118 relations: Abbas I of Persia, Abbasi (currency), Aghazadeh Mansion, Al Jazeera, Al-Aqsa Mosque, Aluminium, Amir Kabir Dam, Arab News, Arabian Business, Avicenna Mausoleum, Azadi Tower, Bank Melli Iran, Banker's draft, Banking and insurance in Iran, Banknote, Black market, Capital account, Capital flight, Carl Levin, Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Central Intelligence Agency, Chaharbagh School, Cheque, Coin, Copper, Counterfeit, Credit card, Currency, Current account, Darius I, Decimalisation, Derivative (finance), Devaluation, Dome of the Rock, Dutch disease, Economy of Iran, Exchange rate, Fath-Ali Shah Qajar, Fatima Masumeh Shrine, Feyziyeh School, Foreign direct investment in Iran, Foreign exchange market, Foreign-exchange reserves, Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Hassan Modarres, I.B. Tauris, Ilkhanate, Imam Reza shrine, Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, Iran, ..., Iranian oil bourse, Iranian qiran, Iranian Revolution, Iranian toman, Islamic Consultative Assembly, ISO 4217, Jameh Mosque of Yazd, Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, Kaaba, Khaju Bridge, Legal tender, Letter of credit, Liberation of Khorramshahr, Lion and Sun, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Mahmud of Ghazni, Marble Palace (Tehran), Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Monetary policy, Mount Damavand, Muhammad, Nader Shah, Naqsh-e Jahan Square, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, National Development Fund of Iran, Nickel, Nuclear program of Iran, Oil refinery, Oil reserves in Iran, Omid, Pahlavi dynasty, Pasargadae, Persian Gulf, Persian language, Pleiades, Pound sterling, Press TV, Qajar dynasty, Qom, Redenomination, Revaluation of the Turkish Lira, Reza Shah, Routledge, Ruhollah Khomeini, Sa'dabad Complex, Saadi Shirazi, Safir (rocket), Samanid Empire, Sanctions against Iran, Saudi riyal, Shah, Shetab Banking System, Shiraz, Silver coin, Social services, Supply and demand, Tehran Stock Exchange, The Independent, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The World Factbook, Tomb of Hafez, Unicode, United States dollar, University of Sussex, University of Tehran main entrance, Velocity of money, Zinc. Expand index (68 more) » « Shrink index
Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (شاه عباس بزرگ; 27 January 157119 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty.
ʿAbbāsī was a name applied to gold and silver coins in Iran first issued by the Safavid shah Abbas I (r. 1581–1629).
Aghazadeh Mansion and its windcatcher was built during the Qajar Dynasty and is located in Abarkooh, Iran.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al-Aqsa Mosque (Al-Masjid al-Aqṣā,, "the Farthest Mosque"), located in the Old City of Jerusalem, is the third holiest site in Islam.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amir Kabir dam (سد امیر کبیر.), also known as Karaj dam, is a dam on the Karaj River in the Central Alborz mountain range of northern Iran.
Arab News is an English-language daily newspaper published in Saudi Arabia.
Arabian Business is a weekly business magazine published in Dubai and focusing on the Middle East.
The Mausoleum of Avicenna is a complex located at Avicenna Square, Hamadan, Iran.
The Azadi Tower (برج آزادی,; "Freedom Tower"), formerly known as the Shahyad Tower (برج شهیاد,; "Shah's Memorial Tower"), is a monument located at Azadi Square, in Tehran, Iran.
Bank Melli Iran (BMI; lit) is the first national and commercial retail bank of Iran.
A banker's draft (also called a bank cheque, bank draft in Canada or, in the US, a teller's check) is a cheque (or check) provided to a customer of a bank or acquired from a bank for remittance purposes, that is drawn by the bank, and drawn on another bank or payable through or at a bank.
Following the Iranian Revolution, Iran's banking system was transformed to be run on an Islamic interest-free basis.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
In macroeconomics and international finance, the capital account (also known as the financial account) is one of two primary components of the balance of payments, the other being the current account.
Capital flight, in economics, occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence.
Carl Milton Levin (born June 28, 1934) is an American attorney and retired politician who served as a United States Senator from Michigan from 1979 - 2015.
The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran (CBI; Bank Markazi-ye Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān, also known as Bank Markazi) is the central bank of Iran.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chahār Bāgh school (Madreseye Chahār Bāgh in Persian or مدرسه چهار باغ), also known as Shah school, is a 17-18th century cultural complex in Isfahan, Iran.
A cheque, or check (American English; see spelling differences), is a document that orders a bank to pay a specific amount of money from a person's account to the person in whose name the cheque has been issued.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The counterfeit means to imitate something.
A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
In economics, a country's current account is one of the two components of its balance of payments, the other being the capital account (also known as the financial account).
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Decimalisation is the process of converting a currency from its previous non-decimal denominations to a decimal system (i.e., a system based on one basic unit of currency and one or more sub-units, such that the number of sub-units in one basic unit is a power of 10, most commonly 100).
In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity.
In modern monetary policy, a devaluation is an official lowering of the value of a country's currency within a fixed exchange rate system, by which the monetary authority formally sets a new fixed rate with respect to a foreign reference currency or currency basket.
The Dome of the Rock (قبة الصخرة Qubbat al-Sakhrah, כיפת הסלע Kippat ha-Sela) is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.
In economics, the Dutch disease is the apparent causal relationship between the increase in the economic development of a specific sector (for example natural resources) and a decline in other sectors (like the manufacturing sector or agriculture).
The economy of Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector.
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
Fath-Ali Shah Qajar (فتحعلى شاه قاجار; var. Fathalishah, Fathali Shah, Fath Ali Shah; 25 September 1772 – 23 October 1834) was the second Shah (Qajar emperor) of Iran.
The Shrine of Fatima Masumeh (حرم فاطمه معصومه) is located in Qom which is considered by Shia Muslims to be the second most sacred city in Iran after Mashhad.
Feyziyya School (مدرسه فیضیه) is an old school in Iran that was founded in the Safavid era.
Foreign direct investment in Iran (FDI) has been hindered by unfavorable or complex operating requirements and by international sanctions, although in the early 2000s the Iranian government liberalized investment regulations.
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
Foreign-exchange reserves (also called forex reserves or FX reserves) is money or other assets held by a central bank or other monetary authority so that it can pay if need be its liabilities, such as the currency issued by the central bank, as well as the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government and other financial institutions.
The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Neẓām-e jomhūrī-e eslāmi-e Irān, known simply as Neẓām (lit) among its supporters, and "the regime" among its dissidents) is the ruling state and current political system in Iran, in power since the revolution and fall of Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
Seyyed Hassan Modarres (سید حسن مدرس c. 1870, Sarabeh, December 1 1937, Kashmar), was an Iranian Twelver Shi'a cleric and a notable supporter of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
The Imam Reza shrine (حرم امام رضا) in Mashhad, Iran is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the eighth Imam of Twelver Shiites.
The Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI; مؤسسهٔ استاندارد و تحقیقات صنعتی ایران) is the Iranian governmental institution for standardization and certification.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Oil Bourse (بورس نفت ایران), International Oil Bourse, Iran Petroleum Exchange Kish Exchange or Oil Bourse in Kish (IOB; the official English language name is unclear) also known as Iran Crude Oil Exchange,http://en.seo.ir/rendermodule.aspx?SelectedSingleViewItemID.
The qiran (قران), also qerun or kran, was a currency of Iran between 1825 and 1932.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Iranian toman (fa, pronounced; from Mongolian tümen "unit of ten thousand", see Tumen (unit)) is a superunit of the official currency of Iran, the rial.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
The Jāmeh Mosque of Yazd (مسجد جامع یزد – Masjid-e-Jāmeh Yazd) is the grand, congregational mosque (Jāmeh) of Yazd city, within the Yazd Province of Iran.
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA; barnāmeye jāme‘e eqdāme moshtarak, acronym: برجام BARJAM), known commonly as the Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal, is an agreement on the nuclear program of Iran reached in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.
The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Khaju Bridge (پل خواجو Pol-e Khāju) is a bridge in the province of Isfahan, Iran, which has been described as the finest in the province.
Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.
A letter of credit (LC), also known as a documentary credit, bankers commercial credit, is a payment mechanism used in international trade to perform the same economic function as a guarantee, by allocating risk undertaken by contracting parties.
The Liberation of Khorramshahr (آزادسازی خرمشهر Āzādsāzi-ye Khorramshahr) was the Iranian recapture of the port city of Khorramshahr from the Iraqis on 24 May 1982, during the Iran–Iraq War.
The Lion and Sun (شیر و خورشید, Shir o Khorshid) is one of the main emblems of Iran (Persia), and formerly was an element in Iran's national flag.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمینالدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.
The Marble Palace (کاخ مرمر, Kākh-e Marmar) is one of the historic buildings and royal residences in Tehran, Iran.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Mount Damavand (دماوند), a potentially active volcano, is a stratovolcano which is the highest peak in Iran and the highest volcano in Asia; the Kunlun Volcanic Group in Tibet is higher than Damāvand, but are not considered to be volcanic mountains.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
Naqsh-e Jahan Square (میدان نقش جهان Maidān-e Naqsh-e Jahān; trans: "Image of the World Square"), also known as Meidan Emam, is a square situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran.
Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (16 July 1831 – 1 May 1896) (ناصرالدین شاه قاجار), also Nassereddin Shah Qajar, was the King of Persia from 5 September 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated.
The National Development Fund of Iran (NDFI) (صندوق توسعه ملی) is Iran's sovereign wealth fund.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
The nuclear program of Iran has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Proved oil reserves in Iran, according to its government, rank fourth largest in the world at approximately as of 2013, although it ranks third if Canadian reserves of unconventional oil are excluded.
Omid (امید, meaning "Hope") was Iran's first domestically made satellite.
The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
Pasargadae (from Πασαργάδαι, from Old Persian Pāθra-gadā, "protective club" or "strong club"; Modern Persian: پاسارگاد Pāsārgād) was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great who had issued its construction (559–530 BC); it was also the location of his tomb.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Pleiades (also known as the Seven Sisters and Messier 45), are an open star cluster containing middle-aged, hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
Redenomination is the process of changing the face value of banknotes or coins used in circulating currency.
The new Turkish lira (Yeni Türk Lirası) was the currency of Turkey and the de facto independent state of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2008 which was a transition period for the removal of six zeroes from the currency.
Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
The Sa'dabad Complex (مجموعه سعدآباد – Majmue ye Sa’dābād) is a 300 hectare complex built by the Qajar and Pahlavi monarchs, located in Shemiran, Greater Tehran, Iran.
Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī (ابومحمد مصلحالدین بن عبدالله شیرازی), better known by his pen-name Saadi (سعدی Saʿdī()), also known as Saadi of Shiraz (سعدی شیرازی Saadi Shirazi), was a major Persian poet and literary of the medieval period.
The Safir (سفیر, meaning "ambassador") is the first Iranian expendable launch vehicle that is able to place a satellite in orbit.
The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.
Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the resulting hostage crisis, the United States imposed an asset freeze and trade embargo against Iran.
The Saudi riyal (ريال); is the currency of Saudi Arabia. It is abbreviated as ر.س or SR (Saudi riyal). It is subdivided into 100 halalas (هللة).
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
The Shetab (Interbank Information Transfer Network) system is an electronic banking clearance and automated payments system used in Iran.
Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).
Silver coins are possibly the oldest mass-produced form of coinage.
Social services are a range of public services provided by the government, private, and non-profit organizations.
In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.
The Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) (بورس اوراق بهادار تهران) is Iran's largest stock exchange, which first opened in 1967.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Tomb of Hafez and its associated memorial hall, the Hāfezieh (حافظیه), are two memorial structures erected in the northern edge of Shiraz, Iran, in memory of the celebrated Persian poet Hafez.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The University of Sussex is a public research university in Falmer, Sussex, England.
The University of Tehran main entrance was designed in 1965 by Korosh Farzami, one of the students of the faculty of Fine Arts of the University and built by Arme Construction Company.
Similar chart showing the velocity of a broader measure of money that covers M2 plus large institutional deposits, M3. The US no longer publishes official M3 measures, so the chart only runs through 2005. The term "velocity of money" (also "The velocity of circulation of money") refers to how fast money passes from one holder to the next.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.