244 relations: Abbas Abdi, Abolhassan Banisadr, Absolute monarchy, Academy Awards, Adolph Dubs, African Americans, ALBA, Algeria, Algiers Accords, Ali Khamenei, Allies of World War II, American Broadcasting Company, American imperialism, Amirkabir University of Technology, Andrews McMeel Universal, Anglo-Persian Oil Company, Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, Anti-communism, Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, Argo (2012 film), Ayatollah, Bahá'í Faith, Bangor Daily News, Baqer Moin, Basic Books, BBC, Behzad Nabavi, Broadway (Manhattan), Bruce Laingen, Bulletproof glass, Canadian Caper, Capitalism, CBS News, Central Intelligence Agency, Chador, Chargé d'affaires, Charles Alvin Beckwith, Cold War, Congressional Research Service, Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Constitutional monarchy, Council on Foreign Relations, Coup d'état, Cuba, Cyrus Vance, Damages, Daniel Ammann, Daniel Pipes, Dasht-e Kavir, ..., David Rockefeller, Death to America, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Diplomatic immunity, Douglas Brinkley, Dust storm, East Germany, Ebrahim Asgharzadeh, Ebrahim Yazdi, Eglin Air Force Base, Egypt, Electronic Data Systems, Embassy of the United States, Tehran, Executive Order 12170, Federation of American Scientists, Fidel Castro, First inauguration of Ronald Reagan, Flag desecration, Free Press (publisher), Freedom of Information Act (United States), Gary Sick, George H. W. Bush, Gout, Great Satan, Greenwood Publishing Group, Grove Press, Guests of the Ayatollah, Habibollah Bitaraf, Hamid Aboutalebi, Henry Kissinger, Hermitage, Pennsylvania, Hossein Sheikholeslam, Hugo Chávez, Humanitarian Service Medal, Hunger strike, Hydraulics, Interests Section of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the United States, Interim Government of Iran, Iran, Iran hostage crisis negotiations, Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran–Contra affair, Iran–Iraq War, Iran–Israel relations, Iran–United States relations, Iranian Americans, Iranian frozen assets, Iranian Revolution, Iraqi security forces, Islamic City Council of Tehran, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic Iran Participation Front, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Islamism, James L. Holloway III, Jimmy Carter, Joe Clark, John Limbert, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Kabul, Kansas City, Missouri, Kenneth D. Taylor, Kenneth Kraus, Kentucky New Era, Kidnapping of Jalal Sharafi, Laurie Anderson, List of hostage crises, Lockheed C-130 Hercules, Lymphoma, Major League Baseball, Marine Security Guard, Mark Bowden, Marxism, Masoumeh Ebtekar, Mehdi Bazargan, Minor League Baseball, Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari, Mohammad Mosaddegh, Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mohsen Mirdamadi, Multiple sclerosis, Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, National Christmas Tree (United States), National Front (Iran), National Security Advisor (United States), Nazi Germany, Neoliberalism, New York City, Newburgh, New York (town), NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital, Nightline, O Superman, October Surprise conspiracy theory, Office of Foreign Assets Control, Office of the Secretary of Defense, Operation Credible Sport, Operation Eagle Claw, Operations security, Order in Council, Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas, Palestine Liberation Organization, Paper shredder, People's Mujahedin of Iran, Persian Gulf, Persian language, Protecting power, Qajar dynasty, Qom, Radio silence, Random House, Regional Security Officer, Reza Shah, Rhein-Main Air Base, Richard Morefield, Richard Queen, Ronald Reagan, Ross Perot, Ruhollah Khomeini, Russian roulette, Saddam Hussein, Sanctions against Iran, SAVAK, Shahid Shiroudi Stadium, Shannon, County Clare, Sharif University of Technology, Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion, Simon & Schuster, Soviet Union, Special Forces (United States Army), St. Martin's Press, State Department Award for Valor, Statue of Liberty, Stephen Kinzer, Stewart Air National Guard Base, Stray Cats, Student Day (Iran), Studies in Intelligence, Supreme Leader of Iran, Sweden, Swissair, Switzerland, Tabas, Tabriz, Talonbooks, Ted Koppel, Tehran, Tehran American School, Terrain-following radar, Teymur Bakhtiar, Thayer Hotel, The Christian Science Monitor, The Guardian, The King of Oil, The Morning Call, The New York Times, The New York Times Magazine, The Partners (book), The Washington Post, Theocracy, Thomas Dunne Books, Ticker tape parade, Time (magazine), United Kingdom, United Nations Security Council Resolution 457, United Nations Security Council Resolution 461, United States, United States Department of State, United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran, United States Military Academy, United States National Security Council, United States presidential election, 1980, United States Secretary of State, United States support for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War, University of Tehran, USS Nimitz, Vice President of Iran, Victor L. Tomseth, Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, Walter Cronkite, Warren Christopher, West Germany, Wiesbaden, William H. Sullivan, William J. Casey, Winston Churchill, Yasser Arafat, Zürich, Zbigniew Brzezinski, 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne), 1953 Iranian coup d'état, 1982 Iranian diplomats kidnapping, 2011 attack on the British Embassy in Iran, 2016 attack on the Saudi diplomatic missions in Iran. Expand index (194 more) » « Shrink index
Abbas Abdi (عباس عبدی; born 1 October 1956) is one of Iran's most influential reformists, journalist, self-taught sociologist and social activist.
Seyyed Abolhassan Banisadr (Seyyed Abolhasan Banisadr; born 22 March 1933) is an Iranian politician and economist.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
Adolph "Spike" Dubs (August 4, 1920 – February 14, 1979) was the United States Ambassador to Afghanistan from May 13, 1978, until his death in 1979.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
ALBA or ALBA-TCP, formally the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - Peoples’ Trade Treaty (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América - Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos), is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of the social, political and economic integration of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Algeria Declaration were a set of agreements between the United States and Iran to resolve the Iran hostage crisis, brokered by the Algerian government and signed in Algiers on January 19, 1981.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
American imperialism is a policy aimed at extending the political, economic, and cultural control of the United States government over areas beyond its boundaries.
Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT) (Persian: دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر Dāneshgāh-e San'ati-ye Amirkabir), formerly called the Tehran Polytechnic, is a public research university located in Tehran, Iran.
Andrews McMeel Universal (AMU) is an American publishing corporation based in Kansas City, Missouri.
The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was a British company founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran.
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, also known as Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the invasion of the Imperial State of Iran during the Second World War by Soviet, British and other Commonwealth armed forces.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, Pub.
Argo is a 2012 American historical drama film directed by Ben Affleck.
Ayatullah (or; āyatullāh from llāh "Sign of God") is a high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Bangor Daily News is an American newspaper covering a large portion of rural Maine, published six days per week in Bangor, Maine.
Baqer Moin is a BBC journalist and author.
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Behzad Nabavi (بهزاد نبوی) is an Iranian reformist politician.
Broadway is a road in the U.S. state of New York.
Lowell Bruce Laingen (born August 6, 1922) is an American retired diplomat who served as the United States Ambassador to Malta from 1977 and 1979.
Bulletproof glass (also known as ballistic glass, transparent armor, or bullet-resistant glass) is a type of strong but optically transparent material that is particularly resistant to being penetrated when struck.
The "Canadian Caper" was the popular name given to the joint covert rescue by the Canadian government and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of six American diplomats who had evaded capture during the seizure of the United States embassy in Tehran, Iran, and taking of embassy personnel as hostages by Islamist students and militants on November 4, 1979.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
A chādor (چادر), also variously spelled in English as chadah, chad(d)ar, chader, chud(d)ah, chadur and naturalized as is an outer garment or open cloak worn by some women in Iran, Iraq and some other countries under the Persianate cultural sphere as well as predominantly Shia areas i.e. Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Pakistan, India, Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, Tajikistan and Turkey, in public spaces or outdoors.
A chargé d'affaires, often shortened to chargé (French) and sometimes to charge-D (abbreviated in colloquial English), is a diplomat who heads an embassy in the absence of the ambassador.
Charles Alvin "Charlie" Beckwith (January 22, 1929 – June 13, 1994), known as Chargin' Charlie, was a career U.S. Army Special Forces officer best remembered as helping create Delta Force, the premier counter terrorism and asymmetrical warfare unit of the U.S. Army.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
The consolidation of the Iranian Revolution refers to a turbulent process of Islamic Republic stabilization, following the completion of the revolution.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979, and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1906.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cyrus Roberts Vance (March 27, 1917January 12, 2002) was an American lawyer and United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1980.
In law, damages are an award, typically of money, to be paid to a person as compensation for loss or injury.
Daniel Ammann (born 1963) is a Swiss investigative journalist and author.
Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian, writer, and commentator.
Dasht-e Kavir (دشت كوير, 'Low Plains' in classical Persian, from khwar (low), and dasht (plain), flatland), also known as Kavir-e Namak ('salty lowlands') and the Great Salt Desert, is a large desert lying in the middle of the Iranian plateau.
David Rockefeller (June 12, 1915 – March 20, 2017) was an American banker who was chairman and chief executive of Chase Manhattan Corporation.
Death to America (مرگ بر آمریکا Marg bar Āmrikā) is an anti-American political slogan and chant which has been in use in Iran since the inception of the Iranian Revolution in 1979.
The Defense Meritorious Service Medal (DMSM) is an award bestowed upon members of the United States military by the United States Department of Defense.
Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity that ensures diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host country's laws, but they can still be expelled.
Douglas Brinkley (born December 14, 1960) is an American author and a professor of history at Rice University.
A dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Ebrahim Asgharzadeh (ابراهیم اصغرزاده) is an Iranian political activist and politician.
Ebrahim Yazdi (ابراهیم یزدی; 26 September 1931 – 27 August 2017) was an Iranian politician and diplomat who served as deputy prime minister and minister of foreign affairs in the interim government of Mehdi Bazargan, until his resignation in November 1979, in protest at the Iran hostage crisis.
Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force base located approximately southwest of Valparaiso, Florida in Okaloosa County.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Electronic Data Systems (EDS) was an American multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Plano, Texas.
The Embassy of the United States of America in Tehran was the United States of America's diplomatic mission in the Imperial State of Iran.
Executive Order 12170 was issued by American president Jimmy Carter on November 14, 1979, ten days after the Iran hostage crisis had started.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The first inauguration of Ronald Reagan as the 40th President of the United States was held on Tuesday, January 20, 1981, on the West Front of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C..
Flag desecration is a term applied to the desecration of flags or violation of flag protocol, a various set of acts that intentionally destroy, damage, or mutilate a flag in public.
Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon & Schuster.
The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA),, is a federal freedom of information law that allows for the full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased information and documents controlled by the United States government.
Gary G. Sick (born 1935) is an American academic and analyst of Middle East affairs, with special expertise on Iran, who served on the U.S. National Security Council under Presidents Ford, Carter, and for a couple weeks under Reagan as well.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
The Great Satan (شيطان بزرگ; Shaytân-e Bozorg, Shaytân-e Kabir) is a derogatory epithet for the United States of America in some Iranian foreign policy statements.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Grove Press is an American publishing imprint that was founded in 1947.
Guests of the Ayatollah: The First Battle in America's War with Militant Islam is a non-fiction work written by Mark Bowden.
Habibolah Bitaraf (حبیبالله بیطرف) is an Iranian reformist politician.
Hamid Aboutalebi (حمید ابوطالبی, born 16 June 1957) is an Iranian diplomat and ambassador.
Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
Hermitage is a city in Mercer County, Pennsylvania, United States.
Hossein Sheikholeslam (Born 1952 in Isfahan) is an Iranian politician and the current advisor to the foreign minister Javad Zarif.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
The Humanitarian Service Medal (HSM) is a military service medal of the United States Armed Forces which was created on January 19, 1977 by President Gerald Ford under.
A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change.
Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.
The Interests Section of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the United States is a part of the Pakistani Embassy in Washington, D.C., and is the de facto consular representation of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the United States.
The Interim Government of Iran (Dowlat-e Movaghat-e Irân) was the first government established in Iran after the Iranian Revolution, and the first nominal republic established in Iran after 2,500 years of Persian monarchy.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran hostage crisis negotiations were negotiations in 1980 and 1981 between the United States Government and the Iranian Government to end the Iranian hostage crisis.
The Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) (دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران) is a research institution and university of engineering and science in Iran.
The Iran–Contra affair (ماجرای ایران-کنترا, caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate, Contragate or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
Iranian–Israeli relations can be divided into four major phases: the period from 1947–53, the friendly period during the era of the Pahlavi dynasty, the worsening period from the 1979 Iranian Revolution to 1990, and finally the hostility since the end of the First Gulf War.
As of 2018, there are no formal diplomatic relations between Iran and the United States.
Iranian Americans or Persian Americans are U.S. citizens who are of Iranian ancestry or who hold Iranian citizenship.
Iranian frozen assets in international accounts are calculated to be worth between $100 billion and $120 billion.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Iraqi security forces (ISF) is a term used by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) to describe law enforcement and military forces of the federal government of the Republic of Iraq.
The Islamic City Council of Tehran (شورای اسلامی شهر تهران) is the directly elected council that presides over the city of Tehran, elects the Mayor of Tehran in a mayor–council government system, and budgets of the Municipality of Tehran.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
The Islamic Iran Participation Front (جبهه مشارکت ایران اسلامی; Jebheye Mosharekate Iran-e Eslaami) is a reformist political party in Iran.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
James Lemuel Holloway III (born February 23, 1922) is a retired United States Navy admiral and naval aviator who was highly decorated for his actions during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
Charles Joseph "Joe" Clark, (born June 5, 1939) is a Canadian elder statesman, businessman, writer, and politician who served as the 16th Prime Minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979 to March 3, 1980.
Ambassador John W. Limbert is the former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Iran in the State Department's Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
Kansas City is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri.
Kenneth Douglas "Ken" Taylor, (October 5, 1934 – October 15, 2015) was a Canadian diplomat, educator and businessman, best known for his role in the 1979 covert operation called the "Canadian Caper" when he was the Canadian ambassador to Iran.
Kenneth L. Kraus is a former United States Marine who was the first American taken hostage by Iranian militants prior to the Iran hostage crisis.
The Kentucky New Era is the major daily newspaper in Hopkinsville, Kentucky, in the United States.
Gunmen kidnapped Jalal Sharafi, the second secretary of the Iranian embassy, as he drove through Karrada district in central Baghdad, Iraq on 6 February 2007.
Laura Phillips "Laurie" Anderson (born June 5, 1947) is an American avant-garde artist, composer, musician and film director whose work spans performance art, pop music, and multimedia projects.
This is a list of notable hostage crises by date.
The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built originally by Lockheed (now Lockheed Martin).
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.
A Marine Security Guard (MSG), also known as a Marine Embassy Guard, is a member of the Marine Corps Embassy Security Group (formerly Marine Security Guard Battalion), a battalion-sized organization of U.S. Marines whose detachments provide security at American embassies, American consulates and other official United States Government offices such as the United States Mission to NATO in Brussels, Belgium.
Mark Robert Bowden (born July 17, 1951) is an American writer and author.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Masoumeh Ebtekar (معصومه ابتکار; born Masoumeh, Niloufar Ebtekar; 21 September 1960) is current Vice President of Iran for Women and Family Affairs, being appointed on 9 August 2017.
Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان; 1 September 1907 – 20 January 1995) was an Iranian scholar, academic, long-time pro-democracy activist and head of Iran's interim government, making him Iran's first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979.
Minor League Baseball is a hierarchy of professional baseball leagues in the Americas that compete at levels below Major League Baseball (MLB) and provide opportunities for player development and a way to prepare for the major leagues.
Sayyid Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari (Məhəmməd Kazım Şəriətmədari, محمد کاظم شریعتمداری), also spelled Shariat-Madari (5 January 1905 – 3 April 1986), was an Iranian Grand Ayatollah.
Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.
Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha (born 1942) is an Iranian cleric and secretary general of the reformist Association of Combatant Clerics.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Mohsen Mirdamadi (محسن میردامادی, born 1955 in Najafabad, Isfahan) is an Iranian politician.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
The Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line (دانشجویان مسلمان پیرو خط امام Dânešjuyân Mosalmân Piru Xatt Emâm), also called the Muslim Students of the Imam Khomeini Line, was an Iranian student group that occupied the U.S. embassy in Tehran on 4 November 1979.
The National Christmas Tree is a large evergreen tree located in the northeast quadrant of The Ellipse near the White House in Washington, D.C. Each year since 1923, the tree has been decorated as a Christmas tree.
The National Front of Iran (Jebha-ye Mellī-e Īrān) is an opposition political organization in Iran, founded by Mohammad Mosaddegh in 1949.
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA) or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor,The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Newburgh is a town in Orange County, New York, United States.
The NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital is a nonprofit university hospital in New York City affiliated with two Ivy League medical schools: Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons and Weill Cornell Medical College.
Nightline (or ABC News Nightline) is ABC News' late-night news program broadcast on ABC in the United States with a franchised formula to other networks and stations elsewhere in the world.
"O Superman" is a 1981 song by performance artist and musician Laurie Anderson.
The October Surprise conspiracy theory refers to a plot to influence the outcome of the 1980 United States presidential election, contested between incumbent president Jimmy Carter (D–GA) and his opponent, former California governor Ronald Reagan (R–CA).
The Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) is a financial intelligence and enforcement agency of the U.S. Treasury Department.
The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) is a headquarters-level staff of the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
Operation Credible Sport was a joint project of the U.S. military in the second half of 1980 to prepare for a second rescue attempt of the hostages held in Iran.
Operation Eagle Claw, known as Operation Tabas (عملیات طبس) in Iran, was a United States Armed Forces operation ordered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter to attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis by rescuing 52 embassy staff held captive at the Embassy of the United States, Tehran on 24 April 1980.
Operations security (OPSEC) is a process that identifies critical information to determine if friendly actions can be observed by enemy intelligence, determines if information obtained by adversaries could be interpreted to be useful to them, and then executes selected measures that eliminate or reduce adversary exploitation of friendly critical information.
An Order in Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realms.
The Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (OIPFG; Sāzmān-e čerikhā-ye Fadāʾi-e ḵalq-e Irān), simply known as Fadaiyan-e-Khalq (lit) was a Marxist-Leninist underground guerrilla organization in Iran.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
A paper shredder is a mechanical device used to cut paper into either strips or fine particles.
The People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran or the Mojahedin-e Khalq (Sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e khalq-e irān, abbreviated MEK, PMOI or MKO), commonly known in Iran as Munafiqin ("hypocrites"), is an Iranian political–militant organization in exile that advocates the violent overthrow of the current government in Iran, while claiming itself as the replacing government in exile.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A protecting power is a country that represents another sovereign state in a country where it lacks its own diplomatic representation.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
In telecommunications, radio silence or Emissions Control (EMCON) is a status in which all fixed or mobile radio stations in an area are asked to stop transmitting for safety or security reasons.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
Regional Security Officer (RSO) is the title given to special agents of the U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (DSS) serving overseas.
Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
Rhein-Main Air Base (located at) was a United States Air Force air base near the city of Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Richard Henry Morefield (September 9, 1929 – October 11, 2010) served in the United States Foreign Service and was one of the 66 staff members at the American embassy in Teheran who were taken captive by a militant Islamist student group called the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line on November 4, 1979, as part of what became known as the Iran hostage crisis.
Richard Ivan Queen (August 7, 1951 – August 14, 2002) was born in Washington D.C. and worked for the U.S. State Department as Vice Consul at the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, Iran.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Henry Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930) is an American business magnate and former politician.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
Russian Roulette (русская рулетка, russkaya ruletka) is a potentially lethal game of chance in which a player places a single round in a revolver, spins the cylinder, places the muzzle against his or her head, and pulls the trigger.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the resulting hostage crisis, the United States imposed an asset freeze and trade embargo against Iran.
SAVAK (ساواک, short for سازمان اطلاعات و امنیت کشور Sāzemān-e Ettelā'āt va Amniyat-e Keshvar, literally "Organization of National Intelligence and Security") was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service of Pahlavi dynasty.
The Shahid Shiroudi Stadium formerly known as Amjadiyeh Stadium is a sports stadium in Tehran, Iran, currently used only for Athletic competitions.
Shannon or Shannon Town (Baile na Sionnainne), named after the river near which it stands, is a town in County Clare, Ireland.
Sharif University of Technology (SUT, دانشگاه صنعتی شریف) is a public research university in Tehran, Iran and is widely considered to be the nation's leading institution for engineering and physical science disciplines.
The CH-53 Sea Stallion is the most common name for the Sikorsky S-65 family of heavy-lift transport helicopters.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The United States Army Special Forces, colloquially known as the Green Berets due to their distinctive service headgear, are a special operations force tasked with five primary missions: unconventional warfare (the original and most important mission of Special Forces), foreign internal defense, special reconnaissance, direct action, and counter-terrorism.
The Award for Valor is an obsolete award of the United States Department of State.
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States.
Stephen Kinzer (born August 4, 1951) is an American author, journalist and academic.
Stewart Air National Guard Base is the home of the 105th Airlift Wing (105 AW), an Air Mobility Command (AMC)-gained unit of the New York Air National Guard and "host" wing for the installation.
Stray Cats is an American rockabilly band formed in 1979 by guitarist and vocalist Brian Setzer, double bassist Lee Rocker, and drummer Slim Jim Phantom in the Long Island town of Massapequa, New York.
Student Day (روز دانشجو) is the anniversary of the murder of three students of University of Tehran on December 7, 1953 (16 Azar 1332 in the Iranian calendar) by Iranian police in the Pahlavi era.
Studies in Intelligence is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal on intelligence that is published by the Center for the Study of Intelligence, a group within the United States Central Intelligence Agency.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swissair AG/S.A. (German: Schweizerische Luftverkehr-AG; French: S.A. Suisse pour la Navigation Aérienne) was the national airline of Switzerland between its founding in 1931 and bankruptcy in 2002.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Tabas (طبس, also Romanized as Ţabas; formerly, Golshan or Gulshan) is a city in and capital of Tabas County, South Khorasan Province, Iran.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
Talonbooks is an independent publisher of Canadian literature based in Vancouver, British Columbia.
Edward James Martin Koppel (born February 8, 1940) is a British-born American broadcast journalist, best known as the anchor for Nightline, from the program's inception in 1980 until 2005.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
The Tehran American School (TAS) was an American international school in Tehran, Iran.
Terrain-following radar (TFR) is an aerospace technology that allows a very-low-flying aircraft to automatically maintain a relatively constant altitude above ground level.
Teymur Bakhtiar (تیمور بختیار; 1914 – 12 August 1970) was an Iranian general and the founder and head of SAVAK from 1956 to 1961, when he was dismissed by the Shah.
The Thayer Hotel is a 151-room "Historic Hotel of America" property located 50 miles north of New York City on the banks of the Hudson River at 674 Thayer Road in West Point, New York on the campus of the United States Military Academy.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The King of Oil: The Secret Lives of Marc Rich is a non-fiction book by Swiss investigative journalist Daniel Ammann.
The Morning Call is a daily newspaper based in Allentown, Pennsylvania, in the United States.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New York Times Magazine is a Sunday magazine supplement included with the Sunday edition of The New York Times.
The Partners: Inside America's Most Powerful Law Firms (1983) is a bestselling book by James B. Stewart.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
Thomas Dunne Books, an imprint of St. Martin's Press, a division of Macmillan Publishers, publishes popular trade fiction and nonfiction.
A ticker tape parade is a parade event held in a built-up urban setting, allowing large amounts of shredded paper (originally actual ticker tape, but now mostly confetti) to be thrown from nearby office buildings onto the parade route, creating a celebratory effect by the snowstorm-like flurry.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 457, adopted unanimously on 4 December 1979, addressed the ongoing Iran hostage crisis.
United Nations Security Council resolution 461, adopted on 31 December 1979, after recalling its Resolution 457 (1979), the Council noted the increasing tension between Iran and the United States and condemned Iran for continuing to hold American hostages at the U.S. embassy in Tehran.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
United States v Iran (also called the Case Concerning United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran) is a public international law case (issued in two decisions) brought to the International Court of Justice by the United States of America against Iran in response to the Iran hostage crisis, where United States diplomatic offices and personnel were seized by militant revolutionaries.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
The White House National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the executive office of the president of the United States.
The United States presidential election of 1980 was the 49th quadrennial presidential election.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
American support for Ba'athist Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War, in which it fought against post-revolutionary Iran, included several billion dollars' worth of economic aid, the sale of dual-use technology, non-U.S. origin weaponry, military intelligence, and special operations training.
The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران), also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest modern university.
USS Nimitz (CVN-68) is a supercarrier of the United States Navy, and the lead ship of her class.
The Vice President of Iran (معاون ریاست جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is defined by article 124 of the Constitution of Iran, as anyone appointed by the President of Iran to lead an organization related to Presidential affairs.
Victor L. Tomseth (born April 14, 1941, Eugene, Oregon) is a former American diplomat and U.S. Ambassador (1993-1996) to Laos.
The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 1961 is an international treaty that defines a framework for diplomatic relations between independent countries.
Walter Leland Cronkite Jr. (November 4, 1916 – July 17, 2009) was an American broadcast journalist who served as anchorman for the CBS Evening News for 19 years (1962–1981).
Warren Minor Christopher (October 27, 1925March 18, 2011) was an American lawyer, diplomat, and politician.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
William Healy Sullivan (October 12, 1922 – October 11, 2013) was an American Foreign Service career officer who served as Ambassador to Laos from 1964–1969, the Philippines from 1973–1977, and Iran from 1977–1979.
William Joseph "Bill" Casey (March 13, 1913 – May 6, 1987) was the Director of Central Intelligence from 1981 to 1987.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian political leader.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
Zbigniew Kazimierz "Zbig" Brzezinski (March 28, 1928 – May 26, 2017) was a Polish-American diplomat and political scientist.
The United States Army 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne), abbreviated as the 160th SOAR (A) and also known as Night Stalkers, or within JSOC as Task Force Brown, is a special operations force of the United States Army that provides helicopter aviation support for general purpose forces and special operations forces.
The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état (کودتای ۲۸ مرداد), was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax").
Three Iranian diplomats as well as a reporter of Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA) were abducted in Lebanon on 4 July 1982.
The 2011 attack on the British Embassy in Iran was a mob action on 29 November 2011 by a crowd of Iranian protesters who stormed the embassy and another British diplomatic compound in Tehran, Iran, ransacking offices and stealing documents.
The 2016 attack on the Saudi diplomatic missions in Iran was a mob action on 2 January 2016 by a crowd of protesters who stormed the embassy in Tehran and another Saudi diplomatic consulate in Mashhad, ransacking offices.
1979 Iranian hostage rescue, 1980 hostage crisis, 444 Days, 444 days, American hostage rescue, Gary E. Lee, Iran Hostage Crisis, Iran Hostage Rescue Attempt, Iran hostage incident, Iran-United States Hostage Crisis, Irani hostage crisis, Iranian Hostage Crisis, Iranian hostage crisis, Iranian hostage situation, Malcolm Kalp, Mohi Sobhani, Robert Blucker, Timeline of the Iran hostage crisis, Timeline of the Iran hostage crisis negotiations, تصرف سفارت آمریکا.