195 relations: Abbas Abdi, Abdolfattah Soltani, Abdolkarim Soroush, Abdollah Nouri, Abdollah Ramezanzadeh, Abdolvahed Mousavi Lari, Afshin Molavi, Aftab Yazd, Ahmad Azari Qomi, Ahmad Batebi, Ahmad Ghabel, Ahmad Masjed-Jamei, Ahmad Zeidabadi, Akbar Ganji, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Akbar Mohammadi (student), Ali Akbar Mohtashamipur, Ali Fallahian, Ali Khamenei, Ali Rabiei, Ali Shakeri, Ali Soufi, Ali-Akbar Mousavi Khoeini, Alireza Alavitabar, Alireza Noori, Alireza Rajaei, Asr-e Maa, Asrar, Assassination, Assembly of Experts, Assembly of Qom Seminary Scholars and Researchers, Assembly of the Forces of Imam's Line, Association of Combatant Clerics, Association of the Women of the Islamic Republic, Ata'ollah Mohajerani, Ayande-ye No, Bahar (newspaper), Basij, Behzad Nabavi, Big tent, Bijan Namdar Zangeneh, Cabinet of Iran, Chain murders of Iran, Chief Justice of Iran, Citizenship, City and Village Councils of Iran, Civil society, Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front, Democracy, Democracy Party (Iran), ..., Ebrahim Asgharzadeh, Ebrahim Nabavi, Ebrahim Yazdi, Ebtekar (newspaper), Economy of Iran, Elaheh Koulaei, Elham Fakhari, Elias Hazrati, Ervand Abrahamian, Eshaq Jahangiri, Etemad, Executives of Construction Party, Expediency Discernment Council, Ezzat Ebrahim-Nejad, Ezzatollah Sahabi, Freedom, Freedom House, Gharbzadegi, Gholamhossein Karbaschi, Graffiti, Guardian Council, Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, Hadi Khamenei, Ham-Mihan, Hambastegi, Hasan Yousefi Eshkevari, Hashem Aghajari, Hassan Rasouli, Hassan Rouhani, Hayat-e-No, Hope fraction, Human rights, Human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Hussein-Ali Montazeri, Imperialism, Intellectual movements in Iran, Iran, Iran student protests, July 1999, Iranian diaspora, Iranian legislative election, 2000, Iranian legislative election, 2004, Iranian presidential election, 1997, Iranian presidential election, 2001, Iranian presidential election, 2005, Iranian presidential election, 2009, Iranian presidential election, 2013, Iranian presidential election, 2017, Iranian Principlists, Iranian Revolution, Islam, Islamic Assembly of Ladies, Islamic Association of Engineers of Iran, Islamic Association of Iranian Medical Society, Islamic Association of Students, Islamic Association of Teachers of Iran, Islamic Association of University Instructors, Islamic City Council of Isfahan, Islamic City Council of Mashhad, Islamic City Council of Shiraz, Islamic City Council of Tabriz, Islamic City Council of Tehran, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic Iran Participation Front, Islamic Iran Solidarity Party, Islamic Labour Party, Islamic Principlism in Iran, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Jalal Al-Din Taheri, Jihad, Judicial system of Iran, Karaj, Khordad (newspaper), Liberalism and progressivism within Islam, List of Speakers of the Parliament of Iran, Mahmoud Mirlohi, Mahmoud Sadeghi, Majid Ansari, Masoumeh Ebtekar, Massoud Behnoud, Mehdi Karroubi, MinnPost, Minoo Khaleghi, Mir-Hossein Mousavi, Moderation and Development Party, Mohammad Ali Vakili, Mohammad Khatami, Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha, Mohammad Reza Aref, Mohammad-Ali Abtahi, Mohammad-Ali Najafi, Mohammad-Reza Khatami, Mohsen Aminzadeh, Mohsen Armin, Mohsen Hashemi Rafsanjani, Mohsen Mehralizadeh, Mohsen Mirdamadi, Mohsen Rohami, Mohsen Safaei Farahani, Mohsen Sazegara, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution of Iran Organization, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization, Morteza Alviri, Mosharekat, Mostafa Moeen, Mostafa Tajzadeh, Mujahideen, National Mandate Party, National Trust Party (Iran), NEDA Party, Newspaper, Nikahang Kowsar, Office for Strengthening Unity, Parliamentary leader, Parvaneh Mafi, Political factions in Iran, Popular Party of Reforms, Post-Islamism, Poverty, President of Iran, Qom, Rasht, Reformism, Reformists Front, Republicanism, Rule of law, Saeed Hajjarian, Seyed Hossein Mousavian, Shahid, Shahrbanoo Amani, Shargh, Soheila Jolodarzadeh, Supreme Leader of Iran, Tactical voting, Tehran, The Economist, Union of Islamic Iran People Party, United Nations, Vice President of Iran, Will of the Iranian Nation Party, Worker House, Yas-e No, Yazd, Zahedan, Zahra Rahnavard, Zan (newspaper). Expand index (145 more) » « Shrink index
Abbas Abdi (عباس عبدی; born 1 October 1956) is one of Iran's most influential reformists, journalist, self-taught sociologist and social activist.
Abdolfattah Soltani (عبدالفتاح سلطانی; born 2 November 1953) is an Iranian human rights lawyer and spokesman for the Defenders of Human Rights Center.
Abdolkarim Soroush (عبدالكريم سروش; born Hossein Haj Faraj Dabbagh (born 1945; حسين حاج فرج دباغ), is an Iranian Islamic thinker, reformer, Rumi scholar, public intellectual, and a former professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran and Imam Khomeini International University during Islamic regime since he only has a chemistry BS. He is arguably the most influential figure in the religious intellectual movement of Iran. Soroush is currently a visiting scholar at the University of Maryland in College Park, MD. He was also affiliated with other prestigious institutions, including Harvard, Princeton, Yale, Columbia, the Leiden-based International Institute as a visiting professor for the Study of Islam in the Modern World (ISIM) and the Wissenschaftskolleg in Berlin. He was named by TIME as one of the world’s 100 most influential people in 2005, and by Prospect magazine as one of the most influential intellectuals in the world in 2008. Soroush's ideas, founded on Relativism, prompted both supporters and critics to compare his role in reforming Islam to that of Martin Luther in reforming Christianity.
Abdollah Noori (عبدالله نوری) is an Iranian cleric and reformist politician.
Abdollah Ramezanzadeh (عبدالله رمضانزاده), is an Iranian academic, writer and politician.
Abdolvahed Mousavi Lari (born 1954) is an Iranian Shia cleric and reformist politician.
Afshin Molavi is an Iranian-American author and expert on global geo-political risk and geo-economics, particularly the Middle East and Asia.
Aftab-e Yazd (آفتاب یزد lit. "The Yazd Sun") is a Persian-language daily reformist newspaper published in Iran.
Grand Ayatollah Ahmad Azari-Qomi-Bigdeli (1925–1999) was an Iranian cleric.
Ahmad Batebi (احمد باطبی; born July 25, 1977) is an Iranian activist who was designated a prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International.
Ahmad Ghabel (also Ahmad Qabel) Born: 1954, Torbat-e Jam Died: October 22, 2012, Mashhad was a Hojjatoleslam Shia Muslim cleric, an Iranian theologian seminary lecturer, researcher, and author.
Ahmad Masjed-Jamei (احمد مسجدجامعی) is an Iranian reformist politician and academic who was chairman of City Council of Tehran from 3 September 2013 until 3 September 2014.
Ahmad Zeidabadi (born 21 July 1965 in Zeidabad, Sirjan) is an Iranian journalist, academic, writer and political analyst and the secretary general of Office for Strengthening Unity.
Akbar Ganji (اکبر گنجی., born 31 January 1960 in Tehran) is an Iranian journalist and writer.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī or Hashemi Bahramani; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.
Akbar Mohammadi (اکبر محمدی; May 30, 1969 – July 30, 2006) was an Iranian student at Tehran University involved in the 18th of Tir crisis, also known as the July 1999 Iran student protests, Iran's biggest pro-democracy demonstrations since the 1979 Islamic Revolution.
Ali Akbar Mohtashamipour or Mohtashami (سید علیاکبر محتشمیپور; born 1947) is a Shia cleric who was active in the 1979 Iranian Revolution and later became interior minister of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Ali Fallahian, (علی فلاحیان., born 23 October 1945) is an Iranian politician and cleric.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
Ali Rabei (علی ربیعی, born 6 December 1955), also known by his nickname Ebad, is an Iranian politician and sociologist and the country's Minister of Labour.
Ali Shakeri (علی شاکری) is an Iranian-American businessman and activist.
Ali Soufi (علی صوفی) is an Iranian reformist politician.
Ali Akbar Mousavi Khoeini (علی اکبر موسوی خویینی.) (also known as Seyed Ali Akbar Mosavi) is a notable Iranian human rights activist and politician.
Alireza Alavitabar is an Iranian political scientist and a leading reformist intellectual and writer.
'Ali Fletcher’ was born on November 6, 2007.
Alireza Rajaei (علیرضا رجائی) is an Iranian journalist.
Asr-e Maa (Our Times in Persian) is a Persian language biweekly publication published in Iran.
Asrar (meaning The Mysteries in English) is a Persian-language reformist daily newspaper published in Tehran, Iran.
Assassination is the killing of a prominent person, either for political or religious reasons or for payment.
The Assembly of Experts (Majles-e Khobregān-e Rahbari) —also translated as the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership or as the Council of Experts— is the deliberative body empowered to designate and dismiss the Supreme Leader of Iran.
The Assembly of Qom Seminary Scholars and Researchers (also Association of Researchers and Teachers of Qom).
Assembly of the Forces of the Imam's Line or Association of Followers of the Imam's Line (مجمع نیروهای خط امام) is an Iranian reformist political group.
The Association of Combatant Clerics (majma'-e rowhāniyūn-e mobārez) is an Iranian reformist clerical political party.
The Association of the Women of the Islamic Republic (جمعیت زنان جمهوری اسلامی, Jam’iat-e Zanan-e Jomhouri-e Islami) is an Iranian reformist political party.
Seyyed Ata'ollah Mohajerani (سید عطاءالله مهاجرانی, born 24 July 1954 in Arak, Iran) is an Iranian historian, journalist, author and reformist politician.
Ayande-No (Persian: آینده نو; The New Future in English) is an independent Persian-language newspaper published in Iran.
Bahar (in بهار lit. The Spring) is a reformist newspaper published in Persian.
The Basij (بسيج, lit. "The Mobilization"), Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (نیروی مقاومت بسیج, "Mobilisation Resistance Force"), full name Sāzmān-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed"), is one of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
Behzad Nabavi (بهزاد نبوی) is an Iranian reformist politician.
In politics, a big tent or catch-all party is a type of political party that seeks to attract voters from different points of view and ideologies.
Bijan Namdar Zangeneh (بيژن نامدار زنگنه; born June 1951) is an Iranian politician, who served as minister at different cabinets after the Islamic Revolution for 32 years.
The Cabinet of Iran (هیئتدولت ایران) is a formal body composed of government officials, ministers, chosen and led by a President.
The Chain Murders of Iran (Persian:قتلهای زنجیره ای), or Serial Murders, were a series of 1988–98 murders and disappearances of certain Iranian dissident intellectuals who had been critical of the Islamic Republic system in some way by Iranian government internal operatives.
The Chief Justice of Iran is the head of the Judicial system of Iran (Head of Judiciary) and is responsible for its administration and supervision.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
City and Village Councils are local councils which are elected by public vote in all cities and villages throughout Iran.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
The Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front or the Reformist Front Coordination Council (شورای هماهنگی جبهه اصلاحات) is the umbrella organization, coalition and council of main political groups within the Iranian reform movement.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democracy Party of Iran (حزب مردمسالاری) is an Iranian reformist political party that split from the Islamic Iran Solidarity Party in 2000.
Ebrahim Asgharzadeh (ابراهیم اصغرزاده) is an Iranian political activist and politician.
Seyyed Ebrahim Nabavi (سید ابراهیم نبوی; born 1958 in Astara, Iran) is a prolific Iranian satirist, writer, diarist, and researcher of Azerbaijani ancestry.
Ebrahim Yazdi (ابراهیم یزدی; 26 September 1931 – 27 August 2017) was an Iranian politician and diplomat who served as deputy prime minister and minister of foreign affairs in the interim government of Mehdi Bazargan, until his resignation in November 1979, in protest at the Iran hostage crisis.
Ebtekar (in Persian ابتکار lit. Innovation) is a Persian-language newspaper published in Tehran, Iran.
The economy of Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector.
Elaheh Koulaei (الهه کولایی; born 17 December 1956) is an Iranian political scientist, reformist intellectual.
Elham Fakhari (الهام فخاری) is an Iranian reformist politician who currently serves as a member of the City Council of Tehran.
Elias Hazrati (born 13 March 1961, Hashtrud) is an Iranian politician, journalist and former military officer.
Ervand Abrahamian (Երուանդ Աբրահամեան; یرواند آبراهامیان) is a historian of Middle Eastern and particularly Iranian history.
Eshaq Jahangiri Kouhshahi (اسحاق جهانگیری کوهشاهی, born 21 January 1958) is an Iranian politician and first vice president of Hassan Rouhani's government.
Etemad or Etemaad (in Persian اعتماد lit. Trust; correct transcription: ettemād, because in pronunciation the letter "t" is duplicated) is a reformist newspaper in Iran that is published in Tehran.
The Executives of Construction of Iran Party (حزب کارگزاران سازندگی ایران) is a reformist political party in Iran, founded by 16 members of the cabinet of the then President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani in 1996.
The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام Majma' Taškhīs Maṣlaḥat Nezām) is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988.
Ezzat Ebrahim-Nejad (also Ezzat Ebrahimnejad) was an Iranian student, poet and demonstrator who was shot and killed in the attack by security forces on Tehran University dormitory that preceded and provoked the July 1999 student riots in Iran.
Ezzatollah Sahabi (9 May 1930 – 31 May 2011) was an Iranian politician and journalist.
Freedom, generally, is having an ability to act or change without constraint.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Gharbzadegi (غربزدگی) is a pejorative Persian term variously translated as ‘Westernized’, ‘West-struck-ness’, ‘Westoxification’, ‘Westitis’, ‘Euromania’, or ‘Occidentosis’.
Gholamhossein Karbaschi (غلامحسین کرباسچی, born 23 August 1954) is an Iranian politician who was the Mayor of Tehran from 1990 until 1998.
Graffiti (plural of graffito: "a graffito", but "these graffiti") are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted, typically illicitly, on a wall or other surface, often within public view.
The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shūra-ye negahbān-e qānūn-e āsāsī) is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, also called the Governance of the Jurist (ولایت فقیه, Vilayat-e Faqih; ولاية الفقيه, Wilayat al-Faqih), is a post-Age-of-Occultation theory in Shia Islam which holds that Islam gives a faqīh (Islamic jurist) custodianship over people.
Hojatoleslam Hadi Khamenei (born 1947) is an Iranian reformist politician, mojtahed and linguist.
Ham-Mihan (هم میهن in Persian; Compatriot in English) was a popular reformist newspaper in Iran (Persia).
Hambastegi (in Persian همبستگی lit. Correlation) is an Iranian daily newspaper, published in Tehran as the official mouthpiece for Islamic Iran Solidarity Party.
Hasan Yousefi Eshkevari (حسن یوسفی اشکوری, born 1950) is an Iranian cleric, researcher, journalist, reformist and former political prisoner.
Hashem Aghajari (هاشم آقاجری) also Seyyed Hashem Aghajari (born 1957) is an Iranian historian, university professor and a critic of the Islamic Republic's government who was sentenced to death in 2002 for apostasy for a speech he gave on Islam urging Iranians to "not blindly follow" Islamic clerics.
Seyyed Hassan Rasouli (سید حسن رسولی) is an Iranian reformist politician who is currently a member of the City Council of Tehran.
Hassan Rouhani (حسن روحانی,, Standard Persian:; born Hassan Fereydoun (حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013.
Hayat-e-No (حیات نو, hayat-e nou, New Life in English) was a Persian reformist newspaper published in Iran.
Hope fraction (فراکسیون امید) is a parliamentary group in the Iranian Parliament, established after 2016 elections by reformists and pro-Rouhani administration politicians.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
The state of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran has been criticized both by Iranians and international human right activists, writers, and NGOs.
Hussein-Ali Montazeri (24 September 1922 – 19 December 2009; حسینعلی منتظری&lrm) was an Iranian Shia Islamic theologian, Islamic democracy advocate, writer and human rights activist.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
Intellectual movements in Iran involve the Iranian experience of modernity and its associated art, science, literature, poetry, and political structures that have been changing since the 19th century.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian Student Protests of July 1999 (Also known as 18th of Tir and Kuye Daneshgah Disaster (فاجعه کوی دانشگاه) in Iran) (7–13 July) BBC News, 11 July 2000 were, before the 2009 Iranian election protests, the most widespread and violent public protests to occur in Iran since the early years of the Iranian Revolution.
Iranians abroad or Iranian diaspora are Iranian people living outside Iran and their children born abroad.
Parliamentary elections were held in Iran on 18 February 2000, with a second round on 5 May.
The Iranian parliamentary elections of February 20 and May 7, 2004 were a victory for Islamic conservatives over the reformist parties.
Iranian presidential election of 1997 took place on 23 May 1997, which resulted in an unpredicted win for the reformist candidate Mohammad Khatami.
Iranian presidential election of 2001 took place on 8 June 2001, and resulted in Mohammad Khatami being elected as the President of Iran for his second term.
Iran's ninth presidential election took place in two rounds, the first on 17 June 2005, the run-off on 24 June.
Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009, with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers.
Presidential elections were held in Iran on 14 June 2013.
Presidential elections were held in Iran on 19 May 2017, the twelfth such election in Iran.
The Principlists (Osul-Garâyân, also interchangeably known as the Iranian Conservatives Open access material licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic Assembly of Ladies (مجمع اسلامی بانوان) is an Iranian reformist all-female political party.
Islamic Association of Engineers of Iran (anǰoman-e eslāmī-ye mohandisān-e Īrān) is an Iranian political party of engineers affiliated with the Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front.
Islamic Association of Iranian Medical Society (انجمن اسلامی جامعه پزشکی ایران) is an Iranian reformist political party affiliated with the Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front.
Anjoman-e Eslami (Islamic Association, also Anjoman-e Eslami-ye Daneshjouyan Islamic Association of Students) is an Islamic student association in Iran that has backed Iranian reformers such as former President Mohammad Khatami and sponsored lectures by Abdol Karim Soroush and other prominent reformists.
The Islamic Association of Teachers of Iran (انجمن اسلامی معلمان ایران) is an Iranian reformist teacher's political organization/labor union.
Islamic Association of University Instructors (انجمن اسلامی مدرسین دانشگاهها) is an Iranian political party of academics affiliated with the Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front.
The Islamic City Council of Isfahan (شورای اسلامی شهر اصفهان) is the directly elected council that presides over the city of Isfahan and elects the Mayor of Isfahan in a mayor–council government system.
The Islamic City Council of Holy Mashhad (شورای اسلامی شهر مشهد مقدس) is the directly elected council that presides over the city of Mashhad and elects the mayor in a mayor–council government system.
The Islamic City Council of Shiraz (شورای اسلامی شهر شیراز) is the directly elected council that presides over the city of Shiraz and elects the mayor in a mayor–council government system.
The Islamic City Council of Tabriz (شورای اسلامی شهر تبریز) is the elected council that presides over the city of Tabriz, elects the Mayor of Tabriz, and budgets of the Municipality of Tabriz.
The Islamic City Council of Tehran (شورای اسلامی شهر تهران) is the directly elected council that presides over the city of Tehran, elects the Mayor of Tehran in a mayor–council government system, and budgets of the Municipality of Tehran.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
The Islamic Iran Participation Front (جبهه مشارکت ایران اسلامی; Jebheye Mosharekate Iran-e Eslaami) is a reformist political party in Iran.
Islamic Iran Solidarity Party (حزب همبستگی ایران اسلامی; Hezb-e Hambastegi-e Iran-e Eslami) is an Iranian reformist political party founded in 1998, by 10 members of Parliament of Iran.
The Islamic Labor Party (حزب اسلامی کار) is a reformist party in Iran and splinter group to the trade union Worker House.
The history of Islamic Principlism in Iran covers the history of Islamic revivalism and the rise of political Islam in modern Iran.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
Jalal Al-Din Taheri Esfahani (sometimes spelled Jalaluddin Taheri or Jalaleddin Taheri, 1 January 1926 – 2 June 2013) was an Iranian scholar, theologian and Islamic philosopher.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
A nationwide judicial system in Iran was first implemented and established by Abdolhossein Teymourtash under Reza Shah, with further changes during the second Pahlavi era.
Karaj (کرج) is the capital of Alborz Province, Iran, and effectively a suburb of Tehran.
Khordad (in Persian خرداد) was a Persian language newspaper published in Iran.
Liberalism and progressivism within Islam involve professed Muslims who have produced a considerable body of liberal thought on the re-interpretation and reform of Islamic understanding and practice.
Following is a list of Speakers of the Parliament of Iran, from the Persian Constitutional Revolution to present.
Seyyed Mahmoud Mirlohi (سید محمود میرلوحی) is an Iranian reformist politician who is currently member-elect of the City Council of Tehran.
Mahmoud Sadeghi (محمود صادقی) is an Iranian lawyer, jurist, academic and reformist politician who is currently a member of the Parliament of Iran representing Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr electoral district.
Majid Ansari (مجید انصاری; born in 1950 in Zarand, Kerman Province), is an Iranian politician and cleric.
Masoumeh Ebtekar (معصومه ابتکار; born Masoumeh, Niloufar Ebtekar; 21 September 1960) is current Vice President of Iran for Women and Family Affairs, being appointed on 9 August 2017.
Massoud Behnoud, (مسعود بهنود, born in Tehran) is a prominent Iranian journalist, historian, and writer.
Mehdi Karroubi (Mehdī Karrūbĩ, born 26 September 1937) is an Iranian Shia cleric and reformist politician leading the National Trust Party.
MinnPost is a nonprofit online newspaper in Minneapolis, founded in 2007, with a focus on Minnesota news.
Minoo Khaleghi (مینو خالقی) is an Iranian jurist and reformist activist.
Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh (Mīr-Hoseyn Mūsavī Khāmené,; born 2 March 1942) is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989.
Moderation and Development Party (Hezb-e E'tedāl va Towse'eh) is a political party in Iran.
Mohammad Ali Vakili (محمدعلی وکیلی) is an Iranian journalist and reformist politician who is currently a member of the Parliament of Iran representing Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr electoral district.
Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (سید محمد خاتمی,; born 14 October 1943) is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician.
Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha (born 1942) is an Iranian cleric and secretary general of the reformist Association of Combatant Clerics.
Mohammad Reza Aref (محمدرضا عارف, born 19 December 1951) is an Iranian engineer, academic and reformist politician who is currently parliamentary leader of reformists' Hope fraction in the Iranian Parliament, representing Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr.
Mohammad-Ali Abtahi (محمدعلی ابطحی; born January 27, 1958) is an Iranian theologian, scholar, pro-democracy activist and chairman of the Institute for Interreligious Dialogue.
Mohammad-Ali Najafi (محمدعلی نجفی; born 13 January 1952) is an Iranian mathematician and reformist politician who was the Mayor of Tehran, serving in the post for eight months, until April 2018.
Mohammad-Reza Khatami (محمدرضا خاتمی, born 1959) is an Iranian politician and nephrologist.
Mohsen Aminzadeh (محسن امینزاده, born 1957 in Mashhad, Iran) is an Iranian reformist politician and former diplomat.
Mohsen Armin (محسن آرمین) is an Iranian politician.
Mohsen Hashemi Rafsanjani (محسن هاشمی رفسنجانی, born 24 October 1961 in Qom) is an Iranian politician, academic and engineer who currently serves as member and chairman of City Council of Tehran.
Mohsen Mehralizadeh (محسن مهرعلیزاده; born September 30, 1956) is an Iranian reformist politician and current Governor of Isfahan Province.
Mohsen Mirdamadi (محسن میردامادی, born 1955 in Najafabad, Isfahan) is an Iranian politician.
Mohsen Rohami (محسن رهامی, also spelt Rahami) is an Iranian lawyer, Shia cleric and reformist politician.
Mohsen Safaei Farahani (محسن صفایی فراهانی.) is an Iranian politician.
Mohsen Sazegara (محسن سازگارا) is an Iranian journalist and pro-democracy political activist.
Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution of Iran Organization (MIRO; Sāzmān-e Mojāhedin-e Enqelāb-e Eslāmi-e Irān) is a reformist political organization in Iran.
Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization (lit) was an umbrella political organization in Iran, founded in 1979 by unification of seven underground Islamist revolutionary paramilitary and civil organizations which previously fought against the Pahlavi monarchy.
Morteza Alviri (مرتضی الویری, born 23 November 1948) is an Iranian politician who served as Mayor of Tehran from 1999 to 2001.
Mosharekat (مشاركت; meaning Participation) was a former pro-reform newspaper of the Islamic Iran Participation Front which was one of 13 reformist newspapers banned in Iran in April, 2000.
Mostafa Moeen (مصطفی معین; born 1 April 1951 in Najafabad, Isfahan), is an Iranian politician, professor of Pediatrics, and a human right activist which is currently founder and president of Center for Human Rights and Democracy in Iran.
Seyyed Mostafa Tajzadeh (سید مصطفی تاجزاده) is an Iranian reformist politician and a senior member of Islamic Iran Participation Front, as well as Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution of Iran Organization.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
The National Mandate Party (Partai Amanat Nasional), frequently abbreviated to PAN, is an Islam-basedAl-Hamdi, Ridho.
National Trust Party (Ḥezb-e Eʿtemād-e Mellī, also translated as National Confidence Party) is an Iranian political party based on reformist and populist message.
Nedaye Iranian Party (lit) —NEDA is the official acronym standing for 'Second Generation of Reforms' (Nasl-e Dovom-e Eslahat)— is a reformist political party in Iran with social democratic leanings that held its first congress in 2015.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.
Nikahang Kowsar (نیکآهنگ کوثر, born 1969), also known as Nik Kowsar is an Iranian-Canadian cartoonist, journalist, and blogger, currently living in Washington, D.C., US.
The Office for Strengthening Unity (also Office for Consolidating Unity, Daftar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat), is an Iranian student organization created in 1979, and has been described as "the country's most well-known student organization," and "Iran's leading prodemocracy student group".
A parliamentary leader is a political title or a descriptive term used in various countries to the person leading a caucus (or parliamentary group) in a legislative body, whether it be a national or sub-national legislature.
Parvaneh Mafi (پروانه مافی) is an Iranian reformist politician and a member of the Parliament of Iran representing Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr electoral district.
Politics in Iran are dictated by factionalism.
The Popular Party of Reforms (Ḥezb-e Mardomī-e Eṣlāḥāṭ) is a political party in Iran.
Post-Islamism is a neologism in political science, the definition and applicability of which has led to an intellectual debate.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
The President of Iran (Persian: رییسجمهور ایران Rayis Jomhur-e Irān) is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
Rasht (رشت; Rəsht; also Romanized as Resht and Rast, and often spelt Recht in French and older German manuscripts) is the capital city of Gilan Province, Iran.
Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.
Reformists Front (جبهه اصلاحطلبان), formerly called Democracy Front (جبهه مردمسالاری) and Front for Consolidation of Democracy (جبهه تحکیم دموکراسی), is an Iranian reformist political alliance of "little-known parties" formerly pivoted by Democracy Party.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
Saeed Hajjarian (سعید حجاریان, born 1954) is an Iranian reformist political strategist, journalist, pro-democracy activist and former intelligence officer.
Seyed Hossein Mousavian (born 1957 in Kashan) is an Iranian policymaker and scholar who served on Iran’s nuclear diplomacy team in negotiations with the EU and International Atomic Energy Agency.
Shahid and Shaheed (شهيد, plural: شُهَدَاء; female) originates from the Quranic Arabic word meaning "witness" and is also used to denote a martyr.
Shahrbanoo Amani Anganeh (شهربانو امانی انگنه; born 1960) was a member of the Islamic Consultative Assembly for its fifth and sixth terms from electoral district of Urmia from Iranian reform movement.
Shargh ("شرق" lit. "East") is the most popular reformist newspaper in Iran.
Soheila Jolodarzadeh (سهیلا جلودارزاده) is an Iranian reformist politician and a member of the Parliament of Iran representing Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr electoral district.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
In voting methods, tactical voting (or strategic voting or sophisticated voting or insincere voting) occurs, in elections with more than two candidates, when a voter supports another candidate more strongly than their sincere preference in order to prevent an undesirable outcome.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
Union of Islamic Iran People Party (حزب اتحاد ملت ایران اسلامی) is an Iranian reformist political party founded in 2015.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Vice President of Iran (معاون ریاست جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is defined by article 124 of the Constitution of Iran, as anyone appointed by the President of Iran to lead an organization related to Presidential affairs.
Will of the Iranian Nation Party (حزب اراده ملت ایران; abbreviated HAMA, حاما) is an Iranian reformist political party and officially founded in 2001, formed by students of University of Tehran's School of Law and Political Science in early 1990s.
The Workers' House (خانه کارگر) is the Iranian de facto national trade union center affiliated with the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) and a registered reformist worker's political organization/labour union.
Yas-e No (یاس نو in Persian; New Yasmine in English) was a reformist newspaper in Iran, unofficially an outlet of the Islamic Iran Participation Front.
Yazd (یزد), formerly also known as Yezd, is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran.
Zahedan (زاهدان, Balochi: زاهدان) also Romanized as Zāhedān, Zahidan, and Zaidān; also known as Zāhedān-e Yek; formerly known as Dowzdāb (دوزداب), Duzdāb (دزداب), and Duzdāp (دزداپ) and renamed Zahedan by Reza Shah Pahlavi in the late 1920s is a city and capital of Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran.
Zahra Rahnavard (زهرا رهنورد; born Zohreh Kazemi; 19 August 1945) is an Iranian academic, artist and politician.
Zan (زن, lit. "Woman") was an Iranian weekly newspaper focused on women's rights, published from 1998 until it was banned in 1999.
2nd khordad movement, 2nd of Khordad, 2nd of Khordad Movement, Iran reform movement, Iran reformists, Iranian Reform Movement, Iranian reform movement, Iranian reformism, Iranian reformist, Iranian reformists, Left wing of Islamic Republic of Iran, Reform Movement (Iran), Reform Movement in Iran.