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'Abd al-Ilah of Hejaz, (Arabic: عبد الإله) (also written Abdul Ilah or Abdullah) (14 November 1913 – 14 July 1958) was a cousin and brother-in-law of Ghazi of Iraq.
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The Abbasid Caliphate (or الخلافة العباسية) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
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Abd al-Karim Qasim (عبد الكريم قاسم) (21 November 1914 – 9 February 1963), was a nationalist Iraqi Army brigadier who seized power in a 1958 coup d'état, wherein the Iraqi monarchy was eliminated.
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Hajj Abdul Rahman Mohammed Arif Aljumaily (Arabic عبد الرحمن محمد عارف الجميلي; April 14, 1916August 24, 2007) was the third President of Iraq, a position he held from April 16, 1966 to July 17, 1968.
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‘Abd ul-Salam Mohammed ‘Arif Aljumaily (عبد السلام محمد عارف الجميلي) (21 March 1921 – 13 April 1966) was the second President of Iraq from 1963 until his death.
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During the war in Iraq that began in March 2003, personnel of the United States Army and the Central Intelligence Agency committed a series of human rights violations against detainees in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq.
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (أبو مصعب الزرقاوي,, Abu Musab from Zarqa; October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh (أحمد فضيل النزال الخلايله) was a militant Islamist from Jordan who ran a paramilitary training camp in Afghanistan.
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Athura (𐎠𐎰𐎢𐎼𐎠 Aθurā) was a geographical area within the Persian Achaemenid Empire held by the last nobility of Aššur (Akkadian), known as Athura (Neo-Aramaic) or Atouria (Greek), during the period of 539 BC to 330 BC as a military protectorate state of Persia under the rule of Cyrus the Great.
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The Achaemenid Empire, also called the, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great, notable for embracing various civilizations and becoming the largest empire of the ancient history, spanning at its maximum extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east.
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Adab or Udab (Sumerian: Adabki, spelled UD.NUNKI) was an ancient Sumerian city between Telloh and Nippur.
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Adad-nirari II is generally considered to be the first King of Assyria in the Neo-Assyrian period.
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Adiabene (from the Ancient Greek Ἀδιαβηνή, Adiabene, itself derived from ܚܕܝܐܒ, or, Old Persian: Nodshirakan, Armenian: Նոր Շիրական, Nor Shirakan) was an ancient kingdom in Assyria, with its capital at Arbela (modern-day Arbil, Iraq).
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Afro-Iraqis are an ethnic group that is descended from people of Zanj heritage in Iraq.
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Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic),Daniel Don Nanjira,, (ABC-CLIO: 2010).
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The Afsharids (افشاریان) were members of a native Iranian dynasty of Turkic origin, specifically the Afshar tribe, from Khorasan, who ruled Persia in the 18th century.
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The Ağ Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans Ağqoyunlu, Akgoýunly, Persian: آق قویونلو or آغ قویونلو), was a Sunni Azerbaijani Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia, Eastern Turkey, part of Iran, and northern Iraq from 1378 to 1501.
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Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (Arabic أحمد حسن البكر; 1 July 1914 – 4 October 1982) was the fourth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 17 July 1968 until 16 July 1979.
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Akkad (also spelled Akkade or Agade) was the capital of the Akkadian Empire, which was the dominant political force in Mesopotamia at the end of the third millennium BCE.
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The Akkadian Empire was an ancient Semitic empire centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia. The empire united all the indigenous Akkadian-speaking Semites and the Sumerian speakers under one rule. The Akkadian Empire controlled Mesopotamia, the Levant, and parts of Iran.Mish, Frederick C., Editor in Chief. "Akkad" Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. ninth ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster 1985. ISBN 0-87779-508-8). During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Semitic Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate). The Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon of Akkad (2334–2279 BC). Under Sargon and his successors, Akkadian language was briefly imposed on neighboring conquered states such as Elam. Akkad is sometimes regarded as the first empire in history, though there are earlier Sumerian claimants. After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, the Akkadian people of Mesopotamia eventually coalesced into two major Akkadian speaking nations: Assyria in the north, and, a few centuries later, Babylonia in the south.
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Akkadian (akkadû, ak.kADû) is an extinct east Semitic language (part of the greater Afroasiatic language family) that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia.
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Akshak was a city of ancient Sumer, situated on the northern boundary of Akkad, sometimes identified with Babylonian Upi (Greek Opis).
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Al Anbar Governorate (محافظة الأنبار) (or Anbar Province) is, geographically, the largest governorate in Iraq.
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Al-Diwaniyah Governorate (الديوانيةAl Diwaniyah) is one of the provinces of Iraq.
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Al Jazeera (الجزيرة, literally "The Peninsula", referring to the Arabian Peninsula), also known as Aljazeera and JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a Doha-based state-funded broadcaster owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network, which is partly funded by the House of Thani, the ruling family of Qatar.
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Al Shorta Sports Club (Police Sports Club, نادي الشرطة الرياضي) is an Iraqi multi-sport club based in Rusafa District, East Districts of the Tigris River, Baghdad.
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The al-Anfal Campaign (Harakat al-Anfal/Homleh al-Anfal) (حملة الأنفال), also known as the Kurdish Genocide, Operation Anfal or simply Anfal, was a genocidal campaign against the Kurdish people (and other non-Arab populations) in northern Iraq, led by the Ba'athist Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and headed by Ali Hassan al-Majid in the final stages of Iran–Iraq War.
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Al-Musta'sim Billah (full name: al-Musta'sim-Billah Abu-Ahmad Abdullah bin al-Mustansir-Billah;; 1213 – February 20, 1258) was the last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad; he ruled from 1242 until his death.
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Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas, from the Greek ἀλέξω (alexō) "defend" and ἀνδρ- (andr-), the stem of ἀνήρ (anēr) "man" and means "protector of men") was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;. and a member of the Argead dynasty, a famous ancient Greek royal house.
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Ali ibn Abi Talib (t,; 13th Rajab, 22 or 16 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH; September 20, 601 or July 17, 607 or 600 – January 27, 661) was the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, ruling over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661.
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An alluvial plain is a largely flat landform created by the deposition of sediment over a long period of time by one or more rivers coming from highland regions, from which alluvial soil forms.
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Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty and AI) is a non-governmental organisation focused on human rights with over 7 million members and supporters around the world.
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The Amorites (Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm; Egyptian Amar; Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī; Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from ancient Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon which was raised from a small administrative town to an independent state and major city.
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Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.
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The Anglo–Iraqi War was the British campaign against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq during the Second World War.
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Antioch on the Orontes was an ancient Greek - Roman city on the eastern side of the Orontes River.
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An apricot is a fruit or the tree that bears the fruit of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
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The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في العراق Hizb Al-Baath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Al-'Iraq), officially the Iraqi Regional Branch (Iraq being a "region" of the Arab nation in Ba'ath ideology) of the Arab Ba'athist political party founded in 1951 by Fuad al-Rikabi.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي) was a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests (both non-violent and violent), riots, and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution, and spread throughout the countries of the Arab League and its surroundings.
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The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab Nation (الأمة العربية), consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries of the Arab League.
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The Arabian Peninsula (شبه الجزيرة العربية or جزيرة العرب), also known as Arabia, is a peninsula of Western Asia situated north-east of Africa on the Arabian plate.
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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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Arabic maqam (مقام / ALA-LC: maqām; pl. maqāmāt) is the system of melodic modes used in traditional Arabic music, which is mainly melodic.
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While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.
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The Arabic script is a writing system used for writing several languages of Asia and Africa, such as Arabic, dialects of Mandinka, the Sorani and Luri dialects of Kurdish, Persian, Urdu, Pashto, and others.
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Arabs (عرب, ʿarab) are a major panethnic group whose native language is Arabic, comprising the majority of the Arab world.
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Aram is a region mentioned in the Bible located in present-day central Syria, including where the city of Aleppo (a.k.a. Halab) now stands.
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The Arameans, or Aramaeans, (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ, ארמיא) were a Northwest Semitic people who originated in what is now present-day western, southern and central Syria (Biblical Aram) during the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
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Looting throughout the Middle East including Iraq started many years ago.
Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian:, New Persian: اردشیر), also known as Ardashir the Unifier (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire.
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"Ardulfurataini Watan" (The Land of The Two Rivers) (أرض الفراتين) is the old national anthem of Iraq.
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A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
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The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayots grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayots aybuben) is a graphically unique alphabetical writing system that has been used to write the Armenian language.
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The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenians.
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Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
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The history of Armenians in Iraq is documented since late Babylonian times.
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Sir Arnold Talbot Wilson KCIE CSI CMG DSO (18 July 1884 –31 May 1940) was the British civil commissioner in Baghdad in 1918–1920.
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Arrapha or Arrapkha (Akkadian: Arrapḫa, Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, أررابخا,عرفة) was an ancient city in what today is northeastern Iraq, on the site of the modern city of Kirkuk.
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Ashur (often also transliterated as Asshur to reflect the pointing of Hebrew letter 'ש' (Shin) in the Masoretic text, which doubles the 'ש'), was the second son of Shem, the son of Noah.
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Ashur-uballit I (Aššur-uballiṭ I), who reigned between 1365 and 1330 BC, was the first king of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC).
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Ashurbanipal (Aššur-bāni-apli; "ܐܵܫܘܿܪ ܒܵܢܝܼ ܐܵܦܠܝܼ"; 'Ashur is the creator of an heir'; 668 BC – c. 627 BC),These are the dates according to the Assyrian King list, also spelled Assurbanipal or Ashshurbanipal, was an Assyrian king, the son of Esarhaddon and the last strong king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (934–609 BC).
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Aššur-nāṣir-apli I, inscribed maš-šur-PAB-A, “the god Aššur is the protector of the heir,” was the king of Assyria, 1049–1031 BC, and the 92nd to appear on the Assyrian Kinglist.
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The Asian Football Confederation (AFC) is the governing body of association football in Asia and Australia.
The Associated Press (AP) is an American multinational nonprofit news agency headquartered in New York City.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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Aššur (Akkadian) (English | Ashur/Assyria, Assyrian / Aššur; Assyrian Neo-Aramaic / Ātûr; אַשּׁוּר /; آشور / ALA-LC: Āshūr; Kurdish: Asûr), also known as Ashur, Qal'at Sherqat and Kalah Shergat, is a city from the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
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Assyria, a major Mesopotamian East Semitic kingdom and empire of the Ancient Near East, existed as an independent state for a period of approximately nineteen centuries, from the 25th century BC to 605 BC, spanning the mid to Early Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age.
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Assyria was a Roman province that lasted only two years (116–118 AD).
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The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻIttā d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ, ʻIttā Qaddishtā w-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi d-Madnĕkhā d-Āturāyē), is a Syriac Church historically centered in Assyria, northern Mesopotamia.
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Assyrian homeland or Assyria refers to a geographic and cultural region inhabited since the 25th century BC traditionally by the indigenous Assyrian people; who call it Assyria (ܐܬܘܪ) or variations of.
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The Assyrian Pentecostal Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܐܚܘܢܘ̈ܬܐ ܦܢܛܩܘܣܛܝ̈ܐ ܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ, ‘Ittā d-Akhonāwāthā Pēnṭēqosṭāyē Ātūrāyē), in (Persian: کلیسای پنطیکاستی آشوری), began in ethnically Assyrian villages across the Urmia region in northwestern Iran, spreading to the Assyrians living in the adjacent cities, and from there to indigenous Assyrian communities in the Assyrian Homeland- northern Iraq, southeastern Turkey and northeastern Syria.
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Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), also known as Chaldeans, Syriacs, and Arameans, (see names of Syriac Christians) are a Christian, Semitic,James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: A-C, pp.
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Assyrians in Iraq are those Assyrians still residing in the country of Iraq.
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Astrology consists of several pseudoscientific systems of divination based on the premise that there is a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events in the human world.
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Astronomy is a natural science which is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation.
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An autonomous administrative division is an administrative division of a country that has a degree of autonomy, or freedom from an external authority.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte, 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces.
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Ayad Allawi (إياد علاوي.; born 1944) is an Iraqi politician who was the interim Prime Minister of Iraq from 2004 to 2005.
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Azerbaijani or Azeri, sometimes referred to as Azerbaijani Turkish or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijani people, who are concentrated mainly in the South Caucasus geographical region.
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The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (also spelled Ba'th or Baath, "resurrection" or "renaissance"; حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki), also referred to as the pro-Iraqi Ba'ath movement, was a neo-Ba'athist political party headquartered in Baghdad, Iraq.
Ba'athism (البعث al-ba‘ath meaning "renaissance"/"resurrection") is an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party over a progressive revolutionary government.
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Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic, covers the history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule.
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Babil Governorate or Babylon Province (بابل Bābil) is a governorate in central Iraq.
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Babylon (Bābili or Babilim; بابل, Bābil) was a significant city in ancient Mesopotamia, in the fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking Semitic state and cultural region based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
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Bad-tibira, "Wall of the Copper Worker(s)", or "Fortress of the Smiths", identified as modern Tell al-Madineh, between Ash Shatrah and Tell as-Senkereh (ancient Larsa) in southern Iraq, was an ancient Sumerian city, which appears among antediluvian cities in the Sumerian King List.
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Baghdad (بغداد, Iraqi pronunciation) is the capital of the Republic of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Province.
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Baghdad Eyalet (ایالت بغداد; Eyālet-i Baġdād) was an Iraqi eyalet of the Ottoman Empire centered on Baghdad.
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Baghdad Governorate (محافظة بغداد), also known as the Baghdad Province, is the capital governorate of Iraq.
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Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is a small island country situated near the western shores of the Persian Gulf.
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Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain.
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Basketball is a sport played by two teams of five players on a rectangular court.
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Basmati (pronounced in South Asia) is a variety of long, slender grain aromatic rice which is traditionally from India and Pakistan.
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Basra, also written Basrah (البصرة; BGN: Al Başrah), is the capital of Basra Governorate, located on the Shatt al-Arab river in southern Iraq between Kuwait and Iran.
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Basra Governorate (البصرة Al Baṣra) (or Basra Province) is a governorate in southern Iraq, bordering Kuwait to the south and Iran to the east.
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Basra Sports City is a sports complex in Basra, Southern Iraq.
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The Battle of Opis, fought in September 539 BC, was a major engagement between the armies of Persia under Cyrus the Great and the Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus during the Persian invasion of Mesopotamia.
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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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The Bedouin (also Bedouins; from the Arabic badw بَدْو or badawiyyīn/badawiyyūn/"Al Buainain بَدَوِيُّون, plurals of badawī بَدَوِي) are an Arab seminomadic group, descended from nomads who have historically inhabited the Arabian and Syrian Deserts.
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Bell pepper, also known as sweet pepper or a pepper (in the United Kingdom, Canada and Ireland) and capsicum (in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Australia, Singapore and New Zealand), is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.
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Belshazzar (Biblical Hebrew בלשאצר; Akkadian: Bēl-šarra-uṣur; Greek: Balthazar, from Akkadian, meaning "Protect His Life"; or, possibly, " Bel Protect the King") was Coregent of Babylon.
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The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–53.
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Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
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The BMP-1 is a Soviet amphibious tracked infantry fighting vehicle.
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Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.
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The December 1998 bombing of Iraq (code-named Operation Desert Fox) was a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from December 16, 1998, to December 19, 1998, by the United States and United Kingdom.
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Boxing is a martial art and combat sport in which two people throw punches at each other, usually with gloved hands.
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BP plc, also referred to by its former name British Petroleum, is one of the world's six "supermajor" oil and gas companies.
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The British Mandate for Mesopotamia (الانتداب البريطاني على العراق) was a Mandate proposed to be entrusted Britain at the San Remo, Italy-based conference,The new Cambridge modern history.
Bulgur (from bulgur; also burghul, from برغل) is a cereal food made from the groats of several different wheat species, most often from ''durum'' wheat.
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The Business Anti-Corruption Portal (BACP) is a one-stop shop for business anti-corruption information offering tools on how to mitigate risks and costs of corruption when doing business abroad.
The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
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California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States.
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A caliphate (خِلافة khilāfa) is a form of Islamic government led by a caliph (خَليفة)—a person considered a political and religious successor to the prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire Muslim community.
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The Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia ruled by the Umayyad dynasty along with a part of North Africa.
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Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍; Biblical Hebrew: כנען /; Masoretic: כְּנָעַן /) was, during the late 2nd millennium BC, a region in the Ancient Near East.
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The Canaanite languages are a subfamily of the Semitic languages, which were spoken by the ancient peoples of the Canaan region, the Canaanites (including the Israelites and Phoenicians), Amorites, Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, and Carthaginians.
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Estimates of the casualties from the conflict in Iraq since 2003 (beginning with the 2003 US invasion of Iraq, and the ensuing occupation and insurgency) have come in many forms, and the accuracy of the information available on different types of Iraq War casualties varies greatly.
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The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or occasionally Europid) is a taxon historically used to describe the physical or biological type of some or all of the populations of Europe, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia.
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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black and the Caspian seas.
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The cello (plural cellos or celli) or violoncello is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths.
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The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the U.S. Government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
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The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
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The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X, p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BC, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, also known as the Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of bronze"), is a phase of the Bronze Age before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze.
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Chaldea, from Χαλδαία,; māt Kaldu/Kašdu; כשדים,; ܟܠܕܘ,, also spelled Chaldaea, was a small Semitic nation that emerged between the late 10th and early 9th century BC, surviving until the mid 6th century BC, after which it disappeared as the Chaldean tribes were absorbed into the native population of Babylonia.
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The Chaldean Catholic Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿītha kaldetha qāthuliqetha), (Arabic: الكنيسة الكلدانية al-kaniisa al-keldaneeya) is an Eastern Syriac particular church of the Catholic Church, under the Holy See of the Catholicos-Patriarch of Babylon, maintaining full communion with the Bishop of Rome and the rest of the Catholic Church.
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Charles Glass (born 1951) is an American-British author, journalist, and broadcaster specializing in the Middle East.
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Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Nakhchuoi) are a Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.
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Cheekha Dar, or The Outer Row, is the local Kurdish name for the mountain currently thought to be the highest in Iraq.
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A chemical weapon (CW) is a munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on human beings.
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The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an arms control treaty which outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.
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Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation.
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The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
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The chili pepper (also chile pepper or chilli pepper, from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae.
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China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)A common shortname for the corporation in Chinese, Zhongguo Shiyou (中国石油), formerly shared the same name as the Chinese Petroleum Corporation, the Republic of China (Taiwan)'s state-owned fuel corporation.
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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The Christians of Iraq are considered to be one of the oldest continuous Christian communities in the world.
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The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ʿĒ(d)tāʾ d-Maḏn(ə)ḥāʾ), also known as the Nestorian Church, was a Christian church within the Syriac tradition of Eastern Christianity.
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In antiquity, Cilicia or less often Kilikia (Կիլիկիա; Κιλικία; Middle Persian: Klikiyā, Parthian: Kilikiyā, Kilikya), was the south coastal region of Asia Minor, south of the central Anatolian plateau.
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The Cimmerians or Kimmerians (Κιμμέριοι, Kimmerioi) were an ancient Indo-European people living north of the Caucasus and the Sea of Azov as early as 1300 BC until they were driven southward by the Scythians into Anatolia during the 8th century BC.
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Circassian, also known as Cherkess, is a dialect continuum of the North Caucasus.
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The Circassians (Circassian: Адыгэхэр, Adygekher) are a North Caucasian ethnic group native to Circassia, who were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
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Circassians in Iraq are people of North Caucasian origin in Iraq, including Adyghes, Chechens and Dagestanis.
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In the Persian Empire Cissia（Κισσία) was a very fertile district of Susiana, on the Choaspes. According to Herodotus, the inhabitants, Cissii, were a 'wild', free people, resembling the Persians in their manners. Herodotus and other ancient Greek writers sometimes referred to the region around Susa as "Cissia", a variant of the Kassite name. However, it is not clear if Kassites were actually living in that region so late.
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The largest cities in the Bronze Age ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands.
Citigroup Inc. or Citi is an American multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Manhattan, New York City.
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Citrus is a common term and genus (Citrus) of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae.
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A city is a large and permanent human settlement.
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A city-state is a sovereign state consisting of a city and its dependent territories.
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A civilization (US) or civilisation (UK) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification, symbolic communication forms (typically, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
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In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.
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CNBC is an American basic cable and satellite business news television channel that is owned by NBCUniversal News Group, a division of Comcast Corporation.
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The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA; سلطة الائتلاف المؤقتة) was established as a transitional government of Iraq following the invasion of the country on 19 March 2003 by the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Poland, forming the Multinational Force (or 'the coalition') aiming to oust the government of Saddam Hussein.
Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 2: Dissolution of Entities signed by Coalition Provisional Authority on 23 May 2003, disbanded the Iraqi military, security, and intelligence infrastructure of President Saddam Hussein.
Ficus carica is an Asian species of flowering plants in the mulberry family, known as the common fig (or just the fig).
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The Constitution of Iraq is Iraq's fundamental law.
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The Council of Representatives of Iraq (مجلس النواب العراقي Majlis an-Nuwwāb al-ʿIrāqiyy، Kurdish: ئهنجومهنی نوێنهرانی عێراق، Encumena Nûnerên Êraq) is the unicameral legislature of Iraq.
A coup d'état (literally "blow of state"; plural: coups d'état, pronounced like the singular form), also known simply as a coup, or an overthrow, is the sudden and (usually) illegal seizure of a state, usually instigated by a small group of the existing government establishment to depose the established regime and replace it with a new ruling body.
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The cradle of civilization is a term referring to locations where, according to current archaeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.
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Crimes against humanity are certain acts which are committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population.
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Cuneiform script or is one of the earliest systems of writing, distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus.
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Cuneiform law refers to any of the legal codes written in cuneiform script, that were developed and used throughout the ancient Middle East among the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Elamites, Hurrians, Kassites, and Hittites.
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Curative care or curative medicine is the health care given for medical conditions where a cure is considered achievable, or even possibly so, and directed to this end.
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Cyaxares or Hvakhshathra (12 Uvaxštra, Κυαξάρης; r. 625–585 BC), the son of King Phraortes, and according to Herodotus was the third and most capable king of Media.
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A cylinder seal is a small round cylinder, typically about one inch in length, engraved with written characters or figurative scenes or both, used in ancient times to roll an impression onto a two-dimensional surface, generally wet clay.
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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
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Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش بُزُرگ Kurosh-e Bozorg  ; c. 600 or 576 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire.
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Damascus (دمشق) is the capital and the second-largest city of Syria after Aleppo.
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De La Rue plc is a banknote manufacturer, security printing, papermaking and cash handling systems company with headquarters in Basingstoke, Hampshire, England.
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De-Ba'athification (Arabic: اجتثاث حزب البعث&lrm) refers to a policy undertaken in Iraq by the Coalition Provisional Authority and subsequent Iraqi governments to remove the Ba'ath Party's influence in the new Iraqi political system.
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Debt relief is the partial or total forgiveness of debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth, owed by individuals, corporations, or nations.
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The period of defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.
Der (Sumerian: ALUDi-e-ir) was a Sumerian city-state at the site of modern Tell Aqar near al-Badra in Iraq's Wasit Governorate.
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A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
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Dhi Qar Governorate (ذي قار Dhī Qār) (or Dhi Qar Province) is a governorate in southern Iraq.
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Dilmun or Telmun was a civilization in Eastern Arabia.
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Iraq's 19 governorates are subdivided into 120 districts (kaza).
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Diyala Governorate (محافظة ديالى Muḥāfażah Diyālā and Parezgay Diyala) or Diyala Province is a governorate in eastern Iraq.
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DjVu (like déjà vu) is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned documents, especially those containing a combination of text, line drawings, indexed color images, and photographs.
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Dohuk Governorate (محافظة دهوك, پارێزگای دھۆک) is a governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq.
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Dur-Sharrukin ("Fortress of Sargon"; دور شروكين), present day Khorsabad, was the Assyrian capital in the time of Sargon II of Assyria.
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Eannatum was a Sumerian king of Lagash who established one of the first verifiable empires in history.
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The East Semitic languages are one of six fairly uncontroversial divisions of the Semitic languages, the others being Northwest Semitic, Arabian, Old South Arabian (also known as Sayhadic), Modern South Arabian, and Ethio-Semitic.
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Eastern Aramaic languages have developed from the varieties of Aramaic that developed in and around Mesopotamia (Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and northwest and southwest Iran), as opposed to western varieties of the Levant (modern Levantine Syria and Lebanon).
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Ebla (إبلا., modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh), was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria.
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Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
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Ekallatum was an ancient Assyrian city of upper Mesopotamia.
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Elam was an ancient Pre-Iranic civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
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Emaar Properties is a real estate development company located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
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Emma Harriet Nicholson, Baroness Nicholson of Winterbourne (born 16 October 1941) is a British politician, who has been a life peer since 1997.
Emo is a style of rock music characterized by expressive, often confessional, lyrics.
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An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, French Empire, Russian Empire, Byzantine Empire or Roman Empire." An empire can be made solely of contiguous territories such as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, or of territories far remote from the homeland, such as a colonial empire.
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The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia.
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Erbil, also known as Hewler (ھەولێر; أربيل Arbīl; Hewlêr; ܐܪܒܝܠ Arbel), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan.
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Erbil Governorate (Parêzgeha Hewlêr - پارێزگای ھەولێر, محافظة أربيل) is a governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan.
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Eridu (Cuneiform: NUN.KI 𒉣 𒆠; Sumerian: eriduki; Akkadian: irîtu modern Arabic: Tell Abu Shahrain) is an archaeological site in southern Mesopotamia (modern Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq).
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Erišu(m) I (inscribed me-ri-šu, or mAPIN-ìš in later texts but always with an initial i in his own seal, inscriptions, and those of his immediate successors, “he has desired,”) son of Ilu-šuma, was the ruler of Assyria ca.
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Esarhaddon or Asarhaddon (Akkadian: Aššur-ahu-iddin "Ashur has given a brother"; Aramaic: ܐܵܫܘܿܪ ܐܵܗܐܹ ܐܝܼܕܝܼܢܵܐ; אֵסַר חַדֹּן; Ασαραδδων; Asor Haddan), was a king of Assyria who reigned 681 – 669 BC.
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An escarpment is a steep slope or long cliff that occurs from faulting, tilting or warping and resulting erosion and separates two relatively level areas of differing elevations.
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Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar in Diyala Province, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian (and later Akkadian) city and city-state in central Mesopotamia.
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An ethnic group or ethnicity is a socially defined category of people who identify with each other based on common ancestral, social, cultural or national experience.
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An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group of people whose members are also unified by a common religious background.
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The Euphrates (الفرات: al-Furāt, ̇ܦܪܬ: Pǝrāt, Եփրատ: Yeprat, פרת: Perat, Fırat, Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
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The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.
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Exxon Mobil Corp. (ExxonMobil) is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.
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Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi, (فيصل بن الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, Fayṣal al-Awwal ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 20 May 1885 or 1883 – 8 September 1933) was King of the Arab Kingdom of Syria or Greater Syria in 1920, and was King of Iraq from 23 August 1921 to 1933.
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Faisal II (Arabic: الملك فيصل الثاني Al-Malik Fayṣal Ath-thānī) (2 May 1935 – 14 July 1958) was the last King of Iraq.
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The Fall of Baghdad (11 March 1917) occurred during the Mesopotamia Campaign, fought between the forces of the British Empire and the Ottoman Turkish Empire in the First World War.
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FallujahSometimes also transliterated as Falluja, Fallouja, or Falowja (الفلوجة, Iraqi pronunciation) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly west of Baghdad on the Euphrates.
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The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution, approved in 2005, as an Islamic, democratic, federal parliamentary republic.
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A federation (from Latin: foedus, gen.: foederis, "covenant"), also known as a federal state, is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government.
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The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile land of otherwise arid and semi-arid Western Asia, the Nile Valley and Nile Delta of northeast Africa.
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The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; English: International Federation of Association Football) is the governing body of association football, futsal and beach football.
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The First Battle of Fallujah, also known as Operation Vigilant Resolve, was an operation to root out extremist elements of Fallujah and an act of retaliation to, as well as an attempt to apprehend the perpetrators of, the killing of four U.S. contractors in April 2004.
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A flood myth or deluge myth is a narrative in which a great flood, usually sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization, often in an act of divine retribution.
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A Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country.
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Fox News Channel (FNC), also known as Fox News, is an American basic cable and satellite news television channel that is owned by the Fox Entertainment Group subsidiary of 21st Century Fox. As of February 2015, approximately 94,700,000 American households (81.4% of cable, satellite & telco customers) receive the Fox News Channel. The channel broadcasts primarily from studios at Rockefeller Center in New York City. The channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch, who hired former Republican Party media consultant and NBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO. It launched on October 7, 1996, to 17 million cable subscribers. It grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant cable news network in the United States. Fox News Channel has been accused of biased reporting and promoting the Republican Party. Fox News Channel employees have responded that news reporting and political commentary operate independently, and have denied bias in news reporting.
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Muhammad Fuad Masum (محمد فؤاد معصوم Muḥammad Fūād Ma‘ṣūm; Kurdish: فوئاد مەعسووم, born 1 January 1938) is the seventh and current President of Iraq, in office since 2014.
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Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
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Genocide is the systematic elimination of all or a significant part of a racial, ethnic, religious, cultural or national group.
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Georgians (tr) are an indigenous Caucasian nation and ethnic group.
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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.
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Ghazi bin Faisal (غازي ابن فيصل Ġāzī bin Fayṣal) (2 May 1912 – 4 April 1939) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq from 1933 to 1939 having been briefly Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Syria in 1920.
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Girsu (cuneiform:?; Sumerian:Ĝirsu; Akkadian:?) is modern Tell Telloh, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq, and it was a city of ancient Sumer, situated some northwest of Lagash.
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In Islamic theology, God (الله Allāh) is the all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer and judge of everything in existence.
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The Golden Square was a group of four officers of the Iraqi armed forces who played a part in Iraqi politics throughout the 1930s and early 1940s.
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A governorate is an administrative division of a country.
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A grape is a fruiting berry of the deciduous woody vines of the botanical genus Vitis.
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Greater Syria (سوريّة الكبرى) or Natural Syria (سوريّة الطبيعية), Bilad ash-Sham (بلاد الشام.), is a hypothetical united Fertile Crescent state.
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The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman (or; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans.
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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
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Guardian Media Group plc (GMG) is a British mass media company owning various media operations including The Guardian and The Observer.
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The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
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The Gutians (also Guteans, Guti, Quti, Qurtie, Qurti, and Kurdu) were a tribe from northern and central ranges of the Zagros Mountains that overran southern Mesopotamia when the Akkadian empire collapsed in approximately 2154 BC.
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The Haditha killings (also called the Haditha massacre or the Haditha incident) refers to the incident in which 24 unarmed Iraqi men, women and children, all civilians, were killed by a group of United States Marines on November 19, 2005 in Haditha, a city in the western Iraqi province of Al Anbar.
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Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in 122 AD during the reign of the emperor Hadrian.
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Haider Jawad Kadhim Al-Abadi (or al-'Ibadi; حيدر جواد كاظم العبادي, born 25 April 1952) is an Iraqi politician who has been Prime Minister of Iraq since 2014.
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Halabja Governorate or Halabja Province (پارێزگای ھەڵەبجە) is a governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan.
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The Halaf culture is a prehistoric period which lasted between about 6100 and 5100 BCE.
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Halfaya Field is an oil field, located east of Amarah, Iraq.
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Hamazi or Khamazi (Sumerian: Ḫa-ma-ziki) was an ancient kingdom or city-state of some importance that reached its peak ca.
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Hammurabi (Akkadian from Amorite ʻAmmurāpi, "the kinsman is a healer", from ʻAmmu, "paternal kinsman", and Rāpi, "healer"; died c. 1750 BC) was the sixth Amorite king of Babylon (that is, of the First Babylonian Dynasty, the Amorite Dynasty) from 1792 BC to 1750 BC middle chronology (1728–1686 BC short chronology).
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The Hamrin Mountains (Arabic: جبل حمرين are a small mountain ridge in northeast Iraq. The westernmost ripple of the greater Zagros mountains; the Hamrin mountains extend from the Diyala Province bordering Iran, northwest to the Tigris river; crossing northern Salah ad Din Province and southern Kirkuk Province. In antiquity, the mountains were part of the frontier region between Babylonia to the south and Assyria to the north. In medieval times, Babylonia and Assyria became linguistically Arabicized and Kurdicized respectively, and today the area forms part of the linguistic boundary between most of Arabic-speaking Iraq and Kurdish-speaking Iraq.
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Harper's Magazine (also called Harper's) is a monthly magazine of literature, politics, culture, finance, and the arts.
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The Hashemites (الهاشميون, al-Hāshimīyūn; also "Hashimites" or "Hashimids") are the royal family of the Hejaz (1916–1925), Iraq (1921–1958), and Jordan (1921–present).
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Hatra (الحضر) was an ancient city in the Ninawa Governorate and al-Jazira region of Iraq.
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The Hattians were an ancient people who inhabited the land of Hatti in central Anatolia (present-day Turkey).
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The Hellenistic period covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
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Higher education, post-secondary education, tertiary education or third level education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after secondary education.
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The history of Iran, commonly also known as '''Persia''' in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
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The history of Iraq from 2003 to 2011 is a period in Iraqi history characterized by a large American troop deployment in Iraqi territory, beginning with the U.S.-led invasion of the country in March 2003 which overthrew the Ba'ath Party government of Saddam Hussein and ending with the departure of US troops from the country in 2011 (though the Iraq War that commenced in 2003 continued and subsequently intensified during 2013).
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History of Syria covers the developments in the region of Syria (Greek Συρία) and modern Syrian Arab Republic.
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The history of the Jews in Iraq (יְהוּדִים בָּבְלִים,, Yehudim Bavlim, يهود العراق), is documented from the time of the Babylonian captivity c. 586 BC.
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The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who established an empire centred on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
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Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT).
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Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
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An honor killing is the homicide of a member of a family by other members, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, or engaging in homosexual relations.
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The House of Wisdom (بيت الحكمة; Bayt al-Hikma) was a major intellectual center during the Islamic Golden Age.
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Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (Хүлэгу хаан; ہلاکو; هولاکو خان; 旭烈兀; 8 February 1265), was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Western Asia.
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The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.
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Hussain Ibrahim Saleh al-Shahristani (born 1942) is an Iraqi politician who served in different cabinet posts.
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The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilkhanan; Mongolian: Хүлэгийн улс, Hulagu-yn Ulus), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
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Ilu-šūma, inscribed DINGIR-šum-ma,Khorsabad copy of the Assyrian King List i 24, 26.
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Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
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Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Iraq include.
The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
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In Indo-European linguistics, the term Indo-Hittite (also Indo-Anatolian) refers to Sturtevant's 1926 hypothesis that the Anatolian languages may have split off the Proto-Indo-European language considerably earlier than the separation of the remaining Indo-European languages.
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An interior ministry (sometimes ministry of internal affairs or ministry of home affairs) is a government ministry typically responsible for policing, emergency management, national security, supervision of local governments, conduct of elections, public administration and immigration matters.
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An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.
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The International Energy Agency (IEA; Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
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An international non-governmental organization (INGO) has the same mission as a non-governmental organization (NGO), but it is international in scope and has outposts around the world to deal with specific issues in many countries.
The Invasion of Kuwait, also known as the Iraq–Kuwait War, was a major conflict between Ba'athist Iraq and the Emirate of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, and subsequently led to direct military intervention by US-led forces in the Gulf War and the setting alight by Iraq of 600 Kuwaiti oil wells.
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Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.
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Iran–Iraq relations (Persian:روابط ایران و عراق; Arabic:العلاقات العراقية الإيرانية) extend for millennia into the past.
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The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Iraq lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the 20th century's longest conventional war.
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The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of Iranian languages.
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The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution;, Iran Chamber., MS Encarta. October 31, 2009., PDF. Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi or انقلاب بیست و دو بهمن) refers to events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States and its eventual replacement with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution, supported by various leftist and Islamic organizations and Iranian student movements. Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977, developing into a campaign of civil resistance that included both secular and religious elements. and which intensified in January 1978. Between August and December 1978 strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country. The Shah left Iran for exile on January 16, 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government, and returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians. The royal reign collapsed shortly after on February 11 when guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting, bringing Khomeini to official power. Iran voted by national referendum to become an Islamic Republic on April 1, 1979, and to approve a new theocratic-republican constitution whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country, in December 1979. The revolution was unusual for the surprise it created throughout the world: it lacked many of the customary causes of revolution (defeat at war, a financial crisis, peasant rebellion, or disgruntled military), occurred in a nation that was enjoying relatively good material wealth and prosperity, produced profound change at great speed, was massively popular, resulted in the exile of many Iranians,Kurzman, The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran, (2004), p.121 and replaced a pro-Western semi-absolute monarchy with an anti-Western authoritarian theocracyInternational Journal of Middle East Studies, 19, 1987, p. 261 based on the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (or velayat-e faqih). It was a relatively non-violent revolution, and helped to redefine the meaning and practice of modern revolutions (although there was violence in its aftermath). Its outcome – an Islamic Republic "under the guidance of a religious scholar from Qom" – was, as one scholar put it, "clearly an occurrence that had to be explained".Benard, "The Government of God" (1984), p. 18.
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The fifth president of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, was internationally condemned for his use of chemical weapons during the 1980s against Iranian and Kurdish civilians during and after the Iran–Iraq War.
The Iraq Football Association (الاتحاد العراقي لكرة القدم) is the governing body of football in Iraq, controlling the Iraqi national team and the Iraq Super League.
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The Iraq Levies (also known as the Assyrian Levies as they would eventually become dominated by ethnic Assyrians) was the first Iraqi military force established by the British in British controlled Iraq.
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The Iraqi national football team (المنتخب العراقي لكرة القدم) represents Iraq in international football since 1948 and It is governed by the Iraq Football Association (IFA).
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The Iraq Oil Law, also referred to as the Iraq Hydrocarbon Law was legislation submitted to the Iraqi Council of Representatives in May 2007.
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The Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), known prior to 1929 as the Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC), is an oil company which, between 1925 and 1961, had a virtual monopoly on all oil exploration and production in Iraq.
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The Iraq Resolution or the Iraq War Resolution (formally the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002, (pdf)) is a joint resolution passed by the United States Congress in October 2002 as Public Law No: 107-243, authorizing military action against Iraq.
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The Iraq Spring Fighting of 2008 (March – May, 2008) was a series of clashes between the Mahdi Army and the Iraqi Army supported by coalition forces, in southern Iraq and Baghdad, that began with an Iraqi offensive in Basra.
The Iraq Study group (ISG), was a ten-person bipartisan panel appointed on March 15, 2006, by the United States Congress, that was charged with assessing the situation in Iraq and the US-led Iraq War and making policy recommendations.
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The Iraq Survey Group (ISG) was a fact-finding mission sent by the multinational force in Iraq after the 2003 invasion of Iraq to find the weapons of mass destruction alleged to be possessed by Iraq that had been the main ostensible reason for the invasion.
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The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, Gulf War II, and Gulf War 2.
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In the context of the Iraq War, the surge refers to United States President George W. Bush's 2007 increase in the number of American troops in order to provide security to Baghdad and Al Anbar Province.
Iraqi–Turkish relations are foreign relations between Iraq and Turkey.
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The Iraqi Air Force (IQAF) (Arabic: القوة الجوية العراقية; Al Quwwa al Jawwiya al Iraqiya) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Iraqi Armed Forces, responsible for the policing of international borders and surveillance of national assets.
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The Iraqi Army is the ground force component of the armed forces of the Republic of Iraq, having been active in various incarnations throughout the 20th century and 21st century.
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In violation of the Geneva Protocol of 1925, the Iraqi Army initiated two failed (1970–1974, 1974–1978) and one successful (1978–1991) offensive chemical weapons (CW) programs.
The Iraqi diaspora refers to native Iraqis who have left for other countries as emigrants or refugees, and is now one of the largest in modern times, being described by the UN as a "humanitarian crisis" caused by the 2003 invasion of Iraq and by the ensuing war.
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The Dinar (Arabic: دينار,.
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The Iraqi insurgency of May 2003–February 2006 began following the completion of the invasion of Iraq and the toppling of Saddam Hussein's rule in May 2003.
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The Iraqi insurgency, later referred to as the Iraq Crisis, escalated after the withdrawal of U.S. troops in 2011, resulting in violent conflict with the central government, as well as sectarian violence among Iraq's religious groups.
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The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the drafting of the new constitution following the National Assembly election conducted on January 30, 2005.
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Iraqi Kurdistan or Southern Kurdistan (باشووری کوردستان, Başûrê Kurdistanê), officially known as the Kurdistan Region (ههرێمی کوردستان., Herêmî Kurdistan), is the only autonomous region of Iraq.
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The Iraqi National Movement (INM) (Arabic: الحركة الوطنية العراقية al-Haraka al-Wataniya al-Iraqiyya), more commonly known as the al-Iraqiya List, was an Iraqi political coalition formed to contest the 2010 parliamentary election by Iraqi Vice President Tariq al-Hashimi's Renewal List, the Iraqi National Accord led by former Prime Minister Iyad Allawi and the Iraqi National Dialogue Front led by Saleh al-Mutlaq.
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The Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra (INSO) (Arabic,فرقة الأوركسترا السمفونية القومية العراقية) is a government funded symphony orchestra in Baghdad.
The Iraqi Navy is one of the components of the military of Iraq currently being reconstructed by UK-US Coalition forces in Iraq.
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The Iraqi no-fly zones were a set of two separate no-fly zones (NFZs), and were proclaimed by the United States, United Kingdom, and France after the Gulf War of 1991 to protect the Kurds in northern Iraq and Shiite Muslims in the south.
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Following the ratification of the Constitution of Iraq on 15 October 2005, a general election was held on 15 December to elect a permanent 275-member Iraqi Council of Representatives.
Elections for the National Assembly of Iraq were held on January 30, 2005 in Iraq.
The Iraqi Penal Code is the statutory law of Iraq.
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The Iraqi Premier League (Arabic: دوري النخبة العراقي, Dawri Al-Nokhba) is the highest league in the league system of Iraqi football and currently contains the top 20 Iraqi football clubs.
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Iraqi Special Operations Forces (ISOF) (قوات العمليات الخاصة العراقية) refers to the Iraqi special forces unit created by Coalition forces after the 2003 invasion.
The Iraqi Turkmens, Iraqi Azerbaijanis, or Turks of Iraq (İraq Türkmanları/İraq Türkləri, Irak Türkmenleri/Irak Türkleri), are the ethnic kin of the Turks and the third largest ethnic group in Iraq behind Arabs and Kurds. They mainly reside in northern Iraq and share close cultural ties with Turkey, Azerbaijan Republic, Iranian Azerbaijan, and the other Turkic countries. and linguistic ties with Azerbaijani, a Turkic language mutually intelligible with Istanbul Turkish, spoken mainly in Azerbaijan Republic and Iranian Azerbaijan. The Iraqi Turkmen are the descendants of various waves of Turkic migration to Mesopotamia dating from the 7th century until Ottoman rule. The first wave of migration dates back to the 7th century when some 5,000 Turkmen soldiers were recruited in the Muslim armies of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad;. however, most of today's descendants of these first migrants have been assimilated into the local Arab population. The second wave of migrants were the Turks of the Great Seljuq Empire; finally, the third wave, and largest number of Turkmen migrants into Iraq arose during the Ottoman Empire. With the conquest of Iraq by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1534, followed by Sultan Murad IV's capture of Baghdad in 1638, a large influx of Turks settled down in the region. Thus, most of today's Iraqi Turkmen are the descendants of the Ottoman soldiers, traders and civil servants who were brought into Iraq during the rule of the Ottoman Empire.... Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Iraqi Turkmen wanted Turkey to annex the Mosul Vilayet and for them to become part of an expanded Turkish state.. However, due to the end of the Ottoman monarchy, the Iraqi Turkmen found themselves increasingly discriminated against by policies of successive regimes, such as the Kirkuk Massacre of 1923, 1947, 1959 and in 1979 when the Ba'th Party increasingly discriminated against the community. Although they were recognized as a constitutive entity of Iraq (alongside the Arabs and Kurds) in the constitution of 1925, the Iraqi Turkmen were later denied this status. Claims of their population range between 500,000 to 3 million, regardless of this uncertainty, the Iraqi Turkmen are considered to be the third or the fourth largest ethnic group in Iraq... According to the 1957 census, which is recognized as the last reliable census, as later censuses were reflections of the Arabization policies of the Ba'ath regime,. Arabs formed the largest ethnicity followed by Kurds (21%) and Iraqi Turkmen (2%).. The Iraqi Turkmen predominantly live in the north of Iraq, especially in Tal Afar, Mosul, Arbil, Altunkupri, Kirkuk, and Baghdad..
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The Iraqi people (Arabic: العراقيون ʿIrāqīyūn, Kurdish: گهلی عیراق Îraqîyan, ܥܡܐ ܥܝܪܩܝܐ ʿIrāqāyā, Iraklılar) are the citizens of the modern country of Iraq.
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Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil.
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Ishme-Dagan was the fourth king in the First Dynasty of Isin, according to the Sumerian king list.
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Isin (Sumerian: I3-si-inki, modern Arabic: Ishan al-Bahriyat) is an archaeological site in Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq.
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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.
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The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period in Islam's history during the Middle Ages from the 8th century to the 13th century when much of the historically Arabic-speaking world was ruled by various caliphates, experiencing a scientific, economic, and cultural flourishing.
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Islamic republic is the name given to several states in countries ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Mauritania.
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The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL; الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham, Islamic State (IS), or Daesh (داعش), is a Salafi jihadist extremist militant group and self-proclaimed Islamic state and caliphate, which is led by and mainly composed of Sunni Arabs from Iraq and Syria.
Jalal Talabani (Kurdish: جەلال تاڵەبانی Celal Tallebanî, جلال طالباني; born 12 November 1933) is a leading Iraqi Kurdish politician who served as the sixth President of Iraq from 2005 to 2014.
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Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad (جماعة التوحيد والجهاد, Organization of Monotheism and Jihad) was a militant Jihadist group led by the Jordanian national Abu Musab al-Zarqawi.
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Jarmo (Qal'at Jarmo) is an archeological site located in Southern Kurdistan on the foothills of Zagros Mountains east of Kirkuk city.
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The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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Jihad (جهاد) is an Islamic term referring to the religious duty of Muslims to maintain the religion.
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James J. "Jim" Cramer (born February 10, 1955) is an American television personality, former hedge fund manager, and best-selling author.
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Jordan (الأردن), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
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The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
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The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (Persian: Qara Qoyunlu, قرا قویونلو), were a Shia Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising the present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia (1406), north-western Iran, eastern Turkey and Iraq from about 1375 to 1468.
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Karbala (كربلاء; Karbalā’; also referred to as Karbalā' al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad.
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Karbala Governorate (كربلاء Karbalāʾ) (or Karbala Province) is a governorate in central Iraq.
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Kassite is a rare mineral whose chemical formula is CaTi2O4(OH)2.
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The Kassites were an ancient Near Eastern people who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire ca.
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The Kawliya (Arabic,كاولية or كاولي) are Romani people (gypsies) from Iraq.
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Kickboxing (in Japanese キックボクシング kikkubokushingu) is a group of stand-up combat sports based on kicking and punching, historically developed from karate, Muay Thai, and Western boxing.
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The Kingdom of Iraq (المملكة العراقية) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of WWI.
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The Kingdom of Israel was, according to the Bible, one of two successor states to the former United Monarchy (also often called the 'Kingdom of Israel').
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The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehuda) was a state established in the Southern Levant during the Iron Age.
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Kirkuk (كركوك; کهرکووک, Turkish: Kerkük), Azerbaijani: Kərkük) is a city in the north of Iraq, north of, Baghdad, and south of Erbil. It is the capital of Kirkuk Governorate. Kirkuk lies in a wide zone with an enormously diverse population, which has moreover experienced dramatic demographic changes in the course of the twentieth century. The city has been multilingual for centuries, and the development of distinct ethnic groups was a process that took place over the course of Kirkuk's urbanization in the twentieth century.Bet-Shlimon, Arbella. 2012.. Journal of Urban History 38, no. 5. Kurds, Turkmen, Assyrians and Arabs lay conflicting claims to this zone, and all have their historical accounts and memories to buttress their claims. The city sits on the site of the ancient Hurrian southern capital of Arrapha, which sits near the Khasa River on the ruins of a 5,000-year-old settlement (Kirkuk Citadel). It became known as Arrapha under the domination of the Hurrians. The city reached great importance again under the later, but short-lived Assyrians in the 10th and 11th centuries BC. Because of the strategic geographical location of the city, Kirkuk was the battle ground for three empires—the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Babylonia, and Media—which controlled the city at various times. Kurds and Turkmens have claimed the city as a cultural capital. It was named the "capital of Iraqi culture" by the Iraqi ministry of culture in 2010. The city currently consists mainly of people who self-identify as Iraqi Turkmens, Assyrians, Arabs, and Kurds.
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Kirkuk Field is an oilfield near Kirkuk, Iraq.
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Kirkuk Governorate (پارێزگای کەرکووک, محافظة كركوك, ܟܪܟ ܣܠܘܟ, Turkish: Kerkük) (or Kirkuk Province) is a governorate in northern Iraq, currently under the control of Iraqi Kurdistan.
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Kish (Sumerian: Kiš; transliteration: Kiŝki; cuneiform:; Akkadian: kiššatu) was an ancient city of Sumer in Mesopotamia, considered to have been located near the modern Tell al-Uhaymir in the Babil Governorate of Iraq, some 12 km east of Babylon and 80 km south of Baghdad.
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Kufa (الكوفة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.
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Kurdish (کوردی, Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
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The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) (پارتی دیموکراتی کوردستان Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistanê or PDK; is one of the main Kurdish parties in Iraqi Kurdistan. It was founded in 1946 in Mahabad in Iranian Kurdistan. The party says it exists to combine "democratic values and social justice to form a system whereby everyone in Kurdistan can live on equal basis with great emphasis given to rights of individuals and freedom of expression.".
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The Kurdistan List (ليست كوردستان Lîstî Kurdistani), also known as the Kurdistan Alliance or the Brotherhood List, is the name of the electoral coalition that ran in the Kurdistan Regional Government parliamentary elections in Iraqi Kurdistan in July 2009.
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The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), (حکوومەتی هەرێمی کوردستان, Hikûmetî Herêmî Kurdistan; حكومة اقليم كردستان), is the official ruling body of the predominantly Kurdish region of Northern Iraq referred to as Iraqi Kurdistan or Southern Kurdistan.
The Kurdistan Workers' Party, (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan, PKK), is a left-wing Kurdish nationalist militant organization based in Turkey and Iraqi Kurdistan.
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The Kurds (کورد Kurd) are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern or Turkish Kurdistan), western Iran (Eastern or Iranian Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern or Iraqi Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan or Rojava).
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Kutha, Cuthah, or Cutha (Sumerian: Gudua, modern Tell Ibrahim) is an archaeological site in Babil Governorate, Iraq.
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Kuwait (دولة الكويت), officially the State of Kuwait, is a country in Western Asia.
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Lagash is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.
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A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
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Larsa (Sumerian logogram: UD.UNUGKI, read Larsamki) was an important city of ancient Sumer, the center of the cult of the sun god Utu.
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The Late Bronze Age collapse was a transition in the Aegean Region, Southwestern Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age that historians believe was violent, sudden and culturally disruptive.
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The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
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A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League.
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A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.
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The lemon (Citrus × limon) is a species of small evergreen tree native to Asia.
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The lentil (Lens culinaris) is an edible pulse.
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The Levant (Arabic: المشرق Naim, Samia, Dialects of the Levant, in Weninger, Stefan et al. (eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter (2011), p. 921) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.
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Same-sex sexual relationships have been decriminalized but are still considered taboo by the majority of the population in Iraq.
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A lime (from Arabic and French lim) is a citrus fruit, which is typically round, lime green, in diameter, and containing acidic juice vesicles.
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A lingua franca (plural lingua francas), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language or dialect, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.
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This is a list of countries by order of appearance in the Fragile States Index (formerly the Failed States Index) of the United States think-tank Fund for Peace.
This is a list of languages arranged by the approximate dates of the oldest existing texts recording a complete sentence in the language.
Literacy is traditionally understood as the ability to read and write.
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The Los Angeles Times, commonly referred to as the Times, is a paid daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881.
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Luwian (sometimes spelled Luvian, rarely Luish) is an ancient language or group of languages of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family.
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The Macquarie Dictionary is a dictionary of Australian English.
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Majnoon oil field is a super-giant oil field located from Basra, Basra Governorate in southern Iraq.
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The Mamluk dynasty of Iraq (Arabic: مماليك العراق) was a dynasty which ruled over Iraq in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
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Mandaeans (מנדעניא, الصابئة المندائيون aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion.
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Mandaeism or Mandaeanism (מנדעיותא; مندائية /) is a gnostic religion with a strongly dualistic worldview.
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Mandaic is the language of the Mandaean religion and community.
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Iraqi Maqam (الـمـقـام الـعـراقـي) is at least four-hundred-year-old genre found in Iraq.
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Mari (modern Tell Hariri), was an ancient Semitic city in Syria.
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Marines, also known as a marine corps and naval infantry, are an infantry force that specializes in the support of naval and army operations on land and at sea, as well as the execution of their own.
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The Marsh Arabs (عرب الأهوار ʻArab al-Ahwār "Arabs of the Marshlands"), also known as the Maʻdān (معدان), are inhabitants of the Tigris-Euphrates marshlands in the south and east of Iraq and along the Iranian border.
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Masoud Barzani (مەسعوود بارزانی or Mesûd Barzanî; born 16 August 1946) is an Iraqi Kurdish politician who has been President of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region since 2005, as well as leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) since 1979.
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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.
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Mawtini (موطني “My Homeland”) is a popular poem written by the Palestinian poet Ibrahim Tuqan circa 1934.
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Maysan Governorate (ميسان Maysān) (or Maysan Province) is a province in southeastern Iraq, bordering Iran.
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The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (North-western Iran) and who spoke the Median language. Their arrival to the region is associated with the first wave of migrating Iranic Aryan tribes into Ancient Iran from the late 2nd millennium BCE (circa 1000 BC) (the Bronze Age collapse) through the beginning of the 1st millennium BCE (circa 900 BC). This period of migration coincided with a power vacuum in the Near East, with the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365-1020 BC) which had dominated north western Iran and eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus going into a comparative decline, allowing new peoples to pass through and settle. In addition, Elam, the dominant power in Ancient Iran was suffering a period of severe weakness, as was Babylonia to the west. From the 10th to late 7th centuries BCE, the western parts of Media fell under the domination of the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire based in northern Mesopotamia, but which stretched from Cyprus to Ancient Iran, and from the Caucasus to Egypt and Arabia. Assyrian kings such as Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal and Ashur-etil-ilani imposed Vassal Treaties upon the Median rulers, and also protected them from predatory raids by marauding Scythian and Cimmerian hordes. During the reign of Sinsharishkun (622-612 BC) the Assyrian empire, which had been in a state of constant civil war since 626 BC, began to unravel. Subject peoples, such as the Medes, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Scythians, Cimmerians, Lydians and Arameans quietly ceased to pay tribute to Assyria. An alliance with the Medes and rebelling Babylonians, Scythians, Chaldeans, and Cimmerians, helped the Medes to capture Nineveh in 612 BCE, which resulted in the eventual collapse of the Neo-Assyrian Empire by 605 BC. The Medes were subsequently able to establish their Median kingdom (with Ecbatana as their royal centre) beyond their original homeland and had eventually a territory stretching roughly from northeastern Iran to the Halys River in Anatolia. After the fall of the Assyrian Empire, between 616 BCE and 605 BCE, a unified Median state was formed, which, together with Babylonia, Lydia, and Egypt, became one of the four major powers of the ancient Near East. The Median kingdom was conquered in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great, who established the Iranian dynasty—the Persian Achaemenid Empire. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. The Medes had almost the same equipment as the Persians and indeed the dress common to both is not so much Persian as Median. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is almost entirely unknown. However a number of words from the Median language are still in use, and there are languages being geographically and comparatively traced to the northwestern Iranian language of Median. The Medes had an Ancient Iranian Religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later and during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zarathustra spread in western Iran. Besides Ecbatana (modern Hamedan), the other cities existing in Media were Laodicea (modern Nahavand) and the mound that was the largest city of the Medes, Rhages (also called Rey), on the outskirts of Shahr Rey, south of Tehran. The fourth city of Media was Apamea, near Ecbatana, whose precise location is unknown. In later periods, Medes and especially Mede soldiers are identified and portrayed prominently in ancient Persian archaeological sites such as Persepolis, where they are shown to have a major role and presence in the military of the Persian Empire's Achaemenid dynasty. According to the Histories of Herodotus, there were six Median tribes: The six Median tribes resided in Media proper, the triangle between Ecbatana, Rhagae and Aspadana, in today's central Iran, the area between Tehran, Isfahan and Hamadan. Of the Median tribes, the Magi resided in Rhaga, modern Tehran. It was a sort of sacred caste, which ministered to the spiritual needs of the Medes. The Paretaceni tribe resided in and around Aspadana, modern Isfahan, the Arizanti lived in and around Kashan and the Busae tribe lived in and around the future Median capital of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan. The Struchates and the Budii lived in villages in the Median triangle.
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Medicine (British English; American English) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.
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A melon is any of various plants of the family Cucurbitaceae with edible, fleshy fruit.
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Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میانرودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.
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The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I fought between the Allies represented by the British Empire, mostly troops from the Indian Empire and Australia, and the Central Powers, mostly of the Ottoman Empire.
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The Mesopotamian Marshes or Iraqi Marshes are a wetland area located in southern Iraq and partially in southwestern Iran and Kuwait.
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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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The Middle Assyrian Empire (1392 BC–934 BC) of the Assyrian Empire.
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Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA) is a quarterly journal on Middle East issues edited by Barry Rubin and published by the Global Research in International Affairs Center (GLORIA) of the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) in Herzliya, Israel, which he also owns and directs.
A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations.
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Military occupation is effective provisional control of a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign.
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The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the eight international development goals that were established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
The Ministry of Defence (وزارة الدفاع العراقية) is the Iraq government agency responsible for Defence of Iraq.
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The Ministry of Interior (MOI) is the government body charged with overseeing policing and border control in Iraq.
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The Ministry of Oil is the Iraqi government agency responsible for Iraqi petroleum.
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Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from ca.
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Mithridates or Mithradates I (Parthian: Mihrdat, مهرداديکم, Mehrdād), (ca. 195 BC – 138 BC) was king of the Parthian Empire from 165 BC to 132 BC, succeeding his brother Phraates I. His father was King Phriapatius of Parthia, who died ca.
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The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles), existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
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Mosul (الموصل; مووسڵ. Mûsil; North Mesopotamian Arabic:; ܢܝܢܘܐ; Musul), is a city of over a million people in northern Iraq, some 400 km north of Baghdad.
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A mudbrick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.
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Muhammadfull name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (محمد; – 8 June 632 CEElizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition. Many earlier (mainly non-Islamic) traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine. See Stephen J. Shoemaker,The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.) is generally regarded by non-Muslims to have been the founder of Islam, and almost universallyThe Ahmadiyya Muslim Community considers Muhammad to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khātam an-Nabiyyīn) and the last law-bearing Prophet but not the last Prophet.
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The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq—codenamed "Operation Iraqi Freedom"—and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America, United Kingdom, Australia and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.
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Multiculturalism describes the existence, acceptance, or promotion of multiple cultural traditions within a single jurisdiction, usually considered in terms of the culture associated with an ethnic group.
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Multilingualism is the use of more than two languages, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
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Muqtadā al-Ṣadr (Arabic: سيد مقتدى الصدر; born 12 August 1973) is an Iraqi Islamic political leader.
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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.
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The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran led to the end of the Sasanian Empire in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran.
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The term Muslim world, also known as Islamic world and the (أمة, meaning "nation" or "community") has different meanings.
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Muthanna Governorate (المثنى Al Muthannā) (or Al Muthanna Province) is a province in Iraq, named after the 7th-century Arab general al-Muthanna ibn Haritha.
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Nabonidus (Akkadian Nabû-naʾid, "Nabu is praised", نابونيد) was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, reigning from 556–539 BC.
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Najaf (النجف; BGN: An Najaf) is a city in Iraq about 160 km (roughly 100 miles) south of Baghdad.
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Najaf Governorate (النجف An Najaf) (or Najaf Province) is a governorate in southern Iraq.
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Najd or Nejd (نجد, Najd) is the central region of Saudi Arabia.
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Nakheel (نخيل palms or palm trees) is a real estate developer in Dubai and creator of several land reclamation projects, including the Palm Islands, the Dubai Waterfront, The World and The Universe Islands.
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The National Day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country.
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The National Iraqi Alliance (NIA or INA; الائتلاف الوطني العراقي; transliterated: al-Itilaf al-Watani al-Iraqi), also known as the Watani List, is an Iraqi electoral coalition that contested the Iraqi legislative election, 2010.
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The National Museum of Iraq (Arabic: المتحف العراقي) is a museum located in Baghdad, Iraq.
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The Neanderthals or Neandertals, us also -, --, -, -) (named after the Neandertal area) were a species of human in the genus Homo that became extinct between 41,000 and 39,000 years ago. They were closely related to modern humans, differing in DNA by just 0.12%. Remains left by Neanderthals include bone and stone tools, which are found in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central and Northern Asia and the Middle East. Neanderthals are generally classified by biologists as the species Homo neanderthalensis, but a minority considers them to be a subspecies of Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis). Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe. The earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 300,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorham's Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar. Neanderthals were large compared to Homo sapiens because they inhabited higher latitudes, in conformance with Bergmann's rule, and their larger stature explains their larger brain size because brain size generally increases with body size. With an average cranial capacity of 1600 cm3, the cranial capacity of Neanderthals is notably larger than the 1400 cm3 average for modern humans, indicating that their brain size was larger. Males stood and females tall. A 2008 study by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig suggested Neanderthals probably did not interbreed with anatomically modern humans, while the Neanderthal genome project published in 2010 and 2014 suggests that Neanderthals did contribute to the DNA of modern humans, including most non-Africans as well as a few African populations, through interbreeding, likely between 50,000 to 60,000 years ago. In December 2013, researchers reported evidence that Neanderthals practiced burial behavior and intentionally buried their dead. In addition, scientists reported having sequenced the entire genome of a Neanderthal for the first time. The genome was extracted from the toe bone of a 50,000-year-old Neanderthal found in a Siberian cave.
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Nebuchadnezzar II (ܢܵܒܘܼ ܟܘܼܕܘܼܪܝܼ ܐܘܼܨܘܼܪ; נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר; Ancient Greek: Ναβουχοδονόσωρ; Arabic: نِبُوخَذنِصَّر; c. 634 – 562 BC) was a Chaldean king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, who reigned c. 605 BC – 562 BC.
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Neo-Aramaic, or Modern Aramaic, languages are varieties of Aramaic that are spoken vernaculars in the medieval to modern era, evolving out of Middle Aramaic dialects around AD 1200 (conventional date).
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The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC.
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The Neo-Babylonian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
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The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, from νέος (néos, "new") and λίθος (líthos, "stone"), or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world from First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies by Peter Bellwood, 2004 and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.
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The New Kingdom of Egypt, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt.
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New York is a state in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
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The ney (نی / نای), is an end-blown flute that figures prominently in Middle Eastern music.
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Nineveh (or; Ninua) is an ancient Mesopotamian city located in modern day Iraq; it is on the eastern bank of the Tigris River, and was the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
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Nineveh Governorate (نینوى, مووسڵ, ܢܝܢܘܐ) is a governorate in northern Iraq or Iraqi Kurdistan, which contains the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh.
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Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;": Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.
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The term "no-bid contract" is a popular phrase for what is officially known as a "sole source contract" which means that there is only one person or company that can provide the contractual services needed, so any attempt to obtain bids would only result in that person or company bidding on it.
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A no-fly zone (or no-flight zone) (NFZ) is a territory or an area over which aircraft are not permitted to fly.
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Northern Kurdish (کوردیا ژۆرین; kurdiya jorîn), also called Kurmanji (کورمانجی; Kurmancî), is a group of Kurdish dialects predominantly spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest Iran, northern Iraq and northern Syria.
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Northwest Semitic is a division of the ancient Semitic language family, also known as Syro-Palestinian,, page 425 comprising the ancient languages of the Levant.
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Nouri Kamil Mohammed Hasan al-Maliki (نوري كامل محمد حسن المالكي.; born 20 June 1950), also known as Jawad al-Maliki (جواد المالكي) or Abu Esraa (أبو إسراء), is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq from 2006 to 2014.
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Nubia is a region along the Nile river located in what is today northern Sudan and southern Egypt.
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Nuri Pasha al-Said (1888 – July 15, 1958) (نوري السعيد) was an Iraqi politician during the British Mandate and during the Kingdom of Iraq.
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Oil reserves are the amount of technically and economically recoverable oil.
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An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.
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Okra or Okro (or; Abelmoschus esculentus Moench), known in many English-speaking countries as ladies' fingers, bhendi, bhindi, bamia, ochro or gumbo, is a flowering plant in the mallow family.
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Olympic weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.
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The onion (Allium cepa L.) (Latin 'cepa'.
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Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), is an international organization headquartered in Vienna, Austria.
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Operation Opera (אופרה.), also known as Operation Babylon, was a surprise Israeli air strike carried out on 7 June 1981, which destroyed an Iraqi nuclear reactor under construction 17 kilometers (10.5 miles) southeast of Baghdad.
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Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion as a social institution, in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established.
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Osroene, also spelled Osrohene and Osrhoene (Ὀσροηνή; ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܐܘܪܗܝ) and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (modern Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom located in Upper Mesopotamia, which enjoyed semi-autonomy to complete independence from the years of 132 BC to AD 244.
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The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.
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Below is the list of wars between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Hotaki, Afsharid, Zand and Qajar dynasties of Persia through the 16th–19th centuries.
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The oud (عود, plural: أعواد; ուդ, Syriac: ܥܘܕ, ούτι; עוּד; بربط; ûd; ud or ut; Azeri: ud; cuud or kaban) is a pear-shaped stringed instrument commonly used in Arabic, Greek, Turkish, Persian, Jewish, Byzantine, Azerbaijanian, Armenian, North African (Chaabi, Classical, and Spanish Andalusian), Somali and Middle Eastern music.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Iraq: Iraq – sovereign country located in Western Asia.
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The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED), published by the Oxford University Press, is a descriptive (as opposed to prescriptive) dictionary of the English language.
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Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay, Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
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The Paris Club (Club de Paris) is an informal group of officials from creditor countries whose role is to find coordinated and sustainable solutions to the payment difficulties experienced by debtor countries.
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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.
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Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺, Parθava, 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅, Parθaw, 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥, Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
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The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran.
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The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK; Central Kurdish: یەکێتیی نیشتمانیی کوردستان Yekêtiy Niştîmaniy Kurdistan, Northern Kurdish: یهکیتیا نیشتمانی یا کوردستانێ Yekîtiya Nîştimanî ya Kurdistanê, Arabic: الاتحاد الوطني الكردستاني Al-Ittihad Al-Watani Al-Kurdistani) is a social democratic Iraqi-Kurdish political party in Iraqi Kurdistan.
Lewis Paul Bremer III (born September 30, 1941) is an American diplomat.
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The Peace Companies (سرايا السلام, transcript. Sraeeaa Aalsalaam, translit. Saraya al-Salaam) frequently mistranslated Peace Brigades in US media, are an Iraqi armed group linked to Iraq's Shia community and are a revival of the Mahdi Army (JAM; جيش المهدي Jaish al-Mahdī), created by the Iraqi Shia cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in June 2003 and disbanded in 2008.
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Major-General Sir Percy Zachariah Cox, GCMG, GCIE, KCSI (20 November 1864 –20 February 1937) was a British Indian Army officer and colonial administrator in the Middle East.
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The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
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Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.
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The Persian people (Persian: پارسیان) are an Iranian people who speak the modern Persian language and closely related Iranian dialects and languages.
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Peshmerga (Kurdish: پێشمەرگە Pêşmerge,; literally "one who confronts death") are the military forces of the autonomous region of Iraqi Kurdistan.
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Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.
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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη,; فينيقية) was an ancient Semitic thalassocratic civilization situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centered on the coastline of modern Lebanon.
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The Phrygians (gr. Φρύγες, Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phruges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.
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A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and also an 'icon', is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object.
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A planned economy is the economic system in which decisions regarding production and investment are embodied in a plan formulated by a central authority, usually by a public body such as a government agency.
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The politics of Iraq takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic.
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The pomegranate, botanical name Punica granatum, is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing between tall.
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The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum L. The word "potato" may refer either to the plant itself or to the edible tuber.
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Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) denotes the first stage in early Levantine and Anatolian Neolithic culture, dating around 8000 to 7000 BC.
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Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is a division of the Neolithic developed by Kathleen Kenyon during her archaeological excavations at Jericho in the West Bank.
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For the purposes of this article, Prehistoric Britain is Britain during the period between the first arrival of humans on the land mass now known as Great Britain and the start of recorded British history.
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The presidency of George W. Bush began on January 20, 2001, when he was inaugurated as the 43rd President of the United States of America.
The President of Iraq is the head of state of Iraq and "safeguards the commitment to the Constitution and the preservation of Iraq's independence, sovereignty, unity, the security of its territories in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution".
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The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraq's head of government.
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The Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
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A prisoner of war (POW, PoW, PW, P/W, WP, PsW, enemy prisoner of war (EPW) or "missing-captured") is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
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Privatization, also spelled privatisation, may have several meanings.
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A province is almost always an administrative division, within a country or state.
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This is a list of public holidays in Iraq.
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Puzur Ashur I was an Assyrian king who ruled around 2000 BC.
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Rabshakeh, also Rab-shakeh and Rabsaces (Akkadian language Rabshaqe;; Ραψακης Rapsakēs; Rabsaces) Assyrian Neo-Aramaic: (ܪܵܒܫܵܩܹܐ) This name meaning chief of the princes in the Semitic Akkadian and Aramaic languages, was given to the chief cup-bearer or the vizier of the Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian royal courts in ancient Mesopotamia, and revived by the Assyrians as a military rank during World War I. The Bible mentions it for one of Sennacherib's messengers to Hezekiah.
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A raisin is a dried grape.
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The Ramadan Revolution, also referred to as the 8 February Revolution and the February 1963 coup d'état in Iraq, was a military coup by the Ba'ath Party's Iraqi-wing which overthrew the Prime Minister of Iraq, Abd al-Karim Qasim in 1963.
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Rashid Aali al-Gaylani (رشيد عالي الكيلاني, also spelled Sayyad Rashid Aali al-Gillani, Sayyad Rashid Ali al-Gailani, or sometimes Sayyad Rashid Ali el Keilany) (1892 – August 28, 1965) served as Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Iraq on three occasions.
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The Rashidun Caliphate (الخلافة الراشدة, c. 632–661) is the collective term comprising the first four caliphs—the "Rightly Guided" or Rashidun caliphs (الخلفاء الراشدون)—in Islamic history and was founded after Muhammad's death in 632 (year 11 AH in the Islamic calendar).
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A regent (from the Latin regens, " ruling") is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated." The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency.
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Representative democracy (also indirect democracy or psephocracy) is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
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A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.
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Republic Day is the name of a holiday in several countries to commemorate the day when they became republics.
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The Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council was established after the military coup in 1968, and was the ultimate decision making body in Iraq before the 2003 American-led invasion.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
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A river delta is a landform that forms at the mouth of a river, where the river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, or reservoir.
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The Roman army (Latin: exercitus Romanus, literally: Roman Army; Ancient Greek: στρατός/φοσσᾶτον Ῥωμαίων, transcription: stratos/fossaton Romaion) is a term encompassing the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC), the Roman Republic (500–31 BC), the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395/476 AD) and its successor the East Roman or Byzantine Empire.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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The Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
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Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
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Ruhollah Moosavi Khomeini (روحالله خمینی,, 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989) was an Iranian Ayatollah, revolutionary, politician, the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of the Pahlavi monarchy and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran.
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The Rumaila oil field is a super-giant oil field located in southern Iraq, approximately from the Kuwaiti border.
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Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
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The Safavid dynasty (سلسلهٔ صفويان; Səfəvilər sülaləsi, صفويلر سولالهسى) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Persia (modern Iran) after the fall of the Sasanian Empire - following the Muslim conquest of Persia in the seventh century A.D., and "is often considered the beginning of modern Persian history".
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Saladin Governorate (صلاح الدين Salāh ad Dīn) (or Salah ad Din Province, Kurdish Parezgay Salah aldin) is a governorate in Iraq, north of Baghdad.
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Saleh (b. 1908 d. 1986) and Daud (b. 1910 d. 1976) Al-Kuwaity (صالح و داوود الكويتي) were Iraqi Jewish musicians born in Kuwait as Saleh and Daud Ezra.
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Salima Mourad or Salima Murad (Arabic,سليمة مراد) was a well-known Iraqi Jewish singer and was highly respected both in the Arab world and Israel.
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The sanctions against Iraq were a near-total financial and trade embargo imposed by the United Nations Security Council on the Iraqi Republic.
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Saqi Books is an independent publishing house in London, UK, publishing titles that encompass different disciplines from politics, history and gender studies to culture, art and travel.
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Sargon I or Sharru-ken reigned as king of the old-Assyrian Kingdom from ca.
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Sargon II (Akkadian Šarru-ukin "he made firm the king"; reigned 722 – 705 BC) was an Assyrian king.
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Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great "the Great King" (Akkadian Šarru-kīnu, meaning "the true king" or "the king is legitimate"), was a Semitic Akkadian emperor famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th and 23rd centuries BC.
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The Sasanian Empire (or; also known as Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire), known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian language, was the last Iranian empire before the rise of Islam, ruled by the Sasanian dynasty from 224 AD to 651 AD.
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This is a family tree of the Sasanian emperors, their ancestors, and Sasanian princes/princesses.
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Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
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Sawad was the name used in early Islamic times (7th–12th centuries) for the southern Iraq.
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The Scythians (or; from Greek Σκύθης, Σκύθοι), also known as Scyth, Saka, Sakae, Sacae, Sai, Iskuzai, or Askuzai, were a large group of probably mainly Iranian-speaking "All contemporary historians, archeologists and linguists are agreed that since the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes were of the Iranian linguistic group..." Eurasian nomads who were mentioned by the literate peoples surrounding them as inhabiting large areas in the central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
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The Sealand Dynasty, (ŠEŠ-KU) or the 2nd Dynasty of Babylon (although it was independent of Amorite ruled Babylon), very speculatively ca.
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The Second Battle of Fallujah—code-named Operation Al-Fajr (Arabic: الفجر "the dawn") and Operation Phantom Fury—was a joint American, Iraqi, and British offensive in November and December 2004, considered the highest point of conflict in Fallujah during the Iraq War.
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The Seleucid Empire or Seleucia was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, 312 BC to 63 BC; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the empire created by Alexander the Great.
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Semiramis (Σεμίραμις, Շամիրամ Shamiram) was the legendary wife of King Ninus, succeeding him to the throne of Assyria.
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The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
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In studies of linguistics and ethnology, the term Semitic (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was first used to refer to a family of languages native to West Asia (the Middle East).
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Sennacherib (Akkadian: Sîn-ahhī-erība, "Sîn has increased the brothers"), king of Assyria 705 BCE–681 BCE, is remembered for his military campaigns against Babylon and Judah and for his building programs, notably at his capital Nineveh.
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The September 11 attacks (also referred to as September 11, September 11th, or 9/11)9/11 is pronounced "nine eleven".
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The Shabak people are an ethnoreligious group who live mainly in the villages of Ali Rash, Khazna, Yangidja, and Tallara in the Sinjar District of the Nineveh Province in northern Iraq.
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Shabaki is a dialect of the Indo-Iranian language Gorani spoken by the Shabak people in Mosul, Iraq.
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Shalmaneser III (Šulmānu-ašarēdu, "the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent") was king of Assyria (859–824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II.
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Shanidar Cave (Kurdish: Şaneder or Zewî Çemî Şaneder) is an archaeological site located on Bradost Mountain in Iraqi Kurdistan.
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Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, "Stream of the Arabs") or Arvand Rud (اَروَندرود, "Swift River") is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.
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Shia (شيعة Shīʿah), an abbreviation of Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي, "followers/party of Ali"), is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib.
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More than half of the population of Iraq (ca. 70%) are Shia Muslims.
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Shulgi (dŠulgi, formerly read as Dungi) of Ur was the second king of the "Sumerian Renaissance" in the Third Dynasty of Ur.
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Shuruppak or Shuruppag (Sumerian: "The Healing Place") was an ancient Sumerian city situated about 35 miles south of Nippur on the banks of the Euphrates at the site of modern Tell Fara in Iraq's Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate.
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The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.
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The Siege of Kut Al Amara (7 December 1915 – 29 April 1916), also known as the First Battle of Kut, was the besieging of an 8,000 strong British-Indian garrison in the town of Kut, 100 miles south of Baghdad, by the Ottoman Army.
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Silt is granular material of a size somewhere between sand and clay whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
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Sippar (Sumerian: Zimbir) was an ancient Near Eastern city on the east bank of the Euphrates river, located at the site of modern Tell Abu Habbah in Iraq's Babil Governorate, some 60 km north of Babylon and 30 km southwest of Baghdad.
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Slavery is a legal or economic system in which principles of property law can apply to humans so that people can be treated as property, and can be owned, bought and sold accordingly, and cannot withdraw unilaterally from the arrangement.
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A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as crimes.
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Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.
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A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
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Stalemate is a situation in the game of chess where the player whose turn it is to move is not in check but has no legal move.
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The State of Law Coalition (إئتلاف دولة القانون. I'tilāf Dawlat al-Qānūn) also known as Rule of Law Coalition is an Iraqi political coalition formed for the Iraqi governorate elections, 2009 by the Prime Minister of Iraq at the time, Nouri al-Maliki, of the Islamic Dawa Party.
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A status of forces agreement (SOFA) is an agreement between a host country and a foreign nation stationing military forces in that country.
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A stockpile is a pile or storage location for bulk materials, forming part of the bulk material handling process.
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The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bâb-ı Âli or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire, by reference to the gate giving access to the block of buildings that housed the principal state departments in Istanbul.
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The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropic circle of latitude (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and the 38th parallel in each hemisphere.
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Sulaymaniyah Governorate (پارێزگای سلێمانی., محافظة السليمانية.) or Sulaymaniyah Province is a mountainous governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan.
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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
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Sumerian ("native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer, a language isolate which was spoken in northern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).
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Sunni Islam is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his father-in-law Abu Bakr.
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The Suteans were a Semitic people who lived throughout the Levant and Canaan circa 1350 BC, and were later to be found in Babylonia also.
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Swimming is an individual or team sport and activity.
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The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret agreement between the governments of the United Kingdom and France, with the assent of Russia, defining their proposed spheres of influence and control in the Middle East should the Triple Entente succeed in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I. The negotiation of the treaty occurred between November 1915 and March 1916.
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Syria (سوريا or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia.
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Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
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The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language from the 1st century AD.
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Syriac Christianity (ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ / mšiḥāiūṯā suryāiṯā) encompasses the multiple Churches of Eastern Christianity whose services tend to feature liturgical use of ancient Syriac, a dialect of Middle Aramaic that emerged in Edessa in the early 1st century AD, and is closely related to the Aramaic of Jesus.
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Syriac literature is literature written in the Syriac language, the classical Middle Aramaic which evolved in Assyria during the 5th century BC, the names Syria and Syriac originally being later derivations of Assyria.
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The Syriac Orthodox Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܬܪܝܨܬ ܫܘܒܚܐ), also known as the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch, is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Eastern Mediterranean, with members spread throughout the world.
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The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية) is an ongoing armed conflict taking place in Syria.
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The Syrian Desert (بادية الشام, bādiyat ash-shām), also known as the Syro-Arabian Desert, is a combination of steppe and true desert that is located in the northern Arabian Peninsula, covering 200,000 square miles (over 500,000 square kilometers) of the region of Syria.
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The T-54 and T-55 tanks are a series of main battle tank introduced just as the Second World War ended.
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The Takbīr (تَكْبِير), also written Tekbir or Takbeer, is the term for the Arabic phrase (الله أكبر), usually translated as "Allah is great", "Allah is greatest", "God is great" or "God is greatest".
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Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn, (TQJBR), ("Organization of Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia", تنظيم قاعدة الجهاد في بلاد الرافدين), also referred to as Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) or Al-Qaeda in Mesopotamia, was an Iraqi Sunni Islamic Jihadist organization affiliated with al-Qaeda.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports (an international trade tariff).
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Iraq area codes can be 1 or 2 digits (not counting the trunk prefix 0) and the subscriber numbers are usually 6 digits.
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Tennis is a racquet sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
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Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second most populous and second largest state of the United States of America.
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The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper.
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The Independent is a British national morning newspaper published in London by Independent Print Limited, owned by Alexander Lebedev since 2010.
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The Music and Ballet School of Baghdad (Arabic,مدرسة بغداد للموسيقى و الباليه) was founded in Baghdad, Iraq in 1967.
The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.
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The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London.
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The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper.
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The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
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theguardian.com, formerly known as Guardian Unlimited and guardian.co.uk, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.
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The Third Dynasty of Ur, also known as the Neo-Sumerian Empire, refers to both a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology timeline) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire.
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Tiglath-Pileser III (from the Hebraic formSpelled as "Tiglath-Pileser" in the Book of Kings and as "Tilgath-Pilneser" in the Book of Chronicles. of Akkadian: Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of Esharra") was a prominent king of Assyria in the eighth century BCE (ruled 745–727 BCE) who introduced advanced civil, military, and political systems into the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
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Batman River The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
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The Tigris and Euphrates, with their tributaries, form a major river system in Western Asia.
Tikrit (تكريت Tikrīt, ܬܓܪܝܬ) sometimes transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit, is a city in Iraq, located northwest of Baghdad and southeast of Mosul on the Tigris River.
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Timur (تیمور Timūr, Chagatai: Temür, Temur; died 18 February 1405), historically known as Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Timūr(-e) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror and the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia.
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The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red berry-type fruit of the nightshade Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
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Total S.A. is a French multinational integrated oil and gas company and one of the six "Supermajor" oil companies in the world.
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Transliteration is the conversion of a text from one script to another.
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A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
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The Treaty of Sèvres (10 August 1920) was one of a series of treaties that the nations that constituted the Central Powers were made to sign subsequent to their defeat that marked the end of World War I. It was signed on 10 August 1920, which marked the beginning of the partition of, and the ultimate annihilation of, the Ottoman Empire.
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Tukulti-Ninurta I (meaning: "my trust is in Ninurta"; reigned 1243–1207 BC) was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian Empire (1366 - 1050 BC).
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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.
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Turkmen or Torkoman (Türkmençe, türkmen dili, түркменче, түркмен дили, تورکمن تیلی,تورکمنچه), is a Turkic language spoken by 3½ million people in Turkmenistan, where it is the official state language, as well as by around 2 million people in northeastern Iran and 1½ million people in northwestern Afghanistan.
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Turukkaeans (Turukkum, Turukku) were an ancient near eastern people in the north western parts of Ancient Iran during the Bronze Age.
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The U.S.–Iraq Status of Forces Agreement (official name: Agreement Between the United States of America and the Republic of Iraq On the Withdrawal of United States Forces from Iraq and the Organization of Their Activities during Their Temporary Presence in Iraq) was a status of forces agreement (SOFA) between Iraq and the United States, signed by President George W. Bush in 2008.
The Arab Champions League (كأس الإتحاد العربي للأندية), previously known as the UAFA Club Cup and Arab Club Champions Cup, is an annual regional club football competition organised by the Union of Arab Football Associations (UAFA).
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The Ubaid period (ca. 6500 to 3800 BCE) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia.
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The Umayyad Caliphate (الخلافة الأموية, trans. Al-Khilāfat al-ʾumawiyya) was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
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Umma (modern Umm al-Aqarib, Dhi Qar Province in Iraq) was an ancient city in Sumer.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), also known as the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations agency mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a United Nations Security Council resolution adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on 8 November 2002, offering Iraq under Saddam Hussein "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous resolutions (Resolution 660, Resolution 661, Resolution 678, Resolution 686, Resolution 687, Resolution 688, Resolution 707, Resolution 715, Resolution 986, and Resolution 1284).
United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, adopted on 3 April 1991, after reaffirming resolutions 660, 661, 662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 669, 670, 674, 677, 678 (all 1990) and 686 (1991), the Council set the terms, in a comprehensive resolution, with which Iraq was to comply after losing the Gulf War.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 688, adopted on 5 April 1991, after receiving letters from the representatives of France, Iran, and Turkey and expressing its concern over political repression of the Iraqi people, including those in Iraqi Kurdistan, the Council condemned the repression and demanded that Iraq, as a contribution to removing the threat to international peace and security, end the repression and respect the human rights of its population.
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is a component of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
The University of Babylon (Arabic: جامعة بابل) is a university located in Babylon, Iraq.
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The University of Baghdad (UOB) (جامعة بغداد Jāmi'at Baghdād) is the largest university in Iraq and the second largest Arab university, behind the University of Cairo.
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The University of Duhok (UoD) is a fast-growing institution in the city of Duhok.
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Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq and northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
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Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
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Uruk (Cuneiform:,URU UNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; Aramaic/Hebrew: אֶרֶךְ; Orchoē, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia; وركاء) was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates River, some 30 km east of modern As-Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.
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The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period.
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UTC+03:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03.
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The Voice of America (VOA) is the official external broadcast institution of the United States federal government.
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Wasit Governorate (واسط Wāsit) (or Wasit Province) is a province in eastern Iraq.
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The Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, also known as Ranking Web of Universities, is a ranking system for the world's universities based on a composite indicator that takes into account both the volume of the Web contents (number of web pages and files) and the visibility and impact of these web publications according to the number of external inlinks (site citations) they received.
West Qurna (غرب قرنة) is one of Iraq's largest oil fields, located north of Rumaila field, west of Basra.
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The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of ancient Semitic languages.
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Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
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Wheat (Triticum spp.) is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East but now cultivated worldwide.
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A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.
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The withdrawal of U.S. military forces from Iraq began in December 2007 with the end of the Iraq War troop surge of 2007 and was completed by December 2011, bringing an end to the Iraq War.
World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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Xenophon (Ξενοφῶν, Xenophōn; c. 430 – 354 BC), son of Gryllus, of the deme Erchia of Athens, also known as Xenophon of Athens, was a Greek historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
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The Yarsan or Ahl-e Haqq (Kurdish:, Yarsan, اهل حق Ahl-e Haqq "People of Truth"), is a syncretic religion founded by Sultan Sahak in the late 14th century in western Iran.
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The Yazidis (also Yezidi, Êzidî) are a Kurdish religious community whose syncretic but ancient religion Yazidism (a kind of Yazdânism) is linked to Zoroastrianism and ancient Mesopotamian religions, however Yazidis form a distinct and independent religious community and have their own culture.
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Younis Mahmoud Khalaf (يونس محمود خلف; born 3 February 1983 in Al-Dibs, Kirkuk, Iraq), also transliterated as Younus Mahmood, is an Iraqi football player who plays as a striker for Al-Talaba and the Iraq national football team.
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The Zagros Mountains (رشته كوه زاگرس, زنجیرهچیاکانی زاگرۆس; Çiyayên Zagrosê, Lurish: کو یه لی زاگروس, جبال زغروس Aramaic: ܛܘܪ ܙܪܓܣ) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Kurdistan and Eastern Turkey.
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The Zanj Rebellion or the Negro Rebellion was the culmination of series of small revolts.
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Zucchini or courgette is a summer squash which can reach nearly a meter in length, but which is usually harvested at half that size or less.
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.iq is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Iraq.
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The 14 July Revolution or the 1958 Iraqi coup d'état took place on 14 July 1958 in Iraq, resulting in the overthrow of the Hashemite monarchy established by King Faisal I in 1921 under the auspices of the British.
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The 1941 Iraqi coup d'état, also called the Rashid Ali Al-Gaylani coup or the Golden Square coup, was a nationalist and pro-Nazi Coup d'état in Iraq on 1 April 1941 that overthrew the regime of Regent 'Abd al-Ilah and installed Rashid Ali al-Gaylani as Prime Minister.
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The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from 31 May to 29 June 1986.
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The 1991 uprisings in Iraq were a series of popular rebellions in northern and southern Iraq in March and April 1991 after the Gulf War.
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The 2003 Invasion of Iraq lasted from 19 March to 1 May 2003 and signaled the start of the Iraq War, which was dubbed Operation Iraqi Freedom by the United States (prior to 19 March, the mission in Iraq was called Operation Enduring Freedom, a carryover from the War in Afghanistan).
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The Asian Football Confederation's 2007 AFC Asian Cup finals were held from 7 July to 29 July 2007.
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The 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup was the eighth Confederations Cup, and was held in South Africa from 14 June to 28 June 2009, as a prelude to the 2010 FIFA World Cup.
The 2011 Iraqi protests came in the wake of the Tunisian revolution and 2011 Egyptian revolution.
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The 2012–13 Iraqi protests started on 21 December 2012 following a raid on the home of Sunni Finance Minister Rafi al-Issawi and the arrest of 10 of his bodyguards.
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The 2014 Gulf Cup of Nations or Arabian Gulf Cup (كأس الخليج العربي.) was the 22nd edition of the biennial football competition, and took place between 13 and 26 November in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
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The 29th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 29 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The 38th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The meridian 39° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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3G countries or Global Growth Generating countries are 11 countries which have been identified as sources of growth potential and of profitable investment opportunities.
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The meridian 49° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, Madagascar, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture.
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During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spread from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe, and also from Mesopotamia to Egypt.
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A'raq, Aj-Jumhuriyah Al-'Iraqiyah, Al-'Iraq, Al-‘Irāq, Central Iraq, Eragh, Eraq, Etymology of Iraq, IRAQ, ISO 3166-1:IQ, Irak, Irak-Arabi, Iraq (name), Iraqe, Iraqi Republic, Iraqui, Iraqê, Iraw, Irāq, Islamic Republic of Iraq, Itaq, Jumhuriyyat ul-ʿIraq, Jumhūriyyat al-‘Irāq, Jumhūriyyat ul-ʿIrāq, Komara Iraqe, Komara Iraqê, Name of Iraq, Republic of Iraq, South Iraq, State of Iraq, The Iraq, الجمهورية العراقية, العراق, عيَراق, كۆماری عێراق.