284 relations: Abadan, Iran, Abbas Gharabaghi, Abbas Milani, Abdul-Karim Haeri Yazdi, Abolhassan Banisadr, Adam Roberts (scholar), Afshin Molavi, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Algiers Accords, Ali Khamenei, Ali Reza Nobari, Ali Shariati, All the Shah's Men, Allen Dulles, Americanization (foreign culture and media), Amir-Abbas Hoveyda, Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, Apartheid, Arab nationalism, Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Ashura, Assembly of Experts for Constitution, Autocracy, Ayatollah, Background and causes of the Iranian Revolution, Basij, Bazaari, BBC, BBC Radio 4, BBC World Service, Behesht-e Zahra, Bernard Lewis, Bill Clinton, Black Friday (1978), Boeing 747, Bonyad, Capitulation (treaty), Central Intelligence Agency, Chador, Cinema Rex fire, Civil resistance, Colonialism, Combatant Clergy Association, Confederation of Iranian Students, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Constitutionalism, Constitutionalization attempts in Iran, Council of the Islamic Revolution, Culture of the United States, Curfew, ..., Cyrus the Great, Cyrus Vance, Dariush Forouhar, Deadly force, Demonstration (protest), Doshan Tappeh Air Base, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Economy of Iran, Egalitarianism, Eid al-Fitr, Emadeddin Baghi, Ervand Abrahamian, Ettela'at, Fada'iyan-e Islam, Fajr decade, Fifth column, Financial crisis, Fiqh, Frankfurter Neue Presse, Freedom Movement of Iran, Geary–Khamis dollar, General strike, Gharbzadegi, Gholam Ali Oveissi, Gholam Reza Azhari, Goharshad Mosque rebellion, Gonbad-e Kavus, Good governance, Grand Mosque seizure, Guadeloupe Conference, Guardian Council, Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, Guerrilla warfare, Harry S. Truman, Hezbollah, Hezbollah (Iran), Higher education in Iran, Hijab, History of Iran, History of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Husayn ibn Ali, I.B. Tauris, Ilkhanate, Imperial Guard (Iran), Imperialism, Interim Government of Iran, International rankings of Iran, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Iran, Iran and Red and Black Colonization, Iran hostage crisis, Iran–Iraq War, Iranian constitutional referendum, December 1979, Iranian Constitutional Revolution, Iranian Cultural Revolution, Iranian Islamic Republic Day, Iranian Islamic Republic referendum, March 1979, Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas, Iraq, Isfahan, Islam and gender segregation, Islam and Revolution, Islamic Association of Students, Islamic Coalition Party, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist, Islamic Principlism in Iran, Islamic republic, Islamic Republic of Iran Army, Islamic Republican Party, Islamic revival, Islamic Revolution Committees, Islamic Revolutionary Court, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq, Islamism, Island of Stability (speech), Israel, Jafar Sharif-Emami, Jalal Al-Din Taheri, Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, JAMA (Iranian Party), Jamshid Amouzegar, Jimmy Carter, John Foster Dulles, Kafir, Karim Sanjabi, Kaveh Golestan, Khuzestan Province, Kurdish rebellion of 1983, Kuwait, Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Leftist guerrilla groups of Iran, Life (magazine), List of countries by age at first marriage, List of modern conflicts in the Middle East, List of monarchs of Persia, List of peasant revolts, Literacy, Mahmoud Taleghani, Mahnaz Afkhami, Malcolm Yapp, Marja', Martial law, Martyr, Marzieh Hadidchi, Mashhad, Mehdi Bazargan, Mehdi Rahimi, Mehrabad International Airport, Michel Foucault, Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, Mohammad Beheshti, Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari, Mohammad Mofatteh, Mohammad Mosaddegh, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mohammad-Javad Bahonar, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization, Morteza Motahhari, Mostafa Khomeini, Movement of Militant Muslims, Muharram, Munafiqun, Muslim People's Republic Party, Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, Nasser Moghadam, Nation Party of Iran, National Democratic Front (Iran), National Front (Iran), NATO, Neauphle-le-Château, Nematollah Nassiri, Neocolonialism, Neutral country, Niqāb, Nonviolent revolution, Open letter, Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas, Organization of Iranian People's Fedaian (Majority), Organizations of the Iranian Revolution, Pahlavi dynasty, Patrick Clawson, People's Mujahedin of Iran, Persecution of Bahá'ís, Persepolis, Persian Constitution of 1906, Peykar, Political corruption, Political freedom, Populism, Presidency of Jimmy Carter, Press TV, Provisional Irish Republican Army, Qajar dynasty, Qom, Qom Seminary, Ramadan, Refah School, Regency Council (Iran), Resurgence Party, Reza Shah, Riot control, Robert E. Huyser, Ronald Reagan, Rubber bullet, Ruhollah Khomeini, Ruhollah Khomeini's return to Iran, Ryszard Kapuściński, Saddam Hussein, Sadegh Khalkhali, Salman Rushdie, Sanctions against Iran, Sandinista National Liberation Front, Saudi Arabia, SAVAK, Secret Intelligence Service, Secularism, Self-sustainability, September 11 attacks, Shah, Shah of Shahs (book), Shahrbani, Shapour Bakhtiar, Sharia, Shia Islam, Social justice, State-owned enterprise, Strikebreaker, Sunni Islam, Supreme leader, Supreme Leader of Iran, Tabriz, Tasu'a, Tear gas, Tehran, The Guardian, Theocracy, Third World, Time (magazine), Timothy Garton Ash, Tobacco Protest, Torture, Transparency International, Trickle-down economics, Tudeh Party of Iran, Ulama, UNESCO, Union of Communist Militants, United States, University of Tehran, Vatican City, Warning shot, Western world, Westernization, White Revolution, William Shawcross, Winston Churchill, Women's Organization of Iran, World Bank, Yazid I, Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1953 Iranian coup d'état, 1963 demonstrations in Iran, 1973 oil crisis, 1979 energy crisis, 1979 Khuzestan insurgency, 1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran, 1982 Hama massacre, 1983 United States embassy bombing, 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire. 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Abadan (آبادان Ābādān) is a city and capital of Abadan County, Khuzestan Province which is located in southwest of Iran.
Abbas Gharabaghi (1 November 1918 – 14 October 2000) was the last chief of staff of the Iranian armed forces as well as deputy commander-in-chief of the Iranian Imperial Army during the rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.
Abbas Malekzadeh Milani (عباس ملکزاده میلانی; born 1949) is an Iranian-American historian and author.
Grand Ayatollah Hajj Sheikh Abdolkarim Haeri Yazdi (عبدالکریم حائری یزدی; عبد الكريم الحائري اليزدي) (1859 — 30 January 1937) was a Twelver Shia Muslim cleric and marja.
Seyyed Abolhassan Banisadr (Seyyed Abolhasan Banisadr; born 22 March 1933) is an Iranian politician and economist.
Sir Adam Roberts (born 29 August 1940) is Emeritus Professor of International Relations at Oxford University, a senior research fellow in Oxford University's Department of Politics and International Relations, and an emeritus fellow of Balliol College, Oxford.
Afshin Molavi is an Iranian-American author and expert on global geo-political risk and geo-economics, particularly the Middle East and Asia.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī or Hashemi Bahramani; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.
The Algeria Declaration were a set of agreements between the United States and Iran to resolve the Iran hostage crisis, brokered by the Algerian government and signed in Algiers on January 19, 1981.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
Ali Reza Nobari is the former Governor of the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran).
Ali Shariati Mazinani (علی شریعتی مزینانی, 23 November 1933 – 18 June 1977) was an Iranian revolutionary and sociologist who focused on the sociology of religion.
An American Coup & the Roots of Middle East Terror Half a century ago, the United States overthrew a Middle Eastern government for the first time.
Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), and its longest-serving director to date.
In American media, the term Americanization is used to describe the censoring and editing of a foreign TV show or movie that is bought by a U.S. station.
Amir-Abbas Hoveyda (Amīr `Abbās Hoveyda; 18 February 1919 – 7 April 1979) was an Iranian economist and politician who served as Prime Minister of Iran from 27 January 1965 to 7 August 1977.
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, also known as Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the invasion of the Imperial State of Iran during the Second World War by Soviet, British and other Commonwealth armed forces.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Ashura (عاشوراء, colloquially:; عاشورا; عاشورا; Azerbaijani and Turkish: Aşura Günü or Day of Remembrance), and in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago 'Hussay' or Hosay, is the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar.
Assembly of Experts for Constitution (مجلس خبرگان قانون اساسی), also translated the Assembly for the Final Review of the Constitution (AFRC), was a constituent assembly in Iran, elected in the summer of 1979 to write a new constitution for the Islamic Republic Government.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
Ayatullah (or; āyatullāh from llāh "Sign of God") is a high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics.
The Iranian Revolution was a populist, nationalist and Shi'a Islamic revolution that replaced a secular dictatorial monarchy with a theocracy based on "Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists" (or velayat-e faqi.). Its causes – why the last Shah of Iran (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi) was overthrown and why he was replaced by an Islamic Republic – are the subject of historical debate.
The Basij (بسيج, lit. "The Mobilization"), Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (نیروی مقاومت بسیج, "Mobilisation Resistance Force"), full name Sāzmān-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed"), is one of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
Bazaari (Persian: بازاری) is the name given to the merchant class and workers of bazaars, the traditional marketplaces of Iran.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news, speech and discussions in over 30 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.
Behesht-e Zahra (بهشت زهرا,The Paradise of Zahra, from Fatima az-Zahra), is the largest cemetery in Iran.
Bernard Lewis, FBA (31 May 1916 – 19 May 2018) was a British American historian specializing in oriental studies.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Black Friday (Persian: جمعه سیاه Jom'e-ye Siyāh) is the name given to 8 September 1978 (17 Shahrivar 1357 Iranian calendar) because of the shootings in Jaleh Square (Persian: میدان ژاله Meydān-e Jāleh) in Tehran, Iran.
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
Bonyads (بنیاد "Foundation") are charitable trusts in Iran that play a major role in Iran's non-petroleum economy, controlling an estimated 20% of Iran's GDP, and channeling revenues to groups supporting the Islamic Republic.
A capitulation (from Lat. caput) is a treaty or unilateral contract by which a sovereign state relinquishes jurisdiction within its borders over the subjects of a foreign state.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
A chādor (چادر), also variously spelled in English as chadah, chad(d)ar, chader, chud(d)ah, chadur and naturalized as is an outer garment or open cloak worn by some women in Iran, Iraq and some other countries under the Persianate cultural sphere as well as predominantly Shia areas i.e. Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Pakistan, India, Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, Tajikistan and Turkey, in public spaces or outdoors.
Cinema Rex Fire (آتش سوزی سینما رکس) took place on 19 August 1978.
Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The Combatant Clergy Association (Jāme'e-ye Rowhāniyyat-e Mobārez) is a politically active group in Iran, but not a political party in the traditional sense.
Confederation of Iranian Students — National Union (کنفدراسیون جهانی محصلین و دانشجویان ایرانی – اتحادیه ملی; Konfederāsīūn-e jahānī-e moḥaṣṣelīn wa dānešjūyān-e īrānī etteḥādīya-ye mellī, simply known as the confederation) was an international non-governmental organization purposed as the students' union of Iranians studying abroad active during the 1960s and 1970s.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979, and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1906.
Constitutionalism is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law".
The Persian Constitutional Revolution was a short-lived push for democratic rule in the form of a constitutional monarchy within a highly elitist yet decentralized society under the Qajars.
The Council of the Islamic Revolution (Šūrā-ye enqelāb-e eslāmī) was a group formed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini to manage the Iranian Revolution on 10 January 1979, shortly before he returned to Iran.
The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western culture (European) origin and form, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African, Native American, Asian, Polynesian, and Latin American people and their cultures.
A curfew is an order specifying a time during which certain regulations apply.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Cyrus Roberts Vance (March 27, 1917January 12, 2002) was an American lawyer and United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1980.
Dariush Forouhar (داریوش فروهر; 1928 – 22 November 1998) was an Iranian pan-Iranist politician and leader of Nation Party of Iran.
Deadly force, also known as lethal force, is use of force that is likely to cause serious bodily injury or death to another person.
A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.
Doshan Tappeh Airport is located in the Piroozi street (Formerly Farahabad) southeast of Tehran, the capital of Iran.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
The economy of Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
Emadeddin Baghi (born 25 April 1962) is an Iranian human rights activist, prisoners' rights advocate, investigative journalist, theologian and writer.
Ervand Abrahamian (Երուանդ Աբրահամեան; یرواند آبراهامیان) is a historian of Middle Eastern and particularly Iranian history.
Ettela'at (اطلاعات lit. Information) is a Persian language daily newspaper published in Iran.
Fadā'iyān-e Islam (فدائیان اسلام, also spelled as Fadayan-e Islam or in English "Fedayeen of Islam" or "Devotees of Islam" or literally "Self-Sacrificers of Islam") is a Shiʿite fundamentalist group in Iran with a strong activist political orientation, founded in 1946, and a registered political party since 1989.
Fajr decade (lit) is a ten-day celebration of Ruhollah Khomeini's return to Iran in 1979.
A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group from within, usually in favour of an enemy group or nation.
A financial crisis is any of a broad variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
The Frankfurter Neue Presse (FNP) is a German daily newspaper, based in Frankfurt am Main and focused on local and regional topics.
The Freedom Movement of Iran (FMI) or Liberation Movement of Iran (LMI; Nahżat-e āzādi-e Irān) is an Iranian pro-democracy political organization which was founded in 1961, by members describing themselves as "Muslims, Iranians, Constitutionalists and Mossadeghists".
The Geary–Khamis dollar, more commonly known as the international dollar (Int'l. dollar or Intl. dollar, abbreviation: Int'l$., Intl$. or Int$), is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power parity that the U.S. dollar had in the United States at a given point in time.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
Gharbzadegi (غربزدگی) is a pejorative Persian term variously translated as ‘Westernized’, ‘West-struck-ness’, ‘Westoxification’, ‘Westitis’, ‘Euromania’, or ‘Occidentosis’.
Gholam-Ali Oveissi was an Iranian four-star general and the Chief Commander of the Imperial Iranian Armed Forces under Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
Gholam Reza Azhari (غلامرضا ازهاری.; 18 February 1912 – 5 November 2001) was a military leader and Prime Minister of Iran.
The Goharshad Mosque rebellion (Persian: شورش مسجد گوهرشاد) took place in 1935, when a backlash against the modernizing and westernizing, secularist policies of Reza Shah Pahlavi erupted in the Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad, Iran.
Gonbad-e Kāvus (also referred to as Gonbad-e Kāvus, Gonbad-i Kāvoos, Gonbadekavoos, Gonbad-e Kāvūs, Gonbad Qābūs, Gonbad Qavoos, Gunbad-i-Kāwās, Gunbad-i-Kāwūs, and Gunbad-i-Kāvūs) (گنبد کاووس, Kümmet Gowuz) is the Iranian city known historically as Gorgan/Hyrcania.
Good governance is an indeterminate term used in the international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources.
The Grand Mosque seizure occurred during November and December 1979 when extremist insurgents calling for the overthrow of the House of Saud took over Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
The Guadeloupe Conference (کنفرانس گوآدلوپ) was a meeting held by four Western powers: the United States, the United Kingdom, France and West Germany in Guadeloupe Island from 4 to 7 January 1979.
The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shūra-ye negahbān-e qānūn-e āsāsī) is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, also called the Governance of the Jurist (ولایت فقیه, Vilayat-e Faqih; ولاية الفقيه, Wilayat al-Faqih), is a post-Age-of-Occultation theory in Shia Islam which holds that Islam gives a faqīh (Islamic jurist) custodianship over people.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.
Hezbollah (lit) is an Iranian movement formed at the time of the Iranian Revolution to assist the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and his forces in consolidating power.
Iran has a large network of private, public, and state affiliated universities offering degrees in higher education.
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
One of the most dramatic changes in government in Iran's history was seen with the 1979 Iranian Revolution where Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown and replaced by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
The state of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran has been criticized both by Iranians and international human right activists, writers, and NGOs.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
The Iranian Imperial Immortal Guard (gārd-e jāvidān-e šāhanšāhi-e irān) was both the personal guard force of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran, and an elite combat branch of the Imperial Iranian Army.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
The Interim Government of Iran (Dowlat-e Movaghat-e Irân) was the first government established in Iran after the Iranian Revolution, and the first nominal republic established in Iran after 2,500 years of Persian monarchy.
The following are international rankings for Iran.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
"Iran and Red and Black Colonization" (ایران و استعمار سرخ و سیاه) was the title of an article written by Ahmad Rashidi Motlagh published in Ettela'at newspaper on 7 January 1978.
The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States of America.
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
A constitutional referendum was held in Iran on 2 and 3 December 1979.
The Persian Constitutional Revolution (مشروطیت Mashrūtiyyat, or انقلاب مشروطه Enghelāb-e Mashrūteh), also known as the Constitutional Revolution of Iran, took place between 1905 and 1911.
The Cultural Revolution (1980–1983) (انقلاب فرهنگی.) was a period following the Iranian Revolution, when the academia of Iran was purged of Western and non-Islamic influences (even traditionalist unpolitical Islamic doctrines) to bring it in line with the revolutionary and Political Islam.
Iranian Islamic Republic Day (روز جمهوری اسلامی) is Farvardin 12 that known as Ruz e Jomhuri ye Eslāmi.
A referendum on creating an Islamic Republic was held in Iran on 30 and 31 March 1979.
The Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (IFPG; čerikhā-ye Fadāʾi-e ḵalq-e Irān), also known as Dehghani faction (جریان دهقانی) after its leader Ashraf Dehghani, is an Iranian communist organization that split from the Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (OIFPG) in 1979, dropping the word 'organization' from its name.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
Gender segregation in Islamic law, custom and traditions refers to the practices and requirements in Islamic countries and communities for the separation of men and boys from women and girls in social and other settings.
Islam and Revolution is a two volume set of writings by Ayatollah/Imam Ruhollah Khomeini, which contain a collection of his speeches and writings.
Anjoman-e Eslami (Islamic Association, also Anjoman-e Eslami-ye Daneshjouyan Islamic Association of Students) is an Islamic student association in Iran that has backed Iranian reformers such as former President Mohammad Khatami and sponsored lectures by Abdol Karim Soroush and other prominent reformists.
The Islamic Coalition Party (ICP; Ḥezb-e moʾtalefa-ye eslāmi) is a conservative political party in Iran that favors economic liberalism.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.
Velayat-e faqih (ولایت فقیه, velāyat-e faqīh), also known as Islamic Government (حکومت اسلامی, Hokumat-i Eslami), is a book by the Iranian Muslim cleric, faqīh, and revolutionary Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, first published in 1970, and probably the most influential document written in modern times in support of theocratic rule.
The history of Islamic Principlism in Iran covers the history of Islamic revivalism and the rise of political Islam in modern Iran.
An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Army (ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران), acronymed AJA (آجا), simply known as the Iranian Army or Artesh (Arteš), is the "conventional military of Iran" and part of Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Islamic Republican Party (IRP; Ḥezb-e Jomhūrī-e Eslāmī, also translated Islamic Republic Party) formed in mid-1979 to assist the Iranian Revolution and Ayatollah Khomeini establish theocracy in Iran.
Islamic revival (تجديد, lit. "regeneration, renewal"; also الصحوة الإسلامية, "Islamic awakening") refers to a revival of the Islamic religion.
Islamic Revolution Committees or Committees of Islamic Revolution (کمیتههای انقلاب اسلامی), simply known as the Committee (کمیته), was a law enforcement force in Iran acting under Ministry of Interior.
Islamic Revolutionary Court (also Revolutionary Tribunal, Dadgah-ha-e EnqelabBakhash, Shaul, Reign of the Ayatollahs, Basic Books, 1984, p.59-61) is a special system of courts in the Islamic Republic of Iran designed to try those suspected of crimes such as smuggling, blaspheming, inciting violence or trying to overthrow the Islamic government.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
The Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq (ISCI or SIIC) (المجلس الأعلى الإسلامي العراقي Al-Majlis Al-A'ala Al-Islami Al-'Iraqi), (previously the party was known as the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI)) is an Iraqi Shia Islamist Iraqi political party.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Island of Stability was the phrase that Jimmy Carter used to describe the circumstances of Iran under the leadership of the last Shah of Iran, Muhammad Reza Pahlavi.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jafar Sharif-Imami (9 September 1910 – 16 June 1998) was an Iranian politician who was prime minister from 1960 to 1961 and again in 1978.
Jalal Al-Din Taheri Esfahani (sometimes spelled Jalaluddin Taheri or Jalaleddin Taheri, 1 January 1926 – 2 June 2013) was an Iranian scholar, theologian and Islamic philosopher.
Jalal Al-e-Ahmad (جلال آلاحمد; December 2, 1923 – September 9, 1969) was a prominent Iranian novelist, short-story writer, translator, philosopher, socio-political critic, sociologist as well as an anthropologist who was "one of the earliest and most prominent of contemporary Iranian ethnographers".
JAMA (جاما, acronym originally standing for "The Liberation Movement of People of Iran"; جنبش آزادیبخش مردم ایران) was an Iranian political party founded in 1964 by Kazem Sami and Habibollah Payman.
Jamshid Amouzegar (جمشید آموزگار‎; 25 June 1923 – 27 September 2016) was an Iranian economist and politician who was prime minister of Iran from 7 August 1977 to 27 August 1978 when he resigned.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat.
Kafir (كافر; plural كَافِرُونَ, كفّار or كَفَرَة; feminine كافرة) is an Arabic term (from the root K-F-R "to cover") meaning "unbeliever", or "disbeliever".
Karim Sanjabi (کریم سنجابی; September 1904 – 4 July 1995) was an Iranian politician of National Front.
Kāveh Golestān Taghavi Shirazi (8 July 1950 - 2 April 2003), (کاوه گلستان.) was an Iranian photojournalist and artist.
Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Kurdish rebellion of 1983 occurred during the Iran–Iraq war as PUK and KDP Kurdish militias of northern Iraq rebelled against Saddam Hussein, in an attempt to form their own autonomous country.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
The Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran or Disciplinary Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran (نیروی انتظامی جمهوری اسلامی ایران Nīrū-ye entezāmī-ye jomhūrī-ye eslāmī-ye Īrān), abbreviated as NAJA (ناجا) is the uniformed police force in Iran.
Several leftist guerrilla groups attempting to overthrown the pro-Western regime of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi were notable and active in Iran from 1971 to 1975.
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
This is a list of countries by age at first marriage.
This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East.
This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
This is a chronological list of conflicts in which peasants played a significant role.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Mahmoud Taleghani (محمود طالقانی,; 5 March 1911 – 9 September 1979) was an Iranian theologian, Muslim reformer, democracy advocate and a senior Shi'a cleric of Iran.
Mahnaz Afkhami (مهناز افخمی) is an Iranian women's rights activist who served in the cabinet from 1976 to 1978.
Malcolm Edward Yapp (born 29 May 1931) is a British historian, professor emeritus of modern history of Western Asia at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London.
In Shia Islam, marjaʿ (مرجع; plural: marājiʿ), also known as a marjaʿ taqlīd or marjaʿ dīnī (مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally meaning "source to imitate/follow" or "religious reference", is a title given to the highest level Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed clerics.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Marzieh Hadidchi (مرضیه حدیدچی., 12 June 1939 – 17 November 2016), also known as Marzieh Dabbaq and Tahere Dabagh, was an Iranian Islamist activist, political prisoner, military commander in the Iran–Iraq War, a politician and representative of Hamedan in the Iranian parliament in the second, third, fourth and the fifth Majles.
Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.
Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان; 1 September 1907 – 20 January 1995) was an Iranian scholar, academic, long-time pro-democracy activist and head of Iran's interim government, making him Iran's first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979.
Mehdi Rahimi (1921 - 16 February 1979) was an Iranian military general.
Tehran Mehrabad International Airport (فرودگاه بین المللی مهرآباد), is a joint airport and one of the two international airports serving Tehran, the largest city in Iran.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
The Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance (وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی also known as Ershad ارشاد) is the ministry of Culture of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (سیّد محمد حسینی بهشتی; 24 October 1928 – 28 June 1981) was an Iranian jurist, philosopher, cleric and politician who was known as the second person in the political hierarchy of Iran after the revolution.
Sayyid Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari (Məhəmməd Kazım Şəriətmədari, محمد کاظم شریعتمداری), also spelled Shariat-Madari (5 January 1905 – 3 April 1986), was an Iranian Grand Ayatollah.
Mohammad Mofatteh (محمد مفتح‎; 1928–1979) was an Iranian philosopher, theologian, and political activist, born in Famenin, Hamadan, Iran.
Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Mohammad Javad Bahonar (محمدجواد باهنر, 5 September 1933 – 30 August 1981) was a Shia Iranian theologian and politician who served as the Prime minister of Iran for less than one month in August 1981.
Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization (lit) was an umbrella political organization in Iran, founded in 1979 by unification of seven underground Islamist revolutionary paramilitary and civil organizations which previously fought against the Pahlavi monarchy.
Morteza Motahari (مرتضی مطهری; January 31, 1919 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian cleric, philosopher, lecturer, and politician.
Sayyid Mostafa Khomeini (12 December 1930 – 23 October 1977) was an Iranian cleric and the son of Ayatollah Khomeini.
The Movement of Militant Muslims (جنبش مسلمانان مبارز) is an Iranian Islamic socialist political group led by Habibollah Payman.
Muḥarram (مُحَرَّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar.
In Islam, the munafiqun ('hypocrites', منافقون, singular منافق munāfiq) were a group decried in the Quran as outward Muslims who were secretly unsympathetic to the cause of Muslims and actively sought to undermine the Muslim community.
The Muslim People's Republic Party (MPRP) or Islamic People's Republican Party (IPRP; Ḥezb-e jomhuri-e ḵalq-e mosalmān-e Irān) was a short-lived party associated with Shia Islamic cleric Shariatmadari.
The Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line (دانشجویان مسلمان پیرو خط امام Dânešjuyân Mosalmân Piru Xatt Emâm), also called the Muslim Students of the Imam Khomeini Line, was an Iranian student group that occupied the U.S. embassy in Tehran on 4 November 1979.
Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (16 July 1831 – 1 May 1896) (ناصرالدین شاه قاجار), also Nassereddin Shah Qajar, was the King of Persia from 5 September 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated.
Lieutenant General Nasser Moghadam (24 June 1921 – 11 April 1979) was the fourth and last chief of SAVAK (6 June 1978 – 12 February 1979).
Party of the Iranian Nation or Nation Party of Iran or Iran Nation Party (Ḥezb-e Mellat-e Irān) is "a small opposition" party in Iran advocating establishment of a secular democracy.
The National Democratic Front (Jebha-ye demokrātīk-e mellī) was a liberal-left political party founded during the Iranian Revolution of 1979 that overthrew shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and banned within a short time by the Islamic government.
The National Front of Iran (Jebha-ye Mellī-e Īrān) is an opposition political organization in Iran, founded by Mohammad Mosaddegh in 1949.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Neauphle-le-Château is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.
Nematollah Nassiri (August 1911 in Semnan – 16 February 1979) was the director of SAVAK, the Iranian intelligence agency during the rule of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.
Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism or neo-imperialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country in lieu of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
A niqab or niqāb (نِقاب, " veil"; also called a ruband) is a garment of clothing that covers the face which is worn by a small minority of Muslim women as a part of a particular interpretation of hijab ("modesty").
A nonviolent revolution is a revolution using mostly campaigns with civil resistance, including various forms of nonviolent protest, to bring about the departure of governments seen as entrenched and authoritarian.
An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience, or a letter intended for an individual, but that is nonetheless widely distributed intentionally.
The Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (OIPFG; Sāzmān-e čerikhā-ye Fadāʾi-e ḵalq-e Irān), simply known as Fadaiyan-e-Khalq (lit) was a Marxist-Leninist underground guerrilla organization in Iran.
The Organization of Iranian People's Fadaian (Majority) (Sāzmān-e fedaiyān-e khalq-e Irān (aksariat)) is an Iranian left-wing opposition political party in exile.
Many organizations, parties and guerrilla groups were involved in the Iranian Revolution.
The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
Patrick Lyell Clawson (born March 30, 1951) is an American economist and Middle East scholar.
The People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran or the Mojahedin-e Khalq (Sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e khalq-e irān, abbreviated MEK, PMOI or MKO), commonly known in Iran as Munafiqin ("hypocrites"), is an Iranian political–militant organization in exile that advocates the violent overthrow of the current government in Iran, while claiming itself as the replacing government in exile.
Persecution of Bahá'ís occurs in various countries, especially in Iran, where the Bahá'í Faith originated and the location of one of the largest Bahá'í populations in the world.
Persepolis (𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire.
The Persia Constitution of 1906 (قانون اساسی مشروطه 1906), was the first constitution of Persia (Iran) that resulted from the Persian Constitutional Revolution and it was written by Hassan Pirnia, Hossein Pirnia, and Ismail Mumtaz, among others.
Organization of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class (Sāzmān-e peykār dar rāh-e āzādī-e ṭabaqa-ye kārgar) or simply Peykar (lit), also called the Marxist Mojahedin, was a secular splinter group from the People's Mujahedin of Iran (PMoI), the largest of Iran's guerrilla groups.
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
The presidency of Jimmy Carter began at noon EST on January 20, 1977, when Jimmy Carter was inaugurated as 39th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1981.
Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate the reunification of Ireland and bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
Qom Hawza is the largest Hawza (seminary of traditional Islamic school of higher learning.) established in 1922 by Grand Ayatollah Abdul-Karim Ha'eri Yazdi in Qom.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Refah School is an elementary school for girls in southern Tehran, Iran with historical significance in the Iranian Revolution.
The Regency Council (Šūrā-ye Salṭanat) of Imperial State of Iran, was a nine-members body formed on 13 January 1979 by Mohammad Reza Shah to carry out his duties after he left Iran amidst Iranian Revolution and served as the symbol of his continued claim on power.
Rastakhiz Party of People of Iran (حزب رستاخیز ملت ایران) or simply Rastakhiz Party (lit) was Iran's single legal political party from 1975 to the Iranian Revolution in 1979, founded by the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
Riot control refers to the measures used by police, military, or other security forces to control, disperse, and arrest people who are involved in a riot, demonstration, or protest.
Robert Ernest Huyser (June 14, 1924 – September 22, 1997) was a four-star general in the United States Air Force who served as Deputy Commander in Chief, United States European Command (DCINCEUR) from 1975 to 1979; and as Commander in Chief, Military Airlift Command (CINCMAC) from 1979 to 1981.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Rubber bullets (also called rubber baton rounds) are rubber or rubber-coated projectiles that can be fired from either standard firearms or dedicated riot guns.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Muslim religious leader, philosopher, revolutionary and politician. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the Pahlavi monarchy and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. On 1 February 1979 Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, returned to Iran after 14 years in political exile. Khomeini had been a prominent opponent of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who had fled the country during the events of the Iranian Revolution. Upon his return, he was greeted by crowds of millions, and within 10 days the revolution would be successful. Khomeini's return and the 10 days following are now celebrated in Iran as the Fajr decade.
Ryszard Kapuściński (March 4, 1932 – January 23, 2007) was a Polish journalist, photographer, poet and author.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Mohammed Sadeq Givi Khalkhali (27 July 1926 – 26 November 2003) (Sādeq Xalxāli) was a Shia cleric of the Islamic Republic of Iran who is said to have "brought to his job as Chief Justice of the revolutionary courts a relish for summary execution" that earned him a reputation as Iran's "hanging judge".
Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born 19 June 1947) is a British Indian novelist and essayist.
Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the resulting hostage crisis, the United States imposed an asset freeze and trade embargo against Iran.
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
SAVAK (ساواک, short for سازمان اطلاعات و امنیت کشور Sāzemān-e Ettelā'āt va Amniyat-e Keshvar, literally "Organization of National Intelligence and Security") was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service of Pahlavi dynasty.
The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Self-sustainability (also called self-sufficiency) is the state of not requiring any aid, support, or interaction for survival; it is a type of personal or collective autonomy.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
Shah of Shahs, published in 1982, is Polish journalist Ryszard Kapuściński's analysis of the decline and fall of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.
Shahrbani (شهربانی; Šahrbānī) formerly called Nazmiyeh (نظمیه; Naẓmīya) was a law enforcement force in Iran, with police duties inside cities.
Shapour Bakhtiar (شاپور بختیار; 26 June 19146 August 1991) was an Iranian politician who served as the last Prime Minister of Iran under the Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
A strikebreaker (sometimes derogatorily called a scab, blackleg, or knobstick) is a person who works despite an ongoing strike.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A supreme leader typically refers to the person among a number of leaders of a state, organization or other such group who has been given or is able to exercise the mostor complete authority over it.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
Tasu'a (Tāsū‘ā’) is the ninth day of Muharram and the day before Ashura.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Timothy Garton Ash CMG FRSA (born 12 July 1955) is a British historian, author and commentator.
The Persian Tobacco Protest (Persian: نهضت تنباکو nehzat-e tanbāku), was a Shi'a revolt in Iran against an 1890 tobacco concession granted by Nasir al-Din Shah of Persia to Great Britain.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
Trickle-down economics, also referred to as trickle-down theory, is an economic theory that advocates reducing taxes on businesses and the wealthy in society as a means to stimulate business investment in the short term and benefit society at large in the long term.
The Tudeh Party of Iran (lit) is an Iranian communist party.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Union of Communist Militants (اتحاد مبارزان کمونیست, abbreviated EMK امک) was an Iranian communist group.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران), also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest modern university.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
A warning shot is a military and/or police term describing an intentionally harmless artillery shot or gunshot with intent to enact direct compliance and order to a hostile perpetrator or enemy forces.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Westernization (US) or Westernisation (UK), also Europeanization/Europeanisation or occidentalization/occidentalisation (from the Occident, meaning the Western world; see "occident" in the dictionary), is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values.
The White Revolution (انقلاب سفید Enqelāb-e Sefid) or the Shah and People Revolution (انقلاب شاه و مردم Enqelāb-e Shāh va Mardom) was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and lasted until 1978.
William Hartley Hume Shawcross, (born 28 May 1946, Sussex, England) is the Chairman of the Charity Commission for England and Wales, (Glen Owen, Mail Online, Sunday 2 June 2013) and a British writer and commentator.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The Women's Organization of Iran (WOI) was a non-profit organization created in 1966, mostly run by volunteers, with local branches and centers for women all over the country, determined to enhance the rights of women in Iran.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان.; 64711 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate (and the first one through inheritance).
Zbigniew Kazimierz "Zbig" Brzezinski (March 28, 1928 – May 26, 2017) was a Polish-American diplomat and political scientist.
The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état (کودتای ۲۸ مرداد), was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax").
The demonstrations of June 5 and 6, also called the events of June 1963 or (using the Iranian calendar) the 15 Khordad uprising (تظاهرات پانزده خرداد), were protests in Iran against the arrest of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini after his denouncement of Iranian Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Israel.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1979 (or second) oil crisis or oil shock occurred in the world due to decreased oil output in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.
The 1979 Khuzestan uprising was one of the nationwide uprisings in Iran, which erupted in the aftermath of the Iranian Revolution.
The 1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran erupted in mid-March 1979, some two months after the completion of the Iranian Revolution.
The Hama massacre (مجزرة حماة) occurred in 2 February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government.
The April 18, 1983, United States embassy bombing was a suicide bombing in Beirut, Lebanon, that killed 63 people, including 17 Americans.
The 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire (جشنهای ۲۵۰۰ سالهٔ شاهنشاهی ایران), officially known as The 2,500th year of Foundation of Imperial State of Iran (دوهزار و پانصدمین سال بنیانگذاری شاهنشاهی ایران), consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place on 12–16 October 1971 on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Imperial State of Iran and the Achaemenid Empire by Cyrus the Great.
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