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ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Abdul Sattar Abu Risha (عبد الستار أبو ريشة) – Sheikh Abdul Sattar Eftikhan al-Rishawi الشيخ عبد الستار افتيخان الريشاوي – (born 1972 – September 13, 2007) was a high-profile Iraqi tribal sheikh of the Abu-Risha tribe.
Abed Hamed Mowhoush (Arabic "عبد حامد موحوش") was an air vice-marshal believed to be in command of the transport, logistics and airlifting division of the Iraqi Air Force during the regime of Saddam Hussein immediately prior to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, until his surrender to United States forces on 10 November 2003.
Lieutenant General Abid Al-Hamid Mahmud al-Tikriti (عبد الحميد محمود التكريتي) (c. 1957 – June 7, 2012) was an Iraqi military officer under Saddam Hussein's deposed government.
Abu Abdullah al Shafi'i (real name Wirya Salih) was the leader of the Jund al Islam and the Ansar Al Sunna from early 2003 to 2010.
Abu Ayyub al-Masri (أبو أيّوب المصري,; translation: "Father of Ayyub the Egyptian") (ca. 1968 – 18 April 2010), also known as (in Arabic), US Department of State.
Abū Bakr al-Baghdadi (أبو بكر البغدادي; born Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim al-Badri إبراهيم عواد إبراهيم علي محمد البدري السامرائي in 1971) is the leader of the Salafi jihadist militant terrorist organisation known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL),Rewards for Justice – Retrieved 25 January 2017 which controls territory in several countries.
Ismail Hafidh Al-Lami — known as "Abu Deraa" (Arabic: أبو درع, "Father of the Shield") — is an Iraqi Shia warlord whose men have been accused of terrorizing and killing Sunnis.
Abu Ghraib (أبو غريب, Abū Ghurayb) is a city in the Baghdad Governorate of Iraq, located just west of Baghdad's city center, or northwest of Baghdad International Airport.
During the war in Iraq that began in March 2003, personnel of the United States Army and the Central Intelligence Agency committed a series of human rights violations against detainees in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq.
Abu Hishma (أبو هشمة) is a small Iraqi town, with a population of approximately 7,000.
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (أبو مصعب الزرقاوي,, Abu Musab from Zarqa;; October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh (أحمد فضيل النزال الخلايلة), was a Jordanian jihadist who ran a paramilitary training camp in Afghanistan.
Hamid Dawud Mohamed Khalil al-Zawi (حميد داود محمد خليل الزاوي, died 18 April 2010) — known as Abu Hamza al-Baghdadi, and Abu Omar al-Qurashi al-Baghdadi, Wimmera News.
Academi is an American private military company founded in 1997 by former Navy SEAL officer Erik Prince as Blackwater, renamed as Xe Services in 2009 and now known as Academi since 2011 after the company was acquired by a group of private investors.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a short-range air-to-air missile developed by the United States Navy at China Lake, California, in the 1950s, and subsequently adopted by the United States Air Force.
Python family of AAM for comparisons, Python-5 (displayed lower-front) and Shafrir-1 (upper-back) An air-to-air missile (AAM) is a missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
An Airman is a member of an air force or air arm of a nation's armed forces.
The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
Al Anbar Governorate (محافظة الأنبار; muḥāfaẓat al-’Anbār), or Anbar Province, is the largest governorate in Iraq by area.
Al Başrah Oil Terminal, commonly referred to as ABOT, is a strategically critical Iraqi offshore, deep sea crude oil marine loading terminal that lies approximately southeast of the Al-Faw Peninsula in the Persian Gulf.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al ‘Askarī Shrine or the ‘Askariyya Shrine (aas) is a Shī‘ah Muslim holy site in the Iraqi city of Sāmarrā from Baghdad.
Al-Awja (العوجا; also known as Owja, Al-Auja or Al-Ouja) is a village 8 miles (13 km) south of Tikrit, in Iraq on the western bank of the Tigris.
The Al Faw Palace (also known as the Water Palace) is located in Baghdad approximately 5 kilometers from the Baghdad International Airport, Iraq.
The al-Faw Peninsula (شبه جزيرة الفاو; also transliterated as Fao or Fawr) is a peninsula in the Persian Gulf, located in the extreme southeast of Iraq.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Aleksander Kwaśniewski (born 15 November 1954) is a Polish politician and journalist.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
Nasiriyah Airport is a Military / Public located near Nasiriyah, Iraq.
Al-Sayyid Ali al-Husseini al-Sistani (السيد علي الحسيني السيستاني), or Sayyed Ali Hosseini Sistani (سید علی حسینی سیستانی), commonly known as Ayatollah Sistani in the Western world (born August 4, 1930 in Mashhad), is an Iranian Shia marja in Iraq and the head of many of the seminaries (Hawzahs) in Najaf.
Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (علي حسن عبد المجيد التكريتي; 1941? – 25 January 2010) was a Ba'athist Iraqi Defense Minister, Interior Minister, military commander and chief of the Iraqi Intelligence Service.
Alissa Johannsen Rubin is an American journalist who began covering the Middle East for The New York Times in 2007.
AlterNet is a progressive news magazine owned by AlterNet Media, Inc.
An American-led intervention in Iraq started on 15 June 2014, when President Barack Obama ordered United States forces to be dispatched to the region, in response to offensives in Iraq conducted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
Anders Fogh Rasmussen (born 26 January 1953) is a Danish politician who was the 24th Prime Minister of Denmark from November 2001 to April 2009 and the 12th Secretary General of NATO from August 2009 to October 2014.
Ansar al-Islam (أنصار الإسلام) or Ansar al-Islam fi Kurdistan (أنصار الإسلام في كردستان), also referred to as AAIChalk, Peter, Encyclopedia of Terrorism Volume 1, 2012, ABC-CLIO is a Sunni Muslim insurgent group in Iraq and Syria.
Aqila al-Hashimi (Arabic عقيلة الهاشمي cAqīla al-Hāshimī; 1953 - September 25, 2003) was an Iraqi politician who served on the Iraqi Governing Council.
Founded in 1985, the Arab American Institute is a non-profit membership organization based in Washington D.C. that focuses on the issues and interests of Arab-Americans nationwide.
The Army of the Men of the Naqshbandi Order (جيش رجال الطريقة النقشبندية Jaysh Rijāl aṭ-Ṭarīqa an-Naqshabandiya), also called the Naqshbandi Army, is one of a number of underground Ba'athist and Sufi militant insurgency groups in Iraq.
Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq (AAH; عصائب أهل الحق ‘Aṣayib Ahl al-Haq, "League of Righteous People"), also known as the Khazali Network, is an Iraqi Shi'a paramilitary group active in the Iraqi insurgency and Syrian Civil War. During the Iraq War it was known as Iraq's largest "Special Group" (the Americans' term for Iran-backed Shia paramilitaries in Iraq), and claimed responsibility for over 6,000 attacks on American and Coalition forces. The group is currently fighting against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant as part of the Popular Moblization Forces. The group is funded and trained by Iran's Quds Force., The Guardian, 12 March 2014.
An assault rifle is a selective-fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
The Howard Government supported the disarmament of Iraq during the Iraq disarmament crisis.
Ayad Allawi (إياد علاوي.; born May 31, 1944) is an Iraqi politician.
Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic, covers the history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Baghdad Governorate (محافظة بغداد Muḥāfaẓät Baġdād), also known as the Baghdad Province, is the capital governorate of Iraq.
Balad Air Base is an Iraqi Air Force base located near Balad in the Sunni Triangle north of Baghdad, Iraq.
Baqir Jabr Al-Zubeidi (باقر جبر الزبيدي), also known as Bayan Jabr Solagh, is a former commander of the Badr Brigades who served as the Finance Minister of Iraq in the government of Nouri al-Maliki.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barzan Mohamed (17 February 1951 – 15 January 2007), also known as Barazan Ibrahim al-Tikriti, Barasan Ibrahem Alhassen and Barzan Hassan (برزان إبراهيم الحسن التكريتي; Barzan Mohamed), was one of three half-brothers of Saddam Hussein, and a leader of the Mukhabarat, the Iraqi intelligence service.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
Basra Governorate (محافظة البصرة) (or Basra Province) is a governorate in southern Iraq, bordering Kuwait to the south and Iran to the east.
The Battle of Abu Ghraib was an April 2, 2005 attack on United States forces at Abu Ghraib prison, which consisted of heavy mortar and rocket fire, under which armed insurgents attacked with grenades, small arms, and two vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIED).
The Battle of Basra began on 25 March 2008, when the Iraqi Army launched an operation (code-named Saulat al-Fursan, meaning Operation Charge of the Knights in Arabic) to drive the Mahdi Army militia out of the southern Iraqi city of Basra.
The Battle of Huế – also called the Siege of Huế – was one of the bloodiest and longest battles of the Vietnam War.
The Battle of Nasiriyah was fought between the US 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade and Iraqi forces from the 23rd March to 2nd April 2003 during the US-led invasion of Iraq.
The Battle of the Palm Grove (10-13 September 2010) took place during the Iraq War when elements of the Second Advise and Assist Brigade (Stryker Brigade Combat Team), 25th ID of the US Army and 512th Military Police Company US Army supported 200 Iraqi Army and Iraqi Police in a search and sweep operation against 15-25 insurgents planting IEDs in Hudaidy, Diyala Province.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news, speech and discussions in over 30 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Clarence William Nelson II (born September 29, 1942) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Florida, a seat he was first elected to in 2000.
Tony Blair originally formed the Blair ministry in May 1997 after being invited by Queen Elizabeth II to form a new government following the resignation of the previous Prime Minister, John Major of the Conservative Party, as a result of the Labour Party's landslide victory at the 1997 general election.
Robert Upshur Woodward (born March 26, 1943) is an American investigative journalist and non-fiction author.
The December 1998 bombing of Iraq (code-named Operation Desert Fox) was a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from 16 December 1998, to 19 December 1998, by the United States and United Kingdom.
A boycott is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for moral, social, political, or environmental reasons.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
The Bush Doctrine refers to various related foreign policy principles of the 43rd President of the United States, George W. Bush.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
A caretaker government is a government that rules on a temporary basis, due to the loss of election or a pending transition of power.
Estimates of the casualties from the conflict in Iraq (beginning with the 2003 US invasion of Iraq, and the ensuing occupation and insurgency) have come in many forms, and the accuracy of the information available on different types of Iraq War casualties varies greatly.
The Center for Public Integrity (CPI) is an American nonprofit investigative journalism organization whose stated mission is "to reveal abuses of power, corruption and dereliction of duty by powerful public and private institutions in order to cause them to operate with honesty, integrity, accountability and to put the public interest first." With over 50 staff members, the CPI is one of the largest nonpartisan, nonprofit investigative centers in America.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.
Christopher Lynn Hedges (born September 18, 1956) is an American journalist, Presbyterian minister, and visiting Princeton University lecturer.
The Christians of Iraq are considered to be one of the oldest continuous Christian communities in the world.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
The term coalition of the willing generally refers to the US-led Multi-National Force – Iraq.
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA; سلطة الائتلاف المؤقتة) was a transitional government of Iraq established following the invasion of the country on 19 March 2003 by the U.S.-led Multinational Force (or 'the coalition') and the fall of Ba'athist Iraq.
Coalition Provisional Authority Order 1: De-Ba'athification of Iraqi Society is the first of the 100 Orders imposed by the Coalition Provisional Authority after the Iraq War.
Cobra II: The Inside Story of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq is a 2006 book written by Michael R. Gordon, chief military correspondent for The New York Times, and Bernard E. Trainor, a retired Marine Corps lieutenant general, which details the behind-the-scenes decision-making leading to the invasion of Iraq in 2003.
The combatants of the Iraq War include the Multinational Force in Iraq and armed Iraqi insurgent groups.
Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF–OIR) is the Joint Task Force established by the US-led international coalition against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), set up by the US Central Command to coordinate military efforts against ISIL (Da'esh), and is composed of US military forces and personnel from over 30 countries.
Common Dreams NewsCenter, often referred to simply as Common Dreams, is a 501(c)3 nonprofit U.S.-based progressive news website.
The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) is a federal agency within the legislative branch of the United States government that provides budget and economic information to Congress.
The Constitution of Iraq is the fundamental law of Iraq.
Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy.
The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain ("corn") enforced in Great Britain between 1815 and 1846.
The Council of Representatives (Majlis an-Nuwwāb al-ʿIrāqiyy; ئهنجومهنی نوێنهرانی) is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of Iraq.
Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism) incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
The U.S. rationale for the Iraq War has faced heavy criticism from an array of popular and official sources both inside and outside the United States.
Rafid Ahmed Alwan al-Janabi (رافد أحمد علوان الجنابي,; born 1968), known by the Defense Intelligence Agency cryptonym "Curveball", is a German citizen who defected from Iraq in 1999, claiming that he had worked as a chemical engineer at a plant that manufactured mobile biological weapon laboratories as part of an Iraqi weapons of mass destruction program.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
David Howell Petraeus (born November 7, 1952) is a retired United States Army general and public official.
De-Ba'athification (Arabic: اجتثاث حزب البعث&lrm) refers to a policy undertaken in Iraq by the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) and subsequent Iraqi governments to remove the Ba'ath Party's influence in the new Iraqi political system.
Baha Mousa was an Iraqi man who died while in British Army custody in Basra, Iraq in September 2003.
A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror.
Democracy Now! is an hour-long American TV, radio and internet news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman and Juan González.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
The Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (DPM) is a senior member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Dereliction of duty is a specific offense under United States Code Title 10, Section 892, Article 92 and applies to all branches of the US military.
Detention is the process whereby a state or private citizen lawfully holds a person by removing his or her freedom or liberty at that time.
In May 2003, following the invasion of Iraq in March of that year, the Central Bank of Iraq-Development Fund for Iraq (DFI) account was created at the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank of New York at the request of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) Administrator.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Diyala Governorate (محافظة ديالى) or Diyala Province is a governorate in eastern Iraq.
Dominique Marie François René Galouzeau de Villepin (born 14 November 1953) is a French retired diplomat and politician who served as the Prime Minister of France from 31 May 2005 to 17 May 2007.
Dominique Reynié (born 17 June 1960, Rodez, France) is a French academic.
Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a retired American political figure and businessman.
Duty: Memoirs of a Secretary at War is a nonfiction book written by Robert M. Gates, a former U.S. Secretary of Defense.
An effigy is a representation of a specific person in the form of sculpture or some other three-dimensional medium.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Electrocution is death or serious injury caused by electric shock, electric current passing through the body.
Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.
Eric Ken Shinseki (born November 28, 1942) is a retired United States Army general who served as the seventh United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs (2009–2014).
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Eurest Support Services (ESS) is a subsidiary of the catering company Compass Group PLC specializing in harsh-environment large-scale food service and facilities management.
The European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR) is an independent, nonprofit non-governmental organization focusing on legal issues.
The execution of Saddam Hussein took place on Saturday, 30 December 2006.
An explosively formed penetrator (EFP), also known as an explosively formed projectile, a self-forging warhead, or a self-forging fragment, is a special type of shaped charge designed to penetrate armor effectively.
Ezzedine Salim, (عزالدين سليم), also known as Abdelzahra Othman Mohammed (23 March 1941 – 17 May 2004, عبدالزهرة عثمان محمد), was an Iraqi politician, author, educator, Islamist theorist and one of the leading members of the Iraqi Dawaa Movement between 1980 and 2004.
Fabrizio Quattrocchi (9 May 1968 – 14 April 2004) was an Italian security officer taken hostage by Islamist militants in Iraq, notable for his defiance of captors shortly before being killed.
FallujahSometimes also transliterated as Falluja, Fallouja, or Falowja (الفلوجة, Iraqi pronunciation) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly west of Baghdad on the Euphrates.
The United States bombardment of Fallujah began in April 2003, one month following the beginning of the invasion of Iraq.
Fedayeen (فِدائيّين fidāʼīyīn) is a term used to refer to various military groups willing to sacrifice themselves.
Fedayeen Saddam (Arabic: فدائيي صدام) was a paramilitary organization loyal to the Ba'athist government of Saddam Hussein.
The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution, approved in 2005, as an Islamic, democratic, federal parliamentary republic.
Fern Leona Holland (August 5, 1970 – March 9, 2004) was an American lawyer who was killed in the Iraq conflict that began in 2003.
The following is a partial accounting of financial costs of the 2003 Iraq War by the United States and the United Kingdom, the two largest non-Iraqi participants of the multinational force in Iraq.
Firdos Square (Sāḥat al-Firdaus) is a public open space in Baghdad, Iraq.
The destruction of the Firdos Square statue was an event in the invasion of Iraq in 2003 that marked the symbolic end of the Battle of Baghdad.
The First Battle of Fallujah, also known as Operation Vigilant Resolve, was an operation to root out extremist elements of Fallujah as well as an attempt to apprehend the perpetrators of the killing of four U.S. contractors in March 2004.
The flight deck of an aircraft carrier is the surface from which its aircraft take off and land, essentially a miniature airfield at sea.
Members of the Iraqi insurgency began taking foreign hostages in Iraq beginning in April 2004.
The United States has been involved in a number of foreign interventions throughout its history.
The foreign policy of the United States is its interactions with foreign nations and how it sets standards of interaction for its organizations, corporations and system citizens of the United States.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
George William Casey Jr. (born July 22, 1948) is a retired four-star general who served as the 36th Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army from April 10, 2007, to April 10, 2011.
Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (born 7 April 1944) is a German politician, and served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, during which his most important political project was the Agenda 2010.
James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Neẓām-e jomhūrī-e eslāmi-e Irān, known simply as Neẓām (lit) among its supporters, and "the regime" among its dissidents) is the ruling state and current political system in Iran, in power since the revolution and fall of Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
The Green Zone (Arabic: المنطقة الخضراء, al-minṭaqah al-ḫaḍrā’) is the most common name for the International Zone of Baghdad.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Haditha (حديثة, al-Haditha) is a city in the western Iraqi Al Anbar Governorate, about northwest of Baghdad.
The Haditha killings (also called the Haditha massacre or the Haditha incident) refers to the November 19, 2005, incident in which a group of United States Marines killed 24 unarmed Iraqi civilians.
Haider Jawad Kadhim al-Abadi (or al-'Ibadi; حيدر جواد كاظم العبادي, born 25 April 1952) is an Iraqi politician who has been the Prime Minister of Iraq since September 2014.
Hans Martin Blix (born 28 June 1928) is a Swedish diplomat and politician for the Liberal People's Party.
Hillah (الحلة al-Ḥillah), also spelled Hilla, is a city in central Iraq on the Hilla branch of the Euphrates River, south of Baghdad.
The territory of the modern state of Iraq was defined in 1920 as Mandatory Iraq.
The history of Iraq from 2003 to 2011 is characterized by a large United States military deployment on Iraqi territory, beginning with the U.S.-led invasion of the country in March 2003 which overthrew the Ba'ath Party government of Saddam Hussein and ending with the departure of US troops from the country in 2011 (though the Iraq War that commenced in 2003 continued and subsequently intensified during 2013).
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Ibrahim al-Eshaiker al-Jaafari (إبراهيم الأشيقر الجعفري; born 25 March 1947) is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq in the Iraqi Transitional Government from 2005 to 2006, following the January 2005 election.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
An improvised explosive device (IED) is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering; liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; forcing the partition of a country; altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government; or a combination thereof.
The Invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 was a 2-day operation conducted by Iraq against the neighboring state of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of the country.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict (sometimes referred to as the Iran–Saudi Arabia Cold War or the Middle East Cold War) is the ongoing struggle for influence in the Middle East and surrounding regions between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iraq actively researched and later employed weapons of mass destruction from 1962 to 1991, when it destroyed its chemical weapons stockpile and halted its biological and nuclear weapon programs.
Iraq Body Count project (IBC) is a web-based effort to record civilian deaths resulting from the US-led 2003 invasion of Iraq.
The Iraqi conflict (2003–present) is a long-running armed conflict that began with the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that toppled the government of Saddam Hussein.
On January 9, 2008 the World Health Organization reported the results of the "Iraq Family Health Survey" published in the New England Journal of Medicine.
The Iraq Inquiry (also referred to as the Chilcot Inquiry after its chairman, Sir John Chilcot) The Guardian, 31 July 2009.
The Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 is a United States Congressional statement of policy stating that "It should be the policy of the United States to support efforts to remove the regime headed by Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq..." It was signed into law by President Bill Clinton, and states that it is the policy of the United States to support democratic movements within Iraq.
About six months after the invasion of Iraq rumors of Iraq prison abuse scandals started to emerge.
The Iraq Resolution (formally the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002, (pdf)) is a joint resolution passed by the United States Congress in October 2002 as Public Law No: 107-243, authorizing military action against Iraq.
The Iraq Spring Fighting of 2004 (April 4, 2004 – June 24, 2004) was a series of operational offensives and various major engagements during the Iraq War.
The Iraq Study Group Report: The Way Forward – A New Approach is the report of the Iraq Study Group, as mandated by the United States Congress.
The Iraq Survey Group (ISG) was a fact-finding mission sent by the multinational force in Iraq after the 2003 invasion of Iraq to find the weapons of mass destruction alleged to be possessed by Iraq that had been the main ostensible reason for the invasion.
Iraq Veterans Against the War (IVAW) is an advocacy group of formerly active-duty United States military personnel, Iraq War veterans, Afghanistan War veterans, and other veterans who have served since the September 11, 2001 attacks who were opposed to the U.S. military invasion and occupation in Iraq from 2003-2011.
The Iraq War documents leak is the disclosure to WikiLeaks of 391,832 United States Army field reports, also called the Iraq War Logs, of the Iraq War from 2004 to 2009 and published on the Internet on 2010.
In the context of the Iraq War, the surge refers to United States President George W. Bush's 2007 increase in the number of American troops in order to provide security to Baghdad and Al Anbar Province.
Diplomatic relations between Iraq and the United States began when the U.S. first recognized Iraq on January 9, 1930, with the signing of the Anglo-American-Iraqi Convention in London by Charles G. Dawes, U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom.
The Iraqi Armed Forces are the military forces of the Government of Iraq.
The Iraqi Army, officially the Iraqi Ground Forces, is the ground force component of the Iraqi Armed Forces, having been active in various incarnations throughout the 20th and 21st centuries.
The Iraqi Civil War is an armed conflict which began in January 2014.
The electorate of Iraq went to the polls on 15 October 2005 to vote in a referendum on whether or not to ratify the proposed constitution of Iraq.
The Iraqi Governing Council (IGC) was the provisional government of Iraq from July 13, 2003 to June 1, 2004.
An insurgency began in Iraq after the 2003 US-led invasion, and lasted throughout the ensuing Iraq War (2003–2011).
The Iraqi insurgency, later referred to as the Iraq Crisis, escalated after the withdrawal of U.S. troops in 2011, resulting in violent conflict with the central government, as well as sectarian violence among Iraq's religious groups.
The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the drafting of the new constitution following the National Assembly election conducted on January 30, 2005.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
The Iraqi no-fly zones were a set of two separate no-fly zones (NFZs), and were proclaimed by the United States, United Kingdom, and France after the Gulf War of 1991 to protect the Kurds in northern Iraq and Shiite Muslims in the south.
Following the ratification of the Constitution of Iraq on 15 October 2005, a general election was held on 15 December to elect a permanent 275-member Iraqi Council of Representatives.
Elections for the National Assembly of Iraq were held on January 30, 2005 in Iraq.
Iraqi security forces (ISF) is a term used by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) to describe law enforcement and military forces of the federal government of the Republic of Iraq.
The Iraqi Transitional Government was the government of Iraq from May 3, 2005, when it replaced the Iraqi Interim Government, until May 20, 2006, when it was replaced by the first permanent government.
The Islamic Army in Iraq (IAI) (Arabic: الجيش الإسلامي في العراق, al jaysh al islāmi fī'l-`irāq) is one of a number of underground Islamist militant (or mujahideen) organizations formed in Iraq following the 2003 invasion of Iraq by United States and coalition military forces, and the subsequent collapse of the Baathist government headed by Saddam Hussein.
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.
The Islamic State of Iraq (ISI; دولة العراق الإسلامية) (commonly referred to as al-Qaeda in Iraq) was a militant Salafist jihadist group that aimed to establish an Islamic state in Sunni, Arab-majority areas of Iraq during the Iraq War and later in Syria during the Syrian Civil War.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Ismail Jubouri (Arabic: إسماعيل الجبوري) is the senior rebel leader of the Islamic Army in Iraq, one of the influential insurgent groups operating in Iraq.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri (عزة إبراهيم الدوري ‘Izzat Ibrāhīm ad-Dūrī; born 1 July 1942) is a former Iraqi statesman and military commander.
Jamaat Ansar al-Sunnah (جماعة أنصار السنه. Jama'at 'Anṣār as-Sunnah, "Assembly of the Helpers of Sunnah"), also known as Jaish Ansar al-Sunna, was an Iraqi Sunni insurgent group that fought against US Troops and their local allies during the Iraq War.
James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930) is an American attorney and political figure.
James Wright Foley (October 18, 1973 – August 19, 2014) was an American journalist and video reporter.
James Franklin Jeffrey (born 1946) is a former senior American diplomat and an expert in political, security, and energy issues in the Middle East, Turkey, Germany, and the Balkans.
Jay Montgomery Garner (born April 15, 1938) is a retired United States Army lieutenant general who was appointed in 2003 as Director of the Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance for Iraq following the 2003 invasion of Iraq but was soon replaced by Ambassador Paul Bremer and the ambassador's successor organization to ORHA, the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA).
James Henry Webb Jr. (born February 9, 1946) is an American politician and author.
Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. (born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 47th Vice President of the United States from 2009 to 2017.
John Yorke Denham FRSA (born 15 July 1953) is an English Labour Party politician who served as Member of Parliament (MP) for Southampton Itchen from 1992 to 2015.
John Winston Howard, (born 26 July 1939) is a former Australian politician who served as the 25th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1996 to 2007.
The Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) is a component command of the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) and is charged to study special operations requirements and techniques to ensure interoperability and equipment standardization; to plan and conduct special operations exercises and training; to develop joint special operations tactics; and to execute special operations missions worldwide.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
José María Alfredo Aznar López (born 25 February 1953) is a Spanish politician who served as the Prime Minister of Spain from 1996 to 2004.
Joseph Martin "Joschka" Fischer (born 12 April 1948) is a German politician of the Alliance '90/The Greens.
Juba (جوبا) (a.k.a. "Joba") is the pseudonym of an alleged sniper involved in the Iraq War's insurgency, featured in several videos.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
The July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrikes were a series of air-to-ground attacks conducted by a team of two U.S. AH-64 Apache helicopters in Al-Amin al-Thaniyah, New Baghdad during the Iraqi insurgency which followed the Iraq War.
JW GROM (full name: Jednostka Wojskowa GROM im. Cichociemnych Spadochroniarzy Armii Krajowej, English: "Military Unit GROM named in honour of the Silent Unseen of the Home Army") is Poland's elite counter-terrorism unit.
The Karbala provincial headquarters raid was an infiltration attack carried out on January 20, 2007 by insurgent commandos, with possible Iranian involvement, on the American contingent of the Joint Security Station located within the Iraqi Police headquarters.
Kenneth John "Ken" Bigley (22 April 1942 – 7 October 2004) was a British civil engineer who was kidnapped in the al-Mansour district of Baghdad, Iraq, on 16 September 2004, along with his colleagues Jack Hensley and Eugene Armstrong, both United States citizens.
Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957) is a former Australian politician who was the 26th Prime Minister of Australia, serving from December 2007 to June 2010 and again from June to September 2013.
Khor Al Amaya Oil Terminal is an Iraqi oil port.
Kim Sun-il (13 September 1970c. 22 June 2004) was a South Korean interpreter and Christian missionary who was kidnapped and murdered in Iraq.
Kirkuk (كركوك; کەرکووک; Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad.
Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.
The Kurdistan Free Life Party, or PJAK (Partiya Jiyana Azad a Kurdistanê), is a militant leftist-nationalist, anti-Iranian government group.
The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê) is an organization based in Turkey and Iraq.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Al-Kūt (الكوت Al Kūt), also spelled Kut al-Imara or Kut El Amara, is a city in eastern Iraq, on the left bank of the Tigris River, about south east of Baghdad.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
The Lancet, one of the oldest scientific medical journals in the world, published two peer-reviewed studies on the effect of the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation on the Iraqi mortality rate.
A laser-guided bomb (LGB) is a guided bomb that uses semi-active laser guidance to strike a designated target with greater accuracy than an unguided bomb.
The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Lee Herbert Hamilton (born April 20, 1931) is a former member of the United States House of Representatives and currently a member of the U.S. Homeland Security Advisory Council.
The legality of the invasion and occupation of Iraq has been widely debated since the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Poland and a coalition of other countries launched the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
A dispute exists over the legitimacy of the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
In order to facilitate organized, determined, and principled opposition to the wars, people have often founded anti-war organizations.
This is a list of coalition (Multi-National Force – Iraq) military operations of the Iraq War.
This is a comprehensive list of Iraqi security forces members killed in the Iraq War.
The members of the first Iraqi Council of Representatives were elected in December 2005 under the newly adopted constitution.
As of June 26, 2011, there have been 550 foreign private contractor deaths in Iraq as part of the Iraq war.
This list of wars by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by war.
Lloyd James Austin III (born August 8, 1953) is a retired United States Army general.
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, commonly known as Law Lords, were judges appointed under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 to the British House of Lords in order to exercise its judicial functions, which included acting as the highest court of appeal for most domestic matters.
The M16 rifle, officially designated Rifle, Caliber 5.56 mm, M16, is a United States military adaptation of the ArmaLite AR-15 rifle.Kern, Danford Allan (2006).. m-14parts.com. A thesis presented to the Faculty of the US Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE, Military History. Fort Leavenworth, KansasKokalis, Peter G.. Nodakspud.com The original M16 was a selective fire 5.56mm rifle with a 20-round magazine. In 1964, the M16 entered U.S. military service and the following year was deployed for jungle warfare operations during the Vietnam War. In 1969, the M16A1 replaced the M14 rifle to become the U.S. military's standard service rifle.Ezell, Edward Clinton (1983). Small Arms of the World. New York: Stackpole Books. pp. 46–47..Urdang, p. 801. The M16A1 improvements include a bolt-assist, chrome plated bore and a new 30-round magazine. In 1983, the U.S. Marine Corps adopted the M16A2 rifle and the U.S. Army adopted it in 1986. The M16A2 fires the improved 5.56×45mm NATO (M855/SS109) cartridge and has a new adjustable rear sight, case deflector, heavy barrel, improved handguard, pistol grip and buttstock, as well as a semi-auto and three-round burst only fire selector. Adopted in 1998, the M16A4 is the fourth generation of the M16 series.Weapons of the Modern Marines, by Michael Green, MBI Publishing Company, 2004, page 16 It is equipped with a removable carrying handle and Picatinny rail for mounting optics and other ancillary devices. The M16 has also been widely adopted by other militaries around the world. Total worldwide production of M16s has been approximately 8 million, making it the most-produced firearm of its 5.56 mm caliber. The U.S. Military has largely replaced the M16 in combat units with a shorter and lighter version named the M4 carbine.
The M4 carbine is a shorter and lighter variant of the M16A2 assault rifle.
Maclean's is a Canadian news magazine that was founded in 1905, reporting on Canadian issues such as politics, pop culture, and current events.
The Mahmudiyah rape and killings involved the gang-rape and killing of 14-year-old Iraqi girl Abeer Qassim Hamza al-Janabi and the murder of her family by United States Army soldiers on March 12, 2006.
A main battle tank (MBT), also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the armor-protected direct fire and maneuver role of many modern armies.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS or MPADS) are shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles (SLSAMs).
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Margaret Hassan (18 April 1945 – 8 November 2004), also known as "Madam Margaret", was an Irish-born aid worker who had worked in Iraq for many years until she was abducted and murdered by unidentified kidnappers in Iraq in 2004, at the age of 59.
Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune "One of the Marine Corps' biggest bases is Camp Lejeune (luh-JUNE) in Jacksonville, North Carolina.
A Marine Security Guard (MSG), also known as a Marine Embassy Guard, is a member of the Marine Corps Embassy Security Group (formerly Marine Security Guard Battalion), a battalion-sized organization of U.S. Marines whose detachments provide security at American embassies, American consulates and other official United States Government offices such as the United States Mission to NATO in Brussels, Belgium.
A Military Transition Team, or Transition Team, is a 10-15 soldier team that trains local forces.
The Ministry of Defence (وزارة الدفاع العراقية) is the Iraq government agency responsible for defence of Iraq.
The Ministry of Health of Iraq was founded in the middle of previous century.
The Ministry of Interior (MOI) is the government body charged with overseeing policing and border control in Iraq.
The Ministry of Oil (وزارة النفط) is the Iraqi government agency responsible for Iraqi petroleum.
The Mission Accomplished speech (named from a banner displayed above the speaker) was a televised address by United States President George W. Bush on the aircraft carrier USS ''Abraham Lincoln'' on May 1, 2003.
A mock execution is a stratagem in which a victim is deliberately but falsely made to feel that their execution or that of another person is imminent or is taking place.
Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei (محمد مصطفى البرادعى,,; born 17 June 1942) is an Egyptian law scholar and diplomat who was the last Vice-President of Egypt serving on an interim basis from 14 July 2013 until his resignation on 14 August 2013.
A moral panic is a feeling of fear spread among a large number of people that some evil threatens the well-being of society.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
During the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition, the U.S. military developed a set of playing cards to help troops identify the most-wanted members of President Saddam Hussein's government, mostly high-ranking members of the Iraqi Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party or members of the Revolutionary Command Council.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Mount Judi (الجوديّ, קרדו, Cûdî, ܩܪܕܘ, Cudi), also spelled Guti and Kutu, according to very Early Christian and Islamic tradition (based on the Qur'an, Hud:44), is Noah's apobaterion or "Place of Descent", the location where the Ark came to rest after the Great Flood.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
The Mukaradeeb wedding party massacre (مجزرة حفلة عرس مقر الديب) refers to the U.S. shooting and bombing of an alleged wedding party in Mukaradeeb, a small village in Iraq near the border with Syria, on 19 May 2004.
The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America (Operation Iraqi Freedom), United Kingdom (Operation TELIC), Australia, Spain and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.
The Munich Security Conference (MSC; Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz) is an annual conference on international security policy that has taken place in Munich, Bavaria since 1963.
Muqtada al-Sadr (Muqtadā ṣ-Ṣadr; born 12 August 1973) is an Iraqi Shia cleric, politician and militia leader.
Du’a Khalil Aswad (دعاء خليل أسود) (c. 1989 – c. 7 April 2007) was a 17-year-old Iraqi girl of the Yazidi faith who was stoned to death in northern Iraq in early April 2007, the victim of an honor killing.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
The National Intelligence Council (NIC) is the center for midterm and long-term strategic thinking within the United States Intelligence Community (IC).
National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) are United States federal government documents that are the authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) on intelligence related to a particular national security issue.
The National Network to End the War Against Iraq (NNEWAI) (2001–2004) was the first formal coalition in the United States founded specifically to oppose the policy of economic sanctions and ongoing bombing of targets inside Iraq.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
A news agency is an organization that gathers news reports and sells them to subscribing news organizations, such as newspapers, magazines and radio and television broadcasters.
Nicholas Evan Berg (April 2, 1978 – May 7, 2004) was an American freelance radio-tower repairman who went to Iraq after the United States' invasion of Iraq.
Sir Nicholas William Peter Clegg (born 7 January 1967) is a British politician who served as Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2015 and as Leader of the Liberal Democrats from 2007 to 2015.
On September 16, 2007, employees of Blackwater Security Consulting (now Academi), a private military company, shot at Iraqi civilians, killing 17 and injuring 20 in Nisour Square, Baghdad, while escorting a U.S. embassy convoy.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Nouri Kamil Mohammed Hasan al-Maliki (نوري كامل محمد حسن المالكي.; born 20 June 1950), also known as Jawad al-Maliki (جواد المالكي) or Abu Esraa (أبو إسراء), is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq from 2006 to 2014.
The Office of Special Plans (OSP), which existed from September 2002 to June 2003, was a Pentagon unit created by Paul Wolfowitz and Douglas Feith, and headed by Feith, as charged by then-United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, to supply senior George W. Bush administration officials with raw intelligence (unvetted by intelligence analysts, see Stovepiping) pertaining to Iraq.
The Office of the Federal Register is an office of the United States government within the National Archives and Records Administration.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
Oil reserves in Iraq are considered the world’s fifth -largest proven oil reserves, with 140 billion barrels.
The Oil-for-Food Programme (OIP), established by the United Nations in 1995 (under UN Security Council Resolution 986) was established to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine, and other humanitarian needs for ordinary Iraqi citizens without allowing Iraq to boost its military capabilities.
Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) is the U.S. military's operational name for the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIL, in the vernacular, Daesh), including both the campaign in Iraq and the campaign in Syria.
Operation Red Dawn was an American military operation conducted on 13 December 2003 in the town of ad-Dawr, Iraq, near Tikrit, that led to the capture of Iraqi president Saddam Hussein.
Operation Sinbad was an operation led by the Iraqi Security Forces and supported by British, Danish and other Multi-National Forces in southern Iraq.
Operation Telic (Op TELIC) was the codename under which all of the United Kingdom's military operations in Iraq were conducted between the start of the Invasion of Iraq on 19 March 2003 and the withdrawal of the last remaining British forces on 22 May 2011.
Operation Viking Hammer was an unconventional warfare operation during the Iraq War which took place in northern Iraq, commonly known as Iraqi Kurdistan.
Significant opposition to the Iraq War occurred worldwide, both before and during the initial 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United States, United Kingdom, and smaller contingents from other nations, and throughout the subsequent occupation.
On Friday, 14 September 2007, ORB International, an independent polling agency located in London, published estimates of the total war casualties in Iraq since the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is an American political scientist and diplomat who served as the 10th President of the World Bank, United States Ambassador to Indonesia, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense, and former dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University.
The Peace Companies (سرايا السلام, translit. Sarāyā al-Salām), frequently mistranslated as Peace Brigades in US media, are an Iraqi armed group linked to Iraq's Shia community.
Peshmerga (lit, or Those who face death') are the military forces of the federal region of Iraqi Kurdistan.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Philip Alexander Hunt, Baron Hunt of Kings Heath, OBE, PC (born 19 May 1949) is a former health administrator and a Labour Co-operative member of the House of Lords.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish Navy (Marynarka Wojenna, "War Navy") is a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces responsible for naval operations.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
The United States public's opinion on the invasion of Iraq has changed significantly since the years preceding the incursion.
A preemptive war is a war that is commenced in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war shortly before that attack materializes.
The presidency of George W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 2001, when George W. Bush was inaugurated as 43rd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2009.
A press release, news release, media release, press statement or video release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something ostensibly newsworthy.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Prime Minister's Questions (often abbreviated to PMQs and officially known as Questions to the Prime Minister) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom, currently held as a single session every Wednesday at noon when the House of Commons is sitting, during which the Prime Minister spends around half an hour answering questions from Members of Parliament (MPs).
Prisoner abuse is the mistreatment of persons while they are under arrest or incarcerated, therefore deprived of the right of self-defense against acting authorities and generally defenseless in actual fact.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
A private military company (PMC) is a private company providing armed combat or security services.
Beginning in 2002, and continuing after the 2003 invasion of Iraq, large-scale protests against the Iraq War were held in many cities worldwide, often coordinated to occur simultaneously around the world.
A provisional government, also called a morning or transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition, generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration.
The Public Papers of the Presidents contain the papers and speeches of the Presidents of the United States that were issued by the White House Office of the Press Secretary.
Qahtaniyah (Kurmanji Til Ezer القحطانية DMG al-Qaḥṭānīya, also spelled Giruzer, Kar Izir, Kahtaniya) is an Iraqi town about from Mosul and a few miles south of Sinjar.
Qais al-Khazali (in Arabic قيس الخزعلي) (born 1974) is best known as the founder and leader of the Special Groups in Iraq from June 2006 until his capture by British forces in March 2007.
Major General Qasem Soleimani (قاسم سلیمانی, born 11 March 1957) is an Iranian senior military officer in the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) and since 1998 commander of its Quds Force—a division primarily responsible for extraterritorial military and clandestine operations.
The Quds Force (سپاه قدس sepāh-e qods) is a special forces unit of Iran's Revolutionary Guards responsible for their extraterritorial operations.
Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (or Qusai, قصي صدام حسين; –) was the second son of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
The Ramadan Offensive was a series of insurgent attacks against Coalition and Iraqi military targets from the end of October and during much of November 2003.
Ramadi (الرمادي Ar-Ramādī; also formerly rendered as Rumadiyah or Rumadiya) is a city in central Iraq, about west of Baghdad and west of Fallujah.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
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Raymond Thomas "Ray" Odierno (born 8 September 1954) is a retired United States Army General who served as the 38th Chief of Staff of the Army.
The Iraqi Republican Guard (حرس العراق الجمهوري Ḥaras al-‘Irāq al-Jamhūriyy) was a branch of the Iraqi military from 1964 to 2003, primarily during the presidency of Saddam Hussein.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The Revolutionary Guard Corps (Liwa Haris al-Jamahiriya) or Jamahiriyyah Guard was a Libyan paramilitary elite unit that played the role of key protection force of the regime of Muammar Gaddafi, until his death in October 2011.
Ricardo Sánchez (born September 9, 1953) is a former United States Army lieutenant general who stood as a candidate for the Democratic Party nomination for the U.S. Senate election in 2012 for the seat of retiring Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison.
Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is an American statesman, scholar, intelligence analyst, and university president who served as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense from 2006 to 2011.
Robert Hutchings is the Walt and Elspeth Rostow Chair in National Security at the LBJ School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas, Austin and served as dean of the school from 2010 to 2015.
Robert Finlayson Cook (28 February 1946 – 6 August 2005) was a Scottish Labour Party politician, who served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Livingston from 1983 until his death, and served in the Cabinet as Foreign Secretary from 1997 until 2001, when he was replaced by Jack Straw.
A rocket-propelled grenade (often abbreviated RPG) is a shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon system that fires rockets equipped with an explosive warhead.
Rogue state or outlaw state is a term applied by some international theorists to states they consider threatening to the world's peace.
Rohan Gunaratna (born 1961) is a Singaporean analyst on security affairs.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda link allegations were made by the U.S. government officials who claimed that a highly secretive relationship existed between Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and the radical Islamist militant organization Al-Qaeda between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS).
Sadr City (مدينة الصدر), formerly known as Al-Thawra (الثورة) and Saddam City, is a suburb district of the city of Baghdad, Iraq.
The Saladin or Salah ad Din Governorate (صلاح الدين, Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn) is a governorate in Iraq, north of Baghdad.
The sanctions against Iraq were a near-total financial and trade embargo imposed by the United Nations Security Council on Ba'athist Iraq.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Stephen "Scott" Helvenston (June 21, 1965 – March 31, 2004) was a former United States Navy SEAL.
The Second Battle of Fallujah—code-named Operation Al-Fajr (Arabic: الفجر "the dawn") and Operation Phantom Fury—was a joint American, Iraqi, and British offensive in November and December 2004, considered the highest point of conflict in Fallujah during the Iraq War.
Sectarian violence and/or sectarian strife is a form of communal violence inspired by sectarianism, that is, between different sects of one particular mode of ideology or religion within a nation/community.
Between 2006 and 2008, Iraq experienced a high level of sectarian violence.
Seif Adnan Kanaan (died October 22, 2004) was an Iraqi citizen who was abducted in Iraq and beheaded on October 22, 2004.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Sexual assault is an act in which a person coerces or physically forces a person to engage in a sexual act against their will.
Seymour Myron "Sy" Hersh (born April 8, 1937) is an American investigative journalist and political writer based in Washington, D.C. He is a longtime contributor to The New Yorker magazine on national security matters and has also written for the London Review of Books since 2013.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
More than two thirds of the population of Iraq 70% are Shia Muslims.
Shock and awe (technically known as rapid dominance) is a tactic based on the use of overwhelming power and spectacular displays of force to paralyze the enemy's perception of the battlefield and destroy its will to fight.
was a Japanese citizen who was kidnapped and later beheaded in Iraq on 29 October 2004, by Zarqawi's group, while touring the country.
Silvio Berlusconi (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian media tycoon and politician who has served as Prime Minister of Italy in four governments.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
The Sons of Iraq (أبناء العراق. Abnāʼ al-ʻIrāq) were coalitions between tribal Sheikhs in the Al Anbar province in Iraq as well as former Saddam Hussein's Iraqi military officers that united to maintain stability in their communities.
The Special Activities Division (SAD) is a division of the United States Central Intelligence Agency responsible for covert operations.
Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.
Special Groups (SGs) is a designation given by the American military to the cell-based Shi'a paramilitary organizations operating within Iraq, backed by Iran.
The Office of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR) (October 2004 - October 2013) was created as the successor to the Coalition Provisional Authority Office of Inspector General (CPA-IG).
The Iraqi Special Republican Guard (SRG) (الحرس الجمهوري الخاص ""Ḥaris al-‘Irāq al-Jamhūriyy al-Khas"), also known as the Special Forces Brigade of the Presidential Palace, Republican Guard Special Protection Forces, or the Golden Division, was an Iraqi personal security force founded in either early 1992 or March 1995 in Ba'athist Iraq.
Spencer C. Tucker is a Fulbright scholar, retired university professor and an award-winning author of works on military history.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Sunni Triangle is a densely populated region of Iraq to the northwest of Baghdad that is inhabited mostly by Sunni Muslim Arabs.
The Supreme Command for Jihad and Liberation (a.k.a. Supreme Council of Jihad and Liberation or SCJL or Ba'athist Loyalists) is an Iraqi front comprising some 23 militia groups formed in October 2007 and led by former Iraqi vice president and deputy chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Taha Yasin Ramadan al-Jizrawi (طه ياسين رمضان الجزراوي; 1938 – 20 March 2007) was a prominent Iraqi Kurd, serving as one of the two Vice Presidents of Iraq from March 1991 to the fall of Saddam Hussein in April 2003.
Tal Afar (تلعفر,, Telafer) is a city and district in the Nineveh Governorate of northwestern Iraq, 63 km west of Mosul, 52 km east of Sinjar.
Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (TQJBR; (Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia", tanẓīm qā‘idat al-jihād fī bilād ar-rāfidayn), also referred to as Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) or Al-Qaeda in Mesopotamia, was an Iraqi Sunni Islamic Jihadist organization affiliated with al-Qaeda.
Targeted killing is defined as a form of assassination based on the presumption of criminal guilt.
Tariq al-Hashimi (طارق الهاشمي Țāriq al-Hāshamī; born 1942) is an Iraqi politician who served as the general secretary of the Iraqi Islamic Party (IIP) until May 2009.
Tariq Aziz (طارق عزيز, born Mikhail Yuhanna, ܡܝܟܐܝܠ ܝܘܚܢܢ, ميخائيل يوحنا, baptized Manuel Christo; 28 April 1936 – 5 June 2015) was Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister (1979–2003) and Foreign Minister (1983–1991) and a close advisor of President Saddam Hussein.
Task Force 121 was a United States Department of Defense special operations task force.
Task Force Tripoli (TFT) was a United States Marine Corps air-ground task force formed after the fall of Baghdad during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
The Telegram & Gazette (and Sunday Telegram) is Worcester, Massachusetts's only daily newspaper.
The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.
The American Spectator is a conservative U.S. monthly magazine covering news and politics, edited by R. Emmett Tyrrell, Jr. and published by the non-profit American Spectator Foundation.
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Iraq War: A Historiography of Wikipedia Changelogs is a 12-volume set of printed books that shows every change made to the English Wikipedia article on the Iraq War from December 2004 to November 2009 and represents 12,000 changes in 7,000 printed pages.
The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The McClatchy Company is a publicly traded American publishing company based in Sacramento, California.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Thomas Edwin "Tom" Ricks (born September 25, 1955) is an American journalist and author who specializes in the military and national security issues.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Tikrit (تكريت Tikrīt, ܬܓܪܝܬ) sometimes transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit, is a city in Iraq, located northwest of Baghdad and southeast of Mosul on the Tigris River.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Thomas Henry Bingham, Baron Bingham of Cornhill (called Tom; 13 October 193311 September 2010), was an eminent British judge and jurist who served as Master of the Rolls, Lord Chief Justice and Senior Law Lord.
Tommy Ray Franks (born June 17, 1945) is a retired general in the United States Army.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
Traian Băsescu (born 4 November 1951) is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 2004 to 2014.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
OPLAN 1003–98 was the United States military's pre-2002 contingency plan in event of a war with Iraq.
The US raid on the Iranian Liaison Office in Arbil refers to the events of 11 January 2007 when the US military raided the Iranian Liaison Office (which was in the process of becoming accredited as an officially recognized consulate) in Arbil, Iraq, ostensibly to detain two senior Iranian officials but capturing five mid-level diplomats instead.
The U.S.–Iraq Status of Forces Agreement (official name: Agreement Between the United States of America and the Republic of Iraq On the Withdrawal of United States Forces from Iraq and the Organization of Their Activities during Their Temporary Presence in Iraq) was a status of forces agreement (SOFA) between Iraq and the United States, signed by President George W. Bush in 2008.
Uday Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (عُدي صدّام حُسين) (18 June 1964 – 22 July 2003) was the eldest son of Saddam Hussein by his first wife, Sajida Talfah, and the brother of Qusay Hussein.
Umm Qasr (أم قصر, also transliterated as Um-qasir, Um-qasser), is a port city in southern Iraq.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) was created through the adoption of United Nations Security Council resolution 1284 of 17 December 1999 and its mission lasted until June 2007.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
In March 2003 the United States government announced that "diplomacy has failed" and that it would proceed with a "coalition of the willing" to rid Iraq under Saddam Hussein of weapons of mass destruction the US insisted it possessed.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a United Nations Security Council resolution adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on 8 November 2002, offering Iraq under Saddam Hussein "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous resolutions (Resolutions 660, 661, 678, 686, 687, 688, 707, 715, 986, and 1284).
United Nations Security Council resolution 1483, adopted on 22 May 2003, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation between Iraq and Kuwait, the Council lifted trade sanctions against Iraq (excluding an arms embargo) and terminated the Oil-for-Food Programme.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, adopted on 3 April 1991, after reaffirming resolutions 660, 661, 662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 669, 670, 674, 677, 678 (all 1990) and 686 (1991), the Council set the terms, in a comprehensive resolution, with which Iraq was to comply after losing the Gulf War.
United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) was an inspection regime created by the United Nations to ensure Iraq's compliance with policies concerning Iraqi production and use of weapons of mass destruction after the Gulf War.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.
The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command of the U.S. Department of Defense.
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is a component of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
This article lists the United States's military dead, wounded, and missing person totals for wars and major deployments.
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
Urban warfare is combat conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities.
USA kill or capture strategy in Iraq refers to a strategy adopted in 2007 by the United States in Iraq to confront "suspected Iranian operatives in Iraq".
USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) is the fifth in the United States Navy.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
A vigilante is a civilian or organization acting in a law enforcement capacity (or in the pursuit of self-perceived justice) without legal authority.
Walter John "Walt" Natynczyk, is a retired Canadian Army general who has served as Deputy Minister of Veterans Affairs since 2014.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The White House Office of the Press Secretary, or the Press Office, is responsible for gathering and disseminating information to three principal groups: the President, the White House staff, and the media.
White phosphorus is a material made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus that is used in smoke, tracer, illumination, and incendiary munitions.
WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by anonymous sources.
William Childs Westmoreland (March 26, 1914 – July 18, 2005) was a United States Army general, who most notably commanded U.S. forces during the Vietnam War from 1964 to 1968.
The withdrawal of U.S. military forces from Iraq began in December 2007 with the end of the Iraq War troop surge of 2007 and was completed by December 2011, bringing an end to the Iraq War.
From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under $25/barrel.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements for which the focal length (and thus angle of view) can be varied, as opposed to a fixed focal length (FFL) lens (see prime lens).
The 101st Airborne Division ("Screaming Eagles") is an elite modular specialized light infantry division of the US Army.
On 15 February 2003, there was a coordinated day of protests across the world in which people in more than 600 cities expressed opposition to the imminent Iraq War.
The 1st (United Kingdom) Division, formerly known as the 1st Armoured Division, is a division of the British Army, currently the only British division to be stationed in Germany.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
Events in the year 2004 in Iraq.
The 2006 al-Askari Shrine bombing occurred at the al-Askari Shrine in the Iraqi city of Samarra, on February 22, 2006, at about 6:44 a.m. local time (0344 UTC).
A lack of clean drinking water in Iraq in 2007 led to an outbreak of cholera.
The 2007 State of the Union address was a speech given by United States President George W. Bush on Tuesday, January 23, 2007, at 9:13 P.M. EST.
The 2007 Yazidi communities bombings occurred on August 14, 2007, when four co-ordinated suicide bomb attacks detonated in the Yazidi towns of Qahtaniyah (Til Ezer) and Jazeera (Siba Sheikh Khidir), near Mosul in Iraq.
The 2008 Turkish incursion into northern Iraq, code-named Operation Sun (Güneş Harekatı) by the Turkish Armed Forces, began on February 21, 2008, when the Turkish Army sent troops into northern Iraq to target the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK).
On 25 August 2010, a string of attacks in Iraqi cities including Al-Muqdadiya, Kut, Baghdad, Fallujah, Tikrit, Kerbala, Kirkuk, Basra, Ramadi, Dujail, Mosul and Iskandariyah targeting mostly Iraqi security forces and checkpoints left at least 53 people dead and more than 270 injured.
The 25th Infantry Division (nicknamed "Tropic Lightning") is a United States Army division based at Schofield Barracks in Hawaii.
The 3rd Cavalry Regiment, formerly 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment ("Brave Rifles") is a regiment of the United States Army currently stationed at Fort Hood, Texas.
The 3rd Infantry Division (nicknamed "The Rock of the Marne)" is an Infantry division of the United States Army based at Fort Stewart, Georgia.
The 4th Infantry Division is a division of the United States Army based at Fort Carson, Colorado.
The 502nd Infantry Regiment (502nd INF), previously titled the 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment (502nd PIR), is an airborne infantry regiment of the United States Army.
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