 26 August 1988, after recalling Resolution 612 (1988) which found evidence of the use of chemical warfare between Iran and Iraq, the Council again condemned the use of such weapons, in violation of the Geneva Protocol.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The White House National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the executive office of the president of the United States.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Navy's Sea, Air and Land Teams, commonly abbreviated as the Navy SEALs, are the U.S. Navy's primary special operations force and a component of the Naval Special Warfare Command.
Urban warfare is combat conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities.
The USS Stark incident occurred during the Iran–Iraq War on 17 May 1987, when an Iraqi jet aircraft fired missiles at the American frigate.
Valiollah Fallahi (1931 – 29 September 1981), was a military officer and prominent figure during the Iran–Iraq war.
The Victory Arch (قوس النصر Qaws an-Naṣr), officially known as the Swords of Qādisīyah، and popularly called the Hands of Victory or the Crossed Swords, are a pair of triumphal arches in central Baghdad, Iraq.
Volte-face is a total change of position, as in policy or opinion; an about-face.
The vulnerability of nuclear plants to deliberate attack is of concern in the area of nuclear safety and security.
Walter Patrick "Pat" Lang, Jr. (born May 31, 1940) is a commentator on the Middle East, a retired US Army officer and private intelligence analyst, and an author.
A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
A war of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged without the justification of self-defense, usually for territorial gain and subjugation.
The War of the Cities was five series of air raids, missile attacks and artillery shellings on major cities and urban areas initiated by Saddam Hussein's Iraqi Air Force, with the aim of disrupting the morale of Iran during the Iran–Iraq War.
A warhead is the explosive or toxic material that is delivered by a missile, rocket, or torpedo.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
William Flynn Martin (born October 4, 1950) is an American energy economist, educator and international diplomat.
William James Crowe Jr. (January 2, 1925October 18, 2007) was a United States Navy admiral who served as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, and as the ambassador to the United Kingdom under President Bill Clinton.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wounded in action (WIA) describes combatants who have been wounded while fighting in a combat zone during wartime, but have not been killed.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
The Zagros Mountains (کوههای زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.
The ZU-23-2, also known as ZU-23, is a Soviet towed 23 mm anti-aircraft twin-barreled autocannon.
The 10th G7 Summit was held in London, England, United Kingdom from June 7 to June 9, 1984.
The 17 July Revolution was a bloodless coup in Iraq in 1968, led by General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, which brought the Iraqi Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party to power.
Following the deterring effect of Operation Vantage (1961), Kuwait gained its recognition by Iraq in 1963.
The 1975 Algiers Agreement (commonly known as the Algiers Accord, sometimes as the Algiers Declaration) was an agreement between Iran and Iraq to settle their border disputes and conflicts (such as the Shatt al-Arab, known as Arvand Rud in Iran), and it served as basis for the bilateral treaties signed on 13 June and 26 December 1975.
The 1979 Khuzestan uprising was one of the nationwide uprisings in Iran, which erupted in the aftermath of the Iranian Revolution.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
On January 8, 2011, U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords and eighteen others were shot during a constituent meeting held in a supermarket parking lot in Casas Adobes, Arizona, in the Tucson metropolitan area.
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