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Iranian languages

Index Iranian languages

The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family. [1]

140 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Achomi language, Ahmad Hasan Dani, Alans, Andronovo culture, Arabic script, Aramaic language, Ashtiani language, Avesta, Avestan, Bactrian language, Balkans, Balochi language, Balto-Slavic languages, Bashkardi language, Caspian languages, Caucasus, Central Asia, Central Kurdish, Centum and satem languages, Christian Lassen, Common Era, Corduene, Cyrillic script, Dari language, Dezfuli dialect, Dialects of Fars, Digor Ossetian, Early Slavs, Eastern Europe, Eastern Iranian languages, Encyclopædia Iranica, Ethnologue, Fars Province, Friedrich von Spiegel, Gazi language, George Abraham Grierson, Gilaki language, Gilbert Lazard, Gorani language (Zaza-Gorani), Harold Walter Bailey, Ibn al-Muqaffa', Ibn al-Nadim, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Iranian peoples, Iranian Plateau, Iron Ossetian, Isfahan Province, Ishkashimi language, ..., Kazakhstan, Khorasan Province, Khunsari language, Khuri language, Khuzestan Province, Khwarezmian language, Kuhmareyi language, Kumzari language, Kurdish languages, Language family, Lasgerdi language, Latinisation of names, Lenition, Luri language, Manichaeism, Max Müller, Mazanderani language, Median language, Michael Witzel, Middle Persian, Munji language, Muslim conquest of Persia, Nayini language, North Caucasus, Northern Kurdish, Northwestern Fars language, Nuristani languages, Old Azeri language, Old Persian, Ormuri, Ossetian language, Pahlavi scripts, Palatal consonant, Pamir languages, Pamir Mountains, Parachi language, Parthia, Parthian language, Pashto, Persian language, Persis, Proto-Indo-Iranian language, Proto-Iranian language, Robert Needham Cust, Routledge, Russia, Saffarid dynasty, Saka, Saka language, Samarkand, Sanglechi language, Sangsari language, Sarikoli language, Sarmatians, Sasanian Empire, Scythian languages, Scythians, Semnani language, Semnani languages, Shughni language, Sivandi language, Slavicisation, Sogdian language, Sorkhei language, South Asia, Southern Kurdish, Steppe, Syriac alphabet, Tajik alphabet, Tajik language, Tajikistan, Talysh language, Tati language (Iran), Thracians, Turkic languages, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vedic Sanskrit, Wakhi language, Western Asia, Western Iranian languages, Wilhelm Geiger, Yaghnobi language, Yazghulami language, Yidgha language, Zaza language, Zaza–Gorani languages, Zoroastrian Dari language, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (90 more) »

Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Achomi language

Achomi (Ajami or Achami) (Larestani: اَچُمی), also known as Ajami, Lari or Larestani (Persian: لارستانی), is an Iranian language spoken in the south of Iran, mostly in Fars Province by Achomi people, a Shia and Sunni Persian ethnic group Cities that speak this dialect include Lar, Juyom, Evaz, Gerash, Khonj, Bastak, Khour, Kowreh, Fedagh, along with many others.

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Ahmad Hasan Dani

Ahmad Hasan Dani (Urdu: احمد حسن دانی) FRAS, SI, HI (20 June 1920 – 26 January 2009), was a Pakistani intellectual, archaeologist, historian, and linguist.

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The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.

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Andronovo culture

The Andronovo culture is a collection of similar local Bronze Age cultures that flourished c. 2000–900 BC in western Siberia and the central Eurasian Steppe.

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Arabic script

The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.

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Aramaic language

Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Ashtiani language

Ashtiani (آشتیانی) is one of the Central Iranian languages, spoken in Ashtiyan and Tafresh of Iran.

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The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.

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Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.

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Bactrian language

Bactrian (Αριαο, Aryao, arjaːu̯ɔ) is an Iranian language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria (present-day Afghanistan and Tajikistan) and used as the official language of the Kushan and the Hephthalite empires.

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The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Balochi language

Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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Balto-Slavic languages

The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.

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Bashkardi language

Bashkardi or Bashagerdi is a Southwestern Iranian language spoken in the southeast of Iran in the provinces of Kerman, Sistan and Baluchestan, and Hormozgan.

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Caspian languages

Caspian languages are a branch of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken in northern Iran, south of the Caspian Sea.

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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Central Kurdish

Central Kurdish (کوردیی ناوەندی, Kurdîy nawendî), also called Sorani (سۆرانی, Soranî) is a Kurdish language spoken in Iraq, mainly in Iraqi Kurdistan, as well as the Kurdistan Province and West Azerbaijan Province of western Iran.

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Centum and satem languages

Languages of the Indo-European family are classified as either centum languages or satem languages according to how the dorsal consonants (sounds of "K" and "G" type) of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) developed.

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Christian Lassen

Christian Lassen (October 22, 1800 – May 8, 1876) was a Norwegian-born orientalist and professor of Old Indian language and literature at the University of Bonn.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Corduene (also known as Gorduene, Cordyene, Cardyene, Carduene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Gordian; Kardox; Karduya; Կորճայք Korchayk;; Hebrew: קרטיגיני) was an ancient region located in northern Mesopotamia, present-day eastern Turkey.

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).

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Dari language

Darī (دری) or Dari Persian (فارسی دری Fārsī-ye Darī) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی Fārsī) is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.

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Dezfuli dialect

Dezfuli and Shushtari (local names: دزفولی or دسفیلی and شوشتری) constitute a Southwestern Iranian language, more specifically a Persian dialect spoken in Dezful and Shushtar, two adjacent cities of the province of Khozestan in Iran.

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Dialects of Fars

Dialects of Pars are a group of southwestern and northwestern Iranian dialects spoken in the central Pars province.

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Digor Ossetian

Digor or Digorian (дигорон digoron) is a dialect of the Ossetian language.

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Early Slavs

The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages (approximately the 5th to the 10th centuries) in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Eastern Iranian languages

The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from c. the 4th century BC).

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Encyclopædia Iranica

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.

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Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.

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Fars Province

Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.

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Friedrich von Spiegel

Friedrich (von) Spiegel (July 11, 1820 in Kitzingen – December 15, 1905 in München) was a German orientalist.

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Gazi language

Gazi is one of the Central Iranian varieties of Iran, one of five listed in Ethnologue that together have 35,000 speakers.

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George Abraham Grierson

Sir George Abraham Grierson (7 January 1851 – 9 March 1941) was an Irish administrator and linguist in British India.

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Gilaki language

The Gilaki language (گیلکی Giləki) is a Caspian language, and a member of the northwestern Iranian language branch, spoken in Iran's Gīlān Province.

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Gilbert Lazard

Gilbert Lazard (born in Paris, 4 February 1920) is a French linguist and iranologist.

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Gorani language (Zaza-Gorani)

Gorani (also Gurani) is a group of Northwestern Iranian dialects spoken by groups of Iranian and Iraqi citizens in the southernmost parts of Iranian Kurdistan and the Iraqi Kurdistan region.

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Harold Walter Bailey

Sir Harold Walter Bailey, FBA (16 December 1899 – 11 January 1996), who published as H. W. Bailey, was an eminent English scholar of Khotanese, Sanskrit, and the comparative study of Iranian languages.

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Ibn al-Muqaffa'

Abū Muhammad ʿAbd Allāh Rūzbih ibn Dādūya (ابو محمد عبدالله روزبه ابن دادويه), born Rōzbih pūr-i Dādōē روزبه پور دادویه, more commonly known as Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ (ابن المقفع),, was a Persian translator, author and thinker who wrote in the Arabic language.

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Ibn al-Nadim

Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Nadīm (ابوالفرج محمد بن إسحاق النديم), his surname was Abū al-Faraj Muḥammad ibn Abī Ya'qūb Ishāq ibn Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Warrāq and he is more commonly, albeit erroneously, known as Ibn al-Nadim (d. 17 September 995 or 998 CE) was a Muslim scholar and bibliographer Al-Nadīm was the tenth century Baghdadī bibliophile compiler of the Arabic encyclopedic catalogue known as 'Kitāb al-Fihrist'.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indo-Iranian languages

The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Iranian peoples

The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

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Iranian Plateau

The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.

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Iron Ossetian

Iron (Ossetic: Ирон, Iron or Ирон æвзаг, Iron ævzag) is one of the two main dialects of the Ossetic language along with DigorThordarson, Fridrik.

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Isfahan Province

Isfahan province (Ostāne Esfahan), also transliterated as Esfahan, Espahan, Isfahan, or Isphahan, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran.

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Ishkashimi language

Ishkashimi (Ishkashimi: škošmī zəvuk/rənīzəvuk) is an Iranian language spoken in the Badakhshan Province in Afghanistan, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region in Tajikistan, and Chitral region of Pakistan.

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Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Khorasan Province

Khorasan (استان خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, also called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times) was a province in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire.

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Khunsari language

Khunsari dialect is a Central dialect within the South Median branch of Northwestern Iranian languages, spoken in Khansar, a town in the west of Isfahan Province of Iran.

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Khuri language

Khuri is one of the Central Iranian varieties of Iran.

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Khuzestan Province

Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Khwarezmian language

Khwarezmian (Khwarazmian, Khorezmian, Chorasmian) is an extinct East Iranian language closely related to Sogdian.

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Kuhmareyi language

Kuhmareyi is one of the languages of southwestern Fars.

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Kumzari language

Kumzari (Arabic: لغة كمزارية, Lurish: کومزاری) is a Southwestern Iranian language that is similar to the Larestani and Luri languages.

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Kurdish languages

Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.

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Language family

A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.

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Lasgerdi language

Lasgerdi is one of the local languages of Semnan Province in northwestern Iran.

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Latinisation of names

Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.

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In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.

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Luri language

Luri or Lurish (Luri: لۊری) is a Western Iranian language continuum spoken by the Lurs in Western Asia.

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Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.

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Max Müller

Friedrich Max Müller (6 December 1823 – 28 October 1900), generally known as Max Müller, was a German-born philologist and Orientalist, who lived and studied in Britain for most of his life.

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Mazanderani language

Mazanderani (مازندرانی), also Tabari (تبری), is an Iranian language of the Northwestern branch, spoken mainly in Iran's Mazandaran, Tehran, Alborz, Semnan and Golestan provinces.

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Median language

The Median language (also Medean or Medic) was the language of the Medes.

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Michael Witzel

Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943) is a German-American philologist and academic.

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Middle Persian

Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.

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Munji language

The Munji language, also known as Munjani, Munjhan and the Munjiwar language, is a Pamir language spoken in Munjan valley in Badakhshan Province in northeast Afghanistan.

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Muslim conquest of Persia

The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).

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Nayini language

Nayini (Na'ini), or Biyabanak, is one of the Central Iranian varieties of Iran, one of five listed in Ethnologue that together have 35,000 speakers.

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North Caucasus

The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.

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Northern Kurdish

Northern Kurdish (Kurdiya jorîn, rtl), also called Kurmanji (Kurmancî, rtl), is a Kurdish language spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest and northeast Iran, northern Iraq and northern Syria.

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Northwestern Fars language

Northwestern Fars is one of the Central Iranian varieties of Iran.

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Nuristani languages

The Nuristani languages (نورستاني) are one of the three groups within the Indo-Iranian language family, alongside the much larger Indo-Aryan and Iranian groups.

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Old Azeri language

Old Azeri, also known as Azeri or Azari (آذری Āḏarī), is the extinct Iranian language that was once spoken in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), and in what constitutes the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan (historically known as Arran and Shirvan).

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Old Persian

Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).

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Ormuri (also known as Oormuri, Urmuri, Ormur, Ormui, Bargista, Baraks, and Baraki) is a language spoken in Waziristan.

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Ossetian language

Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.

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Pahlavi scripts

Pahlavi or Pahlevi is a particular, exclusively written form of various Middle Iranian languages.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Pamir languages

The Pamir languages are an areal group of the Eastern Iranian languages, spoken by numerous people in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along the Panj River and its tributaries.

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Pamir Mountains

The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.

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Parachi language

The Parachi language is an Iranian language.

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Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.

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Parthian language

The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Iran.

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Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Persis (Περσίς), better known as Persia (Parsa; پارس, Pars), or "Persia proper", was originally a name of a region near the Zagros mountains at Lake Urmia.

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Proto-Indo-Iranian language

Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Indo-Iranic is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian/Indo-Iranic branch of Indo-European.

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Proto-Iranian language

Proto-Iranian, or Proto-Iranic, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Iranian languages branch of Indo-European language family and thus the ancestor of the Iranian languages such as Pashto, Persian, Sogdian, Zazaki, Ossetian, Mazandarani, Kurdish and others.

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Robert Needham Cust

Robert Needham Cust (24 February 1821 – 27 October 1909) was a British administrator and judge in colonial India apart from being an Anglican evangelist and linguist.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Saffarid dynasty

The Saffarid dynasty (سلسله صفاریان) was a Muslim Persianate dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in southwestern Afghanistan).

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Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.

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Saka language

(Eastern) Saka or Sakan is a variety of Eastern Iranian languages, attested from the ancient Buddhist kingdoms of Khotan, Kashgar and Tumshuq in the Tarim Basin, in what is now southern Xinjiang, China.

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Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.

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Sanglechi language

Sanglechi is an Iranian language spoken in two villages in the Zebak District of Afghanistan.

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Sangsari language

Sangsari or Sangisari is an Iranian language spoken mainly in the Semnan and Tehran provinces of Iran, especially in the Sangesar (Mahdi Shehr) town and in several surrounding villages.

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Sarikoli language

The Sarikoli language (also Sariqoli, Selekur, Sarikul, Sariqul, Sariköli) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Southeastern Iranian languages spoken by Tajiks in China.

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The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Scythian languages

The Scythian languages are a group of Eastern Iranian languages of the classical and late antiquity (Middle Iranian) period, spoken in a vast region of Eurasia named Scythia.

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or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.

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Semnani language

Semnani (Semnani: Pe) is one of the local languages of the Semnan Province of Iran.

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Semnani languages

The Semnani languages are a group of Northwestern Iranian languages, spoken in Semnan province of Iran that share many linguistic features and structures with Caspian languages.

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Shughni language

Shughni is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group.

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Sivandi language

Sivandi is an Iranian language spoken in Fars Province, Iran, one of five listed in Ethnologue which together have 35,000 speakers.

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Slavicisation or Slavicization, is the acculturation or adoption of something non-Slavic into Slavic culture or terms or (to a greater degree) the acculturation of something Slavic into a non-Slavic culture, cuisine, region, or nation.

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Sogdian language

The Sogdian language was an Eastern Iranian language spoken in the Central Asian region of Sogdia, located in modern-day Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan (capital: Samarkand; other chief cities: Panjakent, Fergana, Khujand, and Bukhara), as well as some Sogdian immigrant communities in ancient China.

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Sorkhei language

Sorkhei is a Western Iranian language.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Southern Kurdish

Southern Kurdish (کوردی خوارین; kurdîy xwarîn) is a Kurdish group of languages/dialects predominantly spoken in western Iran and eastern Iraq.

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In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.

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Syriac alphabet

The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.

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Tajik alphabet

The Tajik language has been written in three alphabets over the course of its history: an adaptation of the Perso-Arabic script (specifically the Persian alphabet), an adaptation of the Latin script, and an adaptation of the Cyrillic script.

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Tajik language

Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

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Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.

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Talysh language

The Talysh language (Talışi / Толыши / تالشه زَوُن) is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken in the northern regions of the Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardabil and the southern regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

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Tati language (Iran)

The Tati language (Tati: تاتی زبون, Tâti Zobun) is a Northwestern Iranian language which is closely related to the Talysh language, Mazandarani and Gilaki languages spoken by the Tat people of Iran.

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The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).

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Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

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Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.

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Vedic Sanskrit

Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.

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Wakhi language

Wakhi is an Indo-European language in the Eastern Iranian branch of the language family spoken today in Wakhan District, Afghanistan and also in Northern Pakistan, China, and Tajikistan.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western Iranian languages

The Western Iranian languages are a branch of the Iranian languages, attested from the time of Old Persian (6th century BC) and Median.

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Wilhelm Geiger

Wilhelm Ludwig Geiger (21 July 1856 – 2 September 1943) was a German Orientalist in the fields of Indo-Iranian languages and the history of Iran and Sri Lanka.

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Yaghnobi language

The Yaghnobi language is a living Eastern Iranian language (the other living members being Pashto, Ossetic and the Pamir languages).

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Yazghulami language

The Yazgulyam language (also Yazgulyami, Iazgulem, Yazgulam; yazgulomi) is a member of the Southeastern subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken by around 9,000 people along the Yazgulyam River in Gorno-Badakhshan, Tajikistan.

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Yidgha language

The Yidgha language is an Eastern Iranian language of the Pamir group spoken in the upper Lotkoh Valley (Tehsil Lotkoh) of Chitral in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

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Zaza language

Zaza language, also called Zazaki, Kirmanjki and Dimli, is an Indo-European language spoken primarily in eastern Turkey by the Zazas.

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Zaza–Gorani languages

Zaza–Gorani is a group of Northwestern Iranian languages.

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Zoroastrian Dari language

Zoroastrian Dari (دری زرتشتی or گویش بهدینان literally Behdīnān dialect) is a Northwestern Iranian.

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Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iranian_languages

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