318 relations: Abdolhamid Ismaeelzahi, Abdullah Abdullah, Abdullah bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani, Aerospace Force of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Afghanistan, Ahle-Sunnat fraction, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Al Jazeera, Al-Monitor, Alborz Province, Algeria, Ali Khamenei, Ali Larijani, Ali Shamkhani, Alireza Rahimi (politician), Alternative facts, Angelino Alfano, Ansar-e Hezbollah, António Guterres, Ardabil Province, Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Armenia, Ashraf Ghani, Assembly of Qom Seminary Scholars and Researchers, Assembly of the Forces of Imam's Line, Association of Combatant Clerics, Astan Quds Razavi, Attorney-General of Iran, Australia, Avigdor Lieberman, Azam Taleghani, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bashar al-Assad, Børge Brende, Boris Johnson, Brexit, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Bushehr Province, Canada, Canada–Iran relations, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Chief Justice of Iran, China, Chrystia Freeland, Combatant Clergy Association, Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front, ..., Council of Nationalist-Religious Activists of Iran, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Daniel Ortega, Democracy Party (Iran), Democratic Party (Italy), Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Donald Trump, Dummy candidate, East Azerbaijan Province, Ebrahim Raisi, Ebrahim Raisi presidential campaign, 2017, Egypt, Elections in Iran, Emmanuel Macron, Emomali Rahmon, Eshaq Jahangiri, Ethiopia, Executives of Construction Party, Fars Province, Fearmongering, Federica Mogherini, Finland, Foreign electoral intervention, France, Freedom Movement of Iran, Front of Followers of the Line of the Imam and the Leader, Front of Islamic Revolution Stability, Fuad Masum, Fumio Kishida, General Inspection Office (Iran), Georgia (country), Germany, Germany–Iran relations, Ghana, Ghasem Sholeh-Saadi, Gilan Province, Giorgi Margvelashvili, Global Affairs Canada, Global News, Golestan Province, Government of Hassan Rouhani (2013–17), Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Greece, Guardian Council, Guinea-Bissau, Haider al-Abadi, Hamadan Province, Hamid Baghaei, Hassan Rouhani, Hassan Rouhani presidential campaign, 2017, Higher education in Iran, Hong Kong, Hormozgan Province, Human Development Index, Human rights in Iran, Hungary, Ilam Province, Ilham Aliyev, India, Indonesia, Instagram, Internet censorship in Iran, Iran, Iran (newspaper), Iran Standard Time, Iran–Russia relations, Iranian Armenians, Iranian Assembly of Experts election, 2016, Iranian Call and Reform Organization, Iranian legislative election, 2016, Iranian local elections, 2017, Iranian Principlists, Iranian Reformists, Iraq, IRIB TV1, Isfahan Province, Islam in Iran, Islamic Association of University Instructors, Islamic Coalition Party, Islamic Consultative Assembly, Islamic Iran Solidarity Party, Islamic Republic News Agency, Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Islamic Society of Engineers, Islamic Society of Students, Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah, Jacob Zuma, Japan, Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, Jordan, Judicial interpretation, Judicial system of Iran, Karekin II, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kerman Province, Kermanshah Province, Khuzestan Province, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović, Komala Party of Iranian Kurdistan, Komalah (CPI), Kurdish United Front, Kurdistan Democratic Party (Iran), Kurdistan Province, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Leaders' debate, Lebanon, Legislature of Iran, Line of succession to the former Iranian throne, List of candidates in the Iranian presidential election, 2017, List of mayors of Tehran, List of Speakers of the Parliament of Iran, Live television, Lorestan Province, Madagascar, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Maithripala Sirisena, Malaysia, Mali, Mariano Rajoy, Mark Rutte, Markazi Province, Mashhad, Matteo Renzi, Mazandaran Province, Mehdi Khazali, Michel Aoun, Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, Ministry of Industries and Mines (Iran), Ministry of Interior (Iran), Moderation and Development Party, Mohammad Ali Jafari, Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf presidential campaign, 2017, Mohammad Gharazi, Mohammad Javad Zarif, Morocco, Mostafa Hashemitaba, Mostafa Hashemitaba presidential campaign, 2017, Mostafa Mir-Salim, Mostafa Mir-Salim presidential campaign, 2017, Nabih Berri, Namibia, Narendra Modi, National Council of Iran, National Council of Resistance of Iran, National Front (Iran), National Trust Party (Iran), Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, NEDA Party, Negative campaigning, Netherlands, New York Post, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, North Khorasan Province, North Korea, Norway, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Oath of office, Obscenity, Oman, Organization of Iranian Kurdistan Struggle, Pakistan, Paolo Gentiloni, People's Mujahedin of Iran, Philippines, Physical Education Organization, Poland, Popular Front of Islamic Revolution Forces, Populism, President of Iran, President of the Republic of Tatarstan, Presidential Administration of Iran, Progress and Justice Population of Islamic Iran, Qaboos bin Said al Said, Qatar, Qazvin Province, Qom Province, Raúl Castro, Razavi Khorasan Province, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Religion in Iran, Resistance Front of Islamic Iran, Resistive economy, Rex Tillerson, Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran, Romania, Rosario Murillo, Russia, Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, Rustam Minnikhanov, Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Sadeq Larijani, Saudi Arabia, Second inauguration of Hassan Rouhani, Semnan Province, Senegal, Serbia, Sergio Mattarella, Serzh Sargsyan, Shahrbani, Shia Islam, Shinzō Abe, Shiraz, Sierra Leone, Sigmar Gabriel, Singapore, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Smear campaign, Social class, Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom, South Africa, South Khorasan Province, South Korea, Sri Lanka, State Sponsors of Terrorism (U.S. list), Stéphane Dujarric, Supreme National Security Council, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, Tanzania, Tasnim News Agency, Tehran, Tehran Province, Tehran Stock Exchange, Telegram (service), Thailand, The Green Path of Hope, Theresa May, Tony Tan, Trần Đại Quang, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Twitter, Uganda, Union of Islamic Iran People Party, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Ursula von der Leyen, Uzbekistan, Vice President of Iran, Vietnam, Viktor Orbán, Vladimir Putin, West Azerbaijan Province, Will of the Iranian Nation Party, Worker House, Xi Jinping, Yasuj, Yazd Province, YEKTA Front, Zanjan Province, Zimbabwe. 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Abdolhamid Ismaeelzahi (عبدالحمید اسماعیلزهی) is an Iranian Sunni cleric who is regarded as a "spiritual leader for Iran’s Sunni minority", according to Reuters.
Abdullah Abdullah (Dari/Pashto: عبدالله عبدالله, born September 5, 1960) is an Afghan politician, serving as Chief Executive of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since September 2014.
Abdullah bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (born 9 February 1988) is the Deputy Emir of the State of Qatar and unofficial heir presumptive to Emir of Qatar.
Sheikh Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani (born 1959) (عبد الله بن ناصر بن خليفة آل ثاني) is a Qatari politician who has been Prime Minister of Qatar since 26 June 2013.
The Aerospace Force of the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution (AFAGIR), known in the United States as the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Aerospace Force (IRGC AF), is the air force within the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC).
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Ahle-Sunnat fraction (فراکسیون اهلسنت) is a cross-factional parliamentary group in the Iranian Parliament which consists of Sunni Muslim MPs.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī or Hashemi Bahramani; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al-Monitor (المونيتور) is a media site launched in February 2012 by the Arab American entrepreneur Jamal Daniel and based in Washington, DC.
Alborz Province (استان البرز, Ostan-e Alborz) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, centered in Karaj.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
Ali Larijani (علی لاریجانی,; born 3 June 1957) is an Iranian conservative politician, philosopher and former military officer who has been Speaker of the Parliament of Iran since 2008.
Ali Shamkhani (Persian and Khuzestani Arabic: علی شمخانی, born 29 September 1955) is an Iranian Rear Admiral Upper Half.
Alireza Rahimi (علیرضا رحیمی) is an Iranian reformist politician who is currently a member of the Parliament of Iran representing Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr electoral district.
"Alternative facts" is a phrase used by U.S. Counselor to the President Kellyanne Conway during a Meet the Press interview on January 22, 2017, in which she defended White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer's false statement about the attendance numbers of Donald Trump's inauguration as President of the United States.
Angelino Alfano (born 31 October 1970) is an Italian politician served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 12 December 2016 to 1 June 2018.
Ansar-e-Hezbollah (lit) is a conservative organization in Iran.
António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres GCC GCL (born 30 April 1949) is a Portuguese politician and diplomat who is serving as the ninth Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Ardabil Province (استان اردبیل; اردبیل اوستانی) is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran.
The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (نيروهای مسلح جمهوری اسلامی ايران) include the Army (''Artesh''), the Revolutionary Guard Corps (''Sepāh'') and the Law Enforcement Force (Police).
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Mohammad Ashraf Ghanī Ahmadzai (Pashto/محمد اشرف غني احمدزی, born 19 May 1949) is the current President of Afghanistan, elected on 21 September 2014.
The Assembly of Qom Seminary Scholars and Researchers (also Association of Researchers and Teachers of Qom).
Assembly of the Forces of the Imam's Line or Association of Followers of the Imam's Line (مجمع نیروهای خط امام) is an Iranian reformist political group.
The Association of Combatant Clerics (majma'-e rowhāniyūn-e mobārez) is an Iranian reformist clerical political party.
Astan Quds Razavi (Āstān-e Qods-e Razavi) is a Bonyad, or autonomous charitable foundation, in Mashhad, Iran.
The Attorney-General of Iran (or Prosecutor-General), in the Judicial system of Iran, is a "just mujtahid" appointed by the Head of the Judiciary in consultation with the judges of the Supreme Court to serve for a period of five years.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Avigdor Lieberman (אביגדור ליברמן,,; born Evet Lvovich Liberman, Эве́т Льво́вич Ли́берман, 5 July 1958) is a Soviet-born Israeli politician who serves as the Defense Minister of Israel.
Azam Taleghani (اعظم طالقانی) is an Iranian politician and journalist, born in 1944, is the head of the Society of Islamic Revolution Women of Iran, editor of Payam Hajar Weekly, and a former member of the Iranian parliament.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
Børge Brende (born 25 September 1965) is a Norwegian politician and diplomat of the Conservative Party serving as President of the World Economic Forum since 2017.
Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (born 19 June 1964), best known as Boris Johnson, is a British politician, popular historian and journalist serving as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs since 2016 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015.
Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
Bushehr Province (استان بوشهر, Ostān-e Būshehr) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Prior to 1955, Canadian Consular and Commercial Affairs in Iran were handled by the British Embassy.
Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province (استان چهارمحال و بختیاری, Ostān-e Chahār-Mahāl-o Bakhtiyārī) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Chief Justice of Iran is the head of the Judicial system of Iran (Head of Judiciary) and is responsible for its administration and supervision.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christina Alexandra "Chrystia" Freeland (born August 2, 1968) is a Canadian writer, journalist, and politician.
The Combatant Clergy Association (Jāme'e-ye Rowhāniyyat-e Mobārez) is a politically active group in Iran, but not a political party in the traditional sense.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979, and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1906.
The Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front or the Reformist Front Coordination Council (شورای هماهنگی جبهه اصلاحات) is the umbrella organization, coalition and council of main political groups within the Iranian reform movement.
The Council of Nationalist-Religious Activists of Iran (Showra-ye Fa'alan-e Melli Mazhabi) or The Coalition of National-Religious Forces of Iran (E'telaf-e Niruha-ye Melli-Mazhabi) is an Iranian political group, described as "nonviolent, religious semi-opposition" with a following of mainly middle class, intellectual, representatives of technical professions, students and technocrats.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985) and then as President (1985–1990).
The Democracy Party of Iran (حزب مردمسالاری) is an Iranian reformist political party that split from the Islamic Iran Solidarity Party in 2000.
The Democratic Party (Partito Democratico, PD) is a social-democratic political party in Italy.
The Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (PDKI; Hîzbî Dêmukratî Kurdistanî Êran, HDKA; Ḥezb-e Demokrāt-e Kordestān-e Īrān), also known as the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI), is an armed leftist ethnic party of Kurds in Iran, exiled in northern Iraq.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
A dummy candidate is a candidate who stands for election, usually with no intention or realistic chance of winning.
East Azerbaijan Province (استان آذربایجان شرقی Āzarbāijān-e Sharqi; شرقی آذربایجان اوستانی) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Seyyed Ebrahim Raisol-Sadati (سید ابراهیم رئیسالساداتی; born 14 December 1960), commonly known as Ebrahim Raisi (ابراهیم رئیسی), is an Iranian cleric and the current custodian and chairman of Astan Quds Razavi (a wealthy and powerful foundation or bonyad).
Ebrahim Raisi, chairman of Astan Quds Razavi launched his election campaign for 2017 presidential election in April 2017.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Iran elects on national level a head of state and head of government (the president), a legislature (the Majlis), and an "Assembly of Experts" (which elects the Supreme Leader).
Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (born 21 December 1977) is a French politician serving as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 14 May 2017.
Emomali Rahmon (Emomalî Rahmon/Emomalī Rahmon); (born 5 October 1952) is a Tajikistani politician who has served as President of Tajikistan (or its equivalent post) since 1992.
Eshaq Jahangiri Kouhshahi (اسحاق جهانگیری کوهشاهی, born 21 January 1958) is an Iranian politician and first vice president of Hassan Rouhani's government.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Executives of Construction of Iran Party (حزب کارگزاران سازندگی ایران) is a reformist political party in Iran, founded by 16 members of the cabinet of the then President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani in 1996.
Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.
Fearmongering or scaremongering is the spreading of frightening and exaggerated rumors of an impending danger or the habit or tactic of purposely and needlessly arousing public fear about an issue.
Federica Maria Mogherini (born 16 June 1973) is an Italian politician who has served as High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy since November 2014.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Foreign electoral interventions are attempts by governments, covertly or overtly, to influence elections in another country.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Freedom Movement of Iran (FMI) or Liberation Movement of Iran (LMI; Nahżat-e āzādi-e Irān) is an Iranian pro-democracy political organization which was founded in 1961, by members describing themselves as "Muslims, Iranians, Constitutionalists and Mossadeghists".
Front of Followers of the Line of the Imam and the Leader (جبهه پیروان خط امام (ره) و رهبری), formerly known as Islamic Aligned Organizations (تشکلهای اسلامی همسو) is a Coalition of Iranian Principlist political groups.
Front of Islamic Revolution Stability (Jebha-ye pāydārī-e enqelāb-e eslāmī, also translated Persevering Front, Endurance Front and Steadfast Front) is an Iranian principlist political group described as "extreme end of the fundamentalist camp" and "Iran’s most right-wing party".
Muhammad Fuad Masum (translit; Kurdish: محەممەد فوئاد مەعسووم, born 1 January 1938) is an Iraqi politician who has been the President of Iraq since 24 July 2014.
is a Japanese politician and the former Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan from 2012 to 2017.
The General Inspection Organization of Iran (GIO) is linked to the Judiciary of Iran.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
German–Iranian relations refer to bilateral relations between Germany and Iran.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
Ghasem Sholeh-Saadi is a former member of Iranian parliament and a professor of law at the University of Tehran.
Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Giorgi Margvelashvili (გიორგი მარგველაშვილი; born 4 September 1969) is a Georgian academic and politician who has been the fourth President of Georgia since 17 November 2013.
Global Affairs Canada (GAC; Affaires mondiales Canada, or AMC) is the department in the Government of Canada that manages Canada's diplomatic and consular relations, to encourage the country's international trade, and to lead Canada's international development and humanitarian assistance.
Global News is the news and current affairs division of the Global Television Network in Canada, itself owned by Corus Entertainment, overseeing all local and national news programming on the network's twelve owned-and-operated stations (O&Os).
Golestān Province (استان گلستان, Ostān-e Golestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, located in the north-east of the country south of the Caspian Sea.
The President of Iran is the second formal position after the Supreme leader.
The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Neẓām-e jomhūrī-e eslāmi-e Irān, known simply as Neẓām (lit) among its supporters, and "the regime" among its dissidents) is the ruling state and current political system in Iran, in power since the revolution and fall of Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shūra-ye negahbān-e qānūn-e āsāsī) is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (República da Guiné-Bissau), is a sovereign state in West Africa.
Haider Jawad Kadhim al-Abadi (or al-'Ibadi; حيدر جواد كاظم العبادي, born 25 April 1952) is an Iraqi politician who has been the Prime Minister of Iraq since September 2014.
Hamadan Province (استان همدان), is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Hamid Baghaei (حميد بقایی) is an Iranian politician and former intelligence officer who is considered one of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's closest confidants.
Hassan Rouhani (حسن روحانی,, Standard Persian:; born Hassan Fereydoun (حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013.
Hassan Rouhani, the incumbent President of Iran, launched his reelection campaign for the Presidential office in February 2017.
Iran has a large network of private, public, and state affiliated universities offering degrees in higher education.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hormozgan Province (استان هرمزگان, Ostān-e Hormozgān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
The state of human rights in Iran has been criticized both by Iranians and international human rights activists, writers, and NGOs since long before the formation of the current state of Iran.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Ilam Province (استان ایلام) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Ilham Aliyev (İlham Heydər oğlu Əliyev; born 24 December 1961) is the fourth and current President of Azerbaijan, in office since 2003.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Instagram is a photo and video-sharing social networking service owned by Facebook, Inc. It was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, and launched in October 2010 exclusively on iOS.
Internet censorship in Iran has been increasing.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iran (ایران) is the official daily newspaper of the government of Iran.
Iran Standard Time (IRST) or Iran Time (IT) is the time zone used in Iran.
Relations between the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Persian Empire (Iran), officially commenced in 1521, with the Safavids in power.
Iranian-Armenians (իրանահայեր iranahayer) also known as Persian-Armenians (պարսկահայեր parskahayer), are Iranians of Armenian ethnicity who may speak Armenian as their first language.
Assembly of Experts election were held in Iran on 26 February 2016 to elect Assembly of Experts members.
Iranian Call and Reform Organization (جماعت دعوت و اصلاح ایران) is a Sunni Islamist political organization in Iran.
Parliamentary elections were held in Iran on 26 February 2016 to elect members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly for all seats in the 10th parliament in the Islamic Republic era and the 34th since the Persian Constitutional Revolution.
Local elections were held in Iran on 19 May 2017 to elect members of the City and Village Councils simultaneously with the twelfth presidential election.
The Principlists (Osul-Garâyân, also interchangeably known as the Iranian Conservatives Open access material licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
The Iranian reformists (Eslâh-Talabân) are a political faction in Iran that support former President Mohammad Khatami's plans to change the Iranian political system to include more freedom and democracy.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IRIB TV1 (شبکه یک) is one of the 40 national television channels in Iran.
Isfahan province (Ostāne Esfahan), also transliterated as Esfahan, Espahan, Isfahan, or Isphahan, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran.
The Islamic conquest of Persia (637–651) led to the end of the Sasanian Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia.
Islamic Association of University Instructors (انجمن اسلامی مدرسین دانشگاهها) is an Iranian political party of academics affiliated with the Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front.
The Islamic Coalition Party (ICP; Ḥezb-e moʾtalefa-ye eslāmi) is a conservative political party in Iran that favors economic liberalism.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
Islamic Iran Solidarity Party (حزب همبستگی ایران اسلامی; Hezb-e Hambastegi-e Iran-e Eslami) is an Iranian reformist political party founded in 1998, by 10 members of Parliament of Iran.
The Islamic Republic News Agency (خبرگزاری جمهوری اسلامی), or IRNA, is the official news agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) (صدا و سيمای جمهوری اسلامی ايران, Sedā va Sīmā-ye Jomhūri-ye Eslāmi-ye Īrān, lit. Voice and Vision of the Islamic Republic of Iran), formerly called National Iranian Radio and Television until the Iranian revolution of 1979, is an Iranian media corporation which hold the monopoly of domestic radio and television services in Iran, is also among the largest media organizations in Asian and Pacific region, and a regular member of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
The Islamic Society of Engineers (ISE) (جامعهٔ اسلامی مهندسین, Jāme'-e eslāmī-ye mohandisīn) is a principlist political organization of engineers in Iran.
The Union of Islamic Student Societies (اتحادیه جامعه اسلامی دانشجویان) also known as the Islamic Society of Students is an Iranian student organization.
Sheikh Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah (جابر مبارك الحمد الصباح, born 4 January 1942) is a Kuwaiti royal politician and the Prime Minister of Kuwait since 2011.
Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born 12 April 1942) is a South African politician who served as the fourth President of South Africa from the 2009 general election until his resignation on 14 February 2018.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA; barnāmeye jāme‘e eqdāme moshtarak, acronym: برجام BARJAM), known commonly as the Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal, is an agreement on the nuclear program of Iran reached in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Judicial interpretation refers to different ways that the judiciary uses to interpret the law, particularly constitutional documents and legislation.
A nationwide judicial system in Iran was first implemented and established by Abdolhossein Teymourtash under Reza Shah, with further changes during the second Pahlavi era.
Catholicos Karekin II (Գարեգին Բ) (born August 21, 1951) is the current Catholicos of All Armenians, the supreme head of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kerman Province (استان کرمان, Ostān-e Kermān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Kermanshah Province (استان كرمانشاه, Ostān-e Kermanšah) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province (استان کهگیلویه و بویراحمد, Ostān-e Kohgīrūye-o Būyer-Ahmad) (Luri: استان کهگیلویه و بِیرَمَد, Ostān-e Kohgīrūye-o Beyramad) is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran.
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović ((born 29 April 1968) is a Croatian politician and diplomat who has been the President of Croatia since 2015. She is the first woman to be elected president after the first multi-party elections in 1990. At 46 years of age, she became the youngest person to enter the office. Before her election as president, Grabar-Kitarović held a number of governmental and diplomatic positions. She was Minister of European Affairs from 2003 to 2005, the first female Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration from 2005 to 2008 in both the first and second cabinets of Ivo Sanader, Croatian Ambassador to the United States from 2008 to 2011 and Assistant Secretary General for Public Diplomacy at NATO under Secretaries-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen and Jens Stoltenberg from 2011 to 2014. Grabar-Kitarović contested the presidential election held in December 2014 and January 2015 as the only female candidate (out of four in total), finishing as the runner-up in the first round and thereafter proceeding to narrowly defeat incumbent President Ivo Josipović in the second round. Her strong performance in the first round was widely viewed as unexpected, as most opinion polls had given incumbent president Josipović a strong lead and some even showed it was possible that he would win outright by acquiring more than 50% of the vote. In the second round, Grabar-Kitarović defeated Josipović by the closest percentage margin of any presidential election to date (1.48%) and received the smallest number of votes of any elected president in Croatia (1.114 million votes). Furthermore, as Croatia had previously also had a female Prime Minister, Jadranka Kosor, from 2009 until 2011, Grabar-Kitarović's election as president also included the country into a small group of parliamentary republics which have had both a female head of state and head of government. Grabar-Kitarović was a member of the conservative Croatian Democratic Union party from 1993 to 2015 and was also one of three Croatian members of the Trilateral Commission, but she was required to resign both positions upon taking office as president in 2015, as Croatian Presidents are not permitted to hold other political positions or party membership while in office. In 2017, Forbes magazine listed Grabar-Kitarović as the world's 39th most powerful woman.
Komala Party of Iranian Kurdistan (lit), simply known as the Komalah (Komełe; کومله), is an armed communist ethnic party of Kurds in Iran, exiled in northern Iraq.
The Komala Kurdistan's Organization of the Communist Party of Iran (کۆمەڵە ڕێکخراوی کوردستانی حیزبی کۆمۆنیستی ئێران) is an Iranian Kurdish communist party active throughout the borders between Iran-Iraq.
The Kurdish United Front (بەرەی يەکگرتووی كورد; جبهه متحد كرد; abbreviated KUF) is an ethnic political organization associated with Kurds in Iran which operates inside Iran.
The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP; Hizba Dêmokrata Kurdistanê-Îran, abbreviated HDK; حزب دموکرات کردستان) is an ethnic party of Kurds in Iran, which split from Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (KDPI) in 2006 after a dispute over choosing its next leader in the latter's 13th convention.
Kurdistan Province (استان کردستان, Ostān-e Kordestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
The Law Enforcement Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran or Disciplinary Force of the Islamic Republic of Iran (نیروی انتظامی جمهوری اسلامی ایران Nīrū-ye entezāmī-ye jomhūrī-ye eslāmī-ye Īrān), abbreviated as NAJA (ناجا) is the uniformed police force in Iran.
A leaders' debate or presidential debate is a public debate held during a general election campaign, where the candidates expose their political opinions and public policy proposals, and criticism of them, to potential voters.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The legislature (قوه مقننه) of Islamic Republic of Iran consists of two components, a unicameral parliamentary chamber called Islamic Consultative Assembly and a reviewing power, the Guardian Council of the Constitution.
The Iranian Monarchy was overthrown following the Islamic Revolution in 1979 with the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi going into exile.
This is a list of candidates in 2017 Iranian presidential election which were held on 19 May 2017.
The Mayor of Tehran is an elected politician who, along with the Tehran’s City Council of 21 members, is accountable for the strategic government of Tehran.
Following is a list of Speakers of the Parliament of Iran, from the Persian Constitutional Revolution to present.
Live television is a television production broadcast in real-time, as events happen, in the present.
Lorestan Province (استان لرستان, also written Luristan, Lurestan, or Loristan), is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
Pallewatte Gamaralalage Maithripala Yapa Sirisena (මෛත්රීපාල සිරිසේන; மைத்திரிபால சிறிசேன; born 3 September 1951) is a Sri Lankan politician and the 7th and current President of Sri Lanka, in office since January 2015.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Mariano Rajoy Brey (born 27 March 1955) is a Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 2011 to 2018, when a vote of no confidence ousted his government.
Mark Rutte (born 14 February 1967) is a Dutch politician serving as the 50th and current Prime Minister of the Netherlands since 2010 and Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie – VVD) since 2006.
Markazi Province (fa, Ostān-e Markazi) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.
Matteo Renzi (born 11 January 1975) is an Italian politician who served as the Prime Minister of Italy from February 2014 until December 2016.
Mazandaran Province, (استان مازندران Ostān-e Māzandarān/Ostân-e Mâzandarân), is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran.
Mahdi Khazali (مهدی خزعلی) is a publisher, physician, blogger and son of a leading right-wing cleric and former Counsel of Guardians member, Ayatollah Abolghasem Khazali.
Michel Naim Aoun (ميشال نعيم عون,; born 18 February 1935) is the current President of Lebanon.
The Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance (وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی also known as Ershad ارشاد) is the ministry of Culture of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Ministry of Industries and Mines of Iran (Wezārate Sannāye wa Maādene Irān), is the main organ of Iranian Government in charge of the regulation and implementation of policies applicable to industrial and mine sectors.
The Ministry of Interior (وزارت کشور) of the Islamic Republic of Iran is in charge of performing, supervising and reporting elections, policing, and other responsibilities related to an interior ministry.
Moderation and Development Party (Hezb-e E'tedāl va Towse'eh) is a political party in Iran.
Major General Mohammad Ali Jafari (محمدعلی جعفری, born 1 September 1957 in Yazd, also known as Aziz Jafari and Ali Jafari) is the Iranian commander of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC). He was appointed by the Supreme Leader of Iran, Ali Khamenei, on September 1, 2007, to succeed Major General Yahya Rahim Safavi. According to a September 2, 2007, report by Radio Free Europe, Radio Farda has described Jafari has been close to the conservative subfaction, which includes Mohsen Rezaee, the secretary of the Expediency Discernment Council and former commander of the IRGC and Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, a former IRGC member and the mayor of Tehran. The replacement of Safavi was thought to be a move to strengthen the conservative faction as a counterweight to the radicalizers around President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, whom Safavi is close to. "Observers appear to regard Jafari as principally a tactician, organizer, and 'technical' military man," according to Radio Free Europe. The EU's official journal said the three Iranian Revolutionary Guard members, Jafari, General Qasem Soleimani and the Guard's deputy commander for intelligence, Hossein Taeb, were now subject to sanctions and had been "providing equipment and support to help the Syrian regime suppress protests in Syria".
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf (محمدباقر قالیباف, born 23 August 1961) is an Iranian conservative politician and former military officer who held office as the Mayor of Tehran from 2005 to 2017.
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, Mayor of Tehran launched his third presidential campaign for the Iranian presidency on April 15, 2017.
Mohammad Gharazi (محمد غرضی, also spelled Mohammad Qarazi) is an Iranian politician who served as minister of petroleum from 1981 to 1985 and minister of post from 1985 to 1997.
Mohammad Javad Zarif Khonsari (محمدجواد ظریف خونساری;; born 7 January 1960) is an Iranian career diplomat, academic and current Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mostafa Hashemitaba (مصطفی هاشمیطبا; born 22 May 1946) is an Iranian reformist politician.
Mostafa Hashemitaba, independent nominee for Iranian presidential election, 2017 launched his campaign in April 2017.
Seyed Mostafa Agha Mirsalim (born 9 June 1947) is an Iranian engineer and conservative politician.
Mostafa Mir-Salim, was named as Islamic Coalition Party's nominee for Iranian presidential election, 2017 in December 2016.
Nabih Berri (نبيه بري; born 28 January 1938) is a Lebanese politician who has been the Speaker of the Parliament of Lebanon since 1992.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
Narendra Damodardas Modi (born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014.
The National Council of Iran (NCI; Šurā-ye melli-e Īrān), officially the National Council of Iran for Free Elections, is a loosely based umbrella group of the exiled opposition to Iran's Islamic Republic government, and serves as Reza Pahlavi's government in exile either to reclaim the former throne or as the new president of Iran after overthrowing the current government.
The National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI; Šurā-ye melli-e moqāwemat-e Īrān) is an Iranian political organization based in France.
The National Front of Iran (Jebha-ye Mellī-e Īrān) is an opposition political organization in Iran, founded by Mohammad Mosaddegh in 1949.
National Trust Party (Ḥezb-e Eʿtemād-e Mellī, also translated as National Confidence Party) is an Iranian political party based on reformist and populist message.
Sheikh Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (Arabic: الشيخ نواف الأحمد الجابر الصباح Nawaf al-Ahmad al-Jābir as-Sabāh, born 25 June 1937) is the Crown Prince of Kuwait and Deputy Commander of the Military of Kuwait.
Nedaye Iranian Party (lit) —NEDA is the official acronym standing for 'Second Generation of Reforms' (Nasl-e Dovom-e Eslahat)— is a reformist political party in Iran with social democratic leanings that held its first congress in 2015.
Negative campaigning or mudslinging is the process of deliberate spreading negative information about someone or something to worsen the public image of the described.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New York Post is the fourth-largest newspaper in the United States and a leading digital media publisher that reached more than 57 million unique visitors in the U.S. in January 2017.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
North Khorasan Province (استان خراسان شمالی, Ostān-e Khorāsān-e Shomālī) is a province located in northeastern Iran.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nursultan Ábishuly Nazarbayev (born 6 July 1940) is a Kazakh statesman serving as President of Kazakhstan since the office was created on April 24, 1990.
An oath of office is an oath or affirmation a person takes before undertaking the duties of an office, usually a position in government or within a religious body, although such oaths are sometimes required of officers of other organizations.
An obscenity is any utterance or act that strongly offends the prevalent morality of the time.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
The Revolutionary Khabat Organization of the Iranian Kurdistan, usually called Khabat (Kurdish for "struggle") is a Kurdish nationalist opposition group in Iran which seeks autonomy for Iranian Kurdistan.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Paolo Gentiloni Silveri (born 22 November 1954) is an Italian politician, who served as the 57th Prime Minister of Italy from 12 December 2016 to 1 June 2018.
The People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran or the Mojahedin-e Khalq (Sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e khalq-e irān, abbreviated MEK, PMOI or MKO), commonly known in Iran as Munafiqin ("hypocrites"), is an Iranian political–militant organization in exile that advocates the violent overthrow of the current government in Iran, while claiming itself as the replacing government in exile.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The National Sports Organisation was an effort by the Government of Iran to promote the development of athletics and sporting activities of Iran.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Popular Front of Islamic Revolution Forces (PFIRF; Jebha-ye Mardomi-ye Niruhā-ye Enqelāb-e Eslāmī) is a political organization in Iran, founded in late 2016 by ten figures from different spectrum of conservative factions.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
The President of Iran (Persian: رییسجمهور ایران Rayis Jomhur-e Irān) is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
This is a list of Presidents of the Republic of Tatarstan, a title created in 1991.
Presidential Administration of Iran (including Office of the President of Iran) consists of the immediate staff of the current President of Iran and multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President.
Progress and Justice Population of Islamic Iran (جمعیت پیشرفت و عدالت ایران اسلامی) is an Iranian Principlist political party closely associated with Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf.
Sayyid Qaboos bin Said Al Said (قابوس بن سعيد آل سعيد,; born 18 November 1940) is the Sultan of Oman.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Qazvin Province (استان قزوین, Ostān-e Qazvīn) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Qom Province (استان قم, Ostān-e Qom), pre-Islamic Komishan/Qomishan, is one of the 31 provinces of Iran with 11,237 km², covering 0.89% of the total area in Iran.
Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (born 3 June 1931) is a Cuban politician and leader who is currently serving as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the Communist state, succeeding his brother Fidel Castro in April 2011.
Razavi Khorasan Province (استان خراسان رضوی, Ostâne Xorâsâne Razavi) is a province located in northeastern Iran.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.
According to the CIA World Factbook, around 90–95%.
The Islamic Iran Resistance Front or Resistance Front of Islamic Iran (جبهه ایستادگی ایران اسلامی; Jebheye Istadegi), or simply Resistance Front, also translated Endurance Front, is an Iranian principlist political group, founded in 2011.
Resistance economy (اقتصاد مقاومتی) is a way to circumvent sanctions against a country or region experiencing sanctions.
Rex Wayne Tillerson (born March 23, 1952) is an American former government official and former energy executive who served as the 69th United States Secretary of State from February 1, 2017 to March 31, 2018, under President Donald Trump.
Reza Pahlavi (رضا پهلوی; born 31 October 1960) is the last heir apparent to the defunct throne of the Imperial State of Iran and is the current head of the exiled House of Pahlavi.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rosario Murillo Zambrana (born 22 June 1951) is the Vice-President and First Lady of Nicaragua.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian government interfered in the 2016 U.S. presidential election in order to increase political instability in the United States and to damage Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign by bolstering the candidacies of Donald Trump, Bernie Sanders and Jill Stein.
Rustam Nurgaliyevich Minnikhanov (Руста́м Нургали́евич Минниха́нов, Рөстәм Нургали улы Миңнеханов; born 1 March 1957) is a prominent politician and the second and current President of Tatarstan, a federal subject of Russia.
Sheikh Sabah IV Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah GCB (Hon) (الشيخ صباح الأحمد الجابر الصباح; born 16 June 1929) is the 15th Ruler and 5th Emir of Kuwait and the Commander of the Kuwait Military Forces.
Sadeq Ardeshir Larijani (صادق اردشیر لاریجانی; born 12 March 1961), more known as Amoli Larijani (آملی لاریجانی), is an Iranian cleric, conservative politician and the current and fifth head of the judicial system of Iran after the 1979 revolution.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The inauguration of Hassan Rouhani as the 7th President of Iran for his second term took place in two rounds, first on Thursday 3 August 2017, when he received his presidential precept from Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, and second on Saturday 5 August, when he was sworn into office in the Parliament of Iran.
Semnan Province (استان سمنان, Ostān-e Semnān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Sergio Mattarella (born 23 July 1941) is an Italian politician, lawyer and judge serving as the 12th and current President of Italy since 2015.
Serzh Sargsyan (Սերժ Սարգսյան,; born 30 June 1954).
Shahrbani (شهربانی; Šahrbānī) formerly called Nazmiyeh (نظمیه; Naẓmīya) was a law enforcement force in Iran, with police duties inside cities.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
is a Japanese politician serving as the 63rd and current Prime Minister of Japan and Leader of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) since 2012, previously being the 57th officeholder from 2006 to 2007.
Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Sigmar Hartmut Gabriel (born 12 September 1959) is a German politician who was Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2017 to 2018 and Vice-Chancellor of Germany from 2013 to 2018.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sistan and Baluchestan Province (Sistàn o Balòčestàn)(استان سيستان و بلوچستان, Ostān-e Sīstān-o Balūchestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
A smear campaign, also referred to as a smear tactic or simply a smear, is an effort to damage or call into question someone's reputation, by propounding negative propaganda.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
The Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom (جامعهٔ مدرسین حوزهٔ علمیهٔ قم) was founded in 1961 by the leading Muslim clerics of Qom.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Khorasan Province (استان خراسان جنوبی Ostān-e Khorāsān-e Jonūbī) is a province located in eastern Iran.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
"State Sponsors of Terrorism" is a designation applied by the United States Department of State to countries which the Department alleges to have "repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism".
Stephane Dujarric de la Rivière (born 20 August 1965) is the Spokesperson for the United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres.
Supreme National Security Council (SNSC; شورای عالی امنیت ملی Showrāye Āliye Amniyate Mellī) is the national security council of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the current secretary of the Supreme National Security Council of which is Rear Admiral Upper Half Ali Shamkhani.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani (تميم بن حمد آل ثاني; born 3 June 1980) is the current Amir of Qatar.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Tasnim News Agency is a private news agency in Iran launched in 2012.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Tehran Province (استان تهران Ostān-e Tehrān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) (بورس اوراق بهادار تهران) is Iran's largest stock exchange, which first opened in 1967.
Telegram is a cloud-based instant messaging and voice over IP service developed by Telegram Messenger LLP, a privately held company registered in London, United Kingdom, founded by the Russian entrepreneur Pavel Durov.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Green Path of Hope (شورای هماهنگی راه سبز امید) is an Iranian association established by Iranian presidential campaign candidate, Mir-Hossein Mousavi, on August 15, 2009, as the organizational body of Green Movement.
Theresa Mary May (Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016.
Tony Tan Keng Yam was the seventh President of Singapore, holding office from 2011 to 2017 after winning the Singaporean presidential election, 2011.
Trần Đại Quang (born 12 October 1956) is a Vietnamese politician who is the current State President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, in office since 2 April 2016.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
Union of Islamic Iran People Party (حزب اتحاد ملت ایران اسلامی) is an Iranian reformist political party founded in 2015.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Ursula Gertrud von der Leyen (née Albrecht; born 8 October 1958) is a German politician who has been the Minister of Defence since 2013, and she is the first woman in German history to hold that office.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
The Vice President of Iran (معاون ریاست جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is defined by article 124 of the Constitution of Iran, as anyone appointed by the President of Iran to lead an organization related to Presidential affairs.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Viktor Mihály Orbán (born 31 May 1963) is a Hungarian politician.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
West Azerbaijan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Will of the Iranian Nation Party (حزب اراده ملت ایران; abbreviated HAMA, حاما) is an Iranian reformist political party and officially founded in 2001, formed by students of University of Tehran's School of Law and Political Science in early 1990s.
The Workers' House (خانه کارگر) is the Iranian de facto national trade union center affiliated with the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) and a registered reformist worker's political organization/labour union.
Xi Jinping (born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician currently serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), President of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
Yasuj (ياسوج; also Romanized as Yāsūj, Yasooj, and Yesūj; Lurish: یاسووج or یاسیچ - Jasuc and Jasyç) is a city and capital of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran.
Yazd Province (استان یزد, Ostān-e Yazd) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Front of Comrades for the Effectiveness and Transformation of Islamic Iran (جبهه یاران کارآمدی و تحول ایران اسلامی), known by the backronym YEKTA Front (جبهه یکتا, meaning Unique) is an Iranian principlist political group, formed in 2015.
Zanjan Province (استان زنجان, Ostâne Zanjân; also Romanized as Ostān-e Zanjān; Zəngan ostanı, زنگان اوستانی, Зәнган останы) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.