145 relations: Adoption of the Constitution of Ireland, Allies of World War I, Amhrán na bhFiann, Anglo-Irish Trade War, Anglo-Irish Treaty, Arthur Griffith, Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of Ireland, Austria-Hungary, Auxiliary Division, Éamon de Valera, Éire, Black and Tans, British Army, British Empire, Cathal Brugha, Chairman of the Provisional Government of the Irish Free State, Chanak Crisis, Charles Stewart Parnell, Church of Ireland, Collins Barracks, Dublin, Commonwealth of Nations, Conscription, Conscription Crisis of 1918, Constitution of Ireland, Constitution of the Irish Free State, Constitutional monarchy, Counties of Ireland, Cumann na nGaedheal, David Lloyd George, Dáil Éireann, Dáil Éireann (Irish Free State), Dáil Éireann (Irish Republic), Declaration of independence, Dominion, Dublin, Dublin Metropolitan Police, Easter Rising, Edward VIII, Edward VIII abdication crisis, Elizabeth II, English language, Executive Council of the Irish Free State, Executive Powers (Consequential Provisions) Act 1937, Fianna Fáil, Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, Fixed exchange-rate system, George V, George VI, German Empire, Government of Ireland Act 1914, ..., Government of Ireland Act 1920, Government of the 2nd Dáil, Governor-General of the Irish Free State, Great Seal of the Irish Free State, Great Seal of the Realm, Halibut Treaty, Hans Place, History of Sinn Féin, Hugh Kennedy, Ireland and World War I, Irish Civil War, Irish Free State (Agreement) Act 1922, Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922, Irish general election, 1918, Irish general election, 1922, Irish general election, 1932, Irish general election, 1937, Irish general election, June 1927, Irish head of state from 1936 to 1949, Irish Home Rule movement, Irish language, Irish Parliamentary Party, Irish Republic, Irish Republican Army (1919–1922), Irish Republican Army (1922–1969), Irish Republican Brotherhood, Irish republicanism, Irish states since 1171, Irish War of Independence, James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon, Jews, John Joseph Lee, John Redmond, Labour Party (Ireland), League of Nations, Letters patent, Lord Chamberlain, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Michael Collins (Irish leader), Monarchy in the Irish Free State, National Army (Ireland), Nineteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Northern Ireland Executive, Oath of Allegiance (Ireland), Oireachtas, Oireachtas of the Irish Free State, Parliament of Northern Ireland, Parliament of Southern Ireland, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliamentary system, Partition of Ireland, Physical force Irish republicanism, Portugal, Pound sterling, President of Ireland, President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State, President of the Irish Republic, Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, Privy council, Provisional Government of Ireland (1922), Quakers, Representative democracy, Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Republican Sinn Féin, Rowland Baring, 2nd Earl of Cromer, Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927, Royal assent, Royal Irish Constabulary, Royal Navy, Royal Style and Titles Act, Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Seanad Éireann (Irish Free State), Seán T. O'Kelly, Second Dáil, Series A Banknotes, Sinn Féin, Sovereign (British coin), Spring Offensive, Sri Lanka, State (polity), Statute of Westminster 1931, Teachta Dála, The Crown, Tim Healy (politician), Treaty Ports (Ireland), Ulster Special Constabulary, Ulster Volunteer Force, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States, W. T. Cosgrave, Western Front (World War I), Westminster, 1926 Imperial Conference. Expand index (95 more) » « Shrink index
The current Constitution of Ireland came into effect on 29 December 1937, repealing and replacing the Constitution of the Irish Free State, having been approved in a national plebiscite on 1 July 1937 with the support of 56.5% of voters in the then Irish Free State.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
"Amhrán na bhFiann", called "The Soldier's Song" in English, is the Irish national anthem.
The Anglo-Irish Trade War (also called the Economic War) was a retaliatory trade war between the Irish Free State and the United Kingdom from 1932 to 1938.
The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and representatives of the Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence.
Arthur Joseph Griffith (Art Seosamh Ó Gríobhtha; 31 March 1871 – 12 August 1922) was an Irish politician and writer, who founded and later led the political party Sinn Féin.
Article 2 and Article 3 of the Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) were adopted with the constitution as a whole on 29 December 1937, but completely revised by means of the Nineteenth Amendment which took effect on 2 December 1999.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Auxiliary Division of the Royal Irish Constabulary (ADRIC), generally known as the Auxiliaries or Auxies, was a paramilitary unit of the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) during the Irish War of Independence.
Éamon de Valera (first registered as George de Valero; changed some time before 1901 to Edward de Valera; 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was a prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland.
Éire is Irish for "Ireland", the name of an island and a sovereign state.
The Black and Tans (Dúchrónaigh), officially the Royal Irish Constabulary Special Reserve, was a force of temporary constables recruited to assist the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) during the Irish War of Independence.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Cathal Brugha (born Charles William St John Burgess; 18 July 1874 – 7 July 1922) was an Irish revolutionary and republican politician who served as Minister for Defence from 1919 to 1922, Ceann Comhairle of Dáil Éireann in January 1919, President of Dáil Éireann from January 1919 to April 1919 and Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army from 1917 to 1919.
The Chairman of the Provisional Government of the Irish Free State was a transitional post established in January 1922, lasting until the creation of the Irish Free State in December 1922.
The Chanak Crisis (Çanakkale Krizi), also called the Chanak Affair and the Chanak Incident, was a war scare in September 1922 between the United Kingdom and Turkey (the Grand National Assembly).
Charles Stewart Parnell (Cathal Stiúbhard Parnell; 27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish nationalist politician and one of the most powerful figures in the British House of Commons in the 1880s.
The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
Collins Barracks (Dún Uí Choileáin) is a former military barracks in the Arbour Hill area of Dublin, Ireland.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Conscription Crisis of 1918 stemmed from a move by the British government to impose conscription (military draft) in Ireland in April 1918 during the First World War.
The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland.
The Constitution of the Irish Free State (Bunreacht Shaorstáit Eireann) was adopted by Act of Dáil Éireann sitting as a constituent assembly on 25 October 1922.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The counties of Ireland (contaetha na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: coonties o Airlann) are sub-national divisions that have been, and in some cases continue to be, used to geographically demarcate areas of local government.
Cumann na nGaedheal ("Society of the Gaels"), sometimes spelt Cumann na nGaedhael, was a political party in the Irish Free State, which formed the government from 1923 to 1932.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).
Dáil Éireann served as the directly elected lower house of the Oireachtas of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1937.
Dáil Éireann (Assembly of Ireland), also called the Revolutionary Dáil, was the revolutionary, unicameral parliament of the Irish Republic from 1919 to 1922.
A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
The Dublin Metropolitan Police (DMP) was the police force of Dublin, Ireland, from 1836 to 1925, when it was amalgamated into the new Garda Síochána.
The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca), also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, April 1916.
Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year, after which he became the Duke of Windsor.
In 1936, a constitutional crisis in the British Empire arose when King-Emperor Edward VIII proposed to marry Wallis Simpson, an American socialite who was divorced from her first husband and was pursuing the divorce of her second.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Executive Council (Ard-Chomhairle) was the cabinet and de facto executive branch of government of the 1922–1937 Irish Free State.
The Executive Powers (Consequential Provisions) Act, 1937 was an Act of the Oireachtas which retrospectively completed the abolition of the Governor-General of the Irish Free State.
Fianna Fáil (meaning 'Soldiers of Destiny' or 'Warriors of Fál'), officially Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach), is a political party in Ireland.
The Fifth Amendment of the Constitution Act 1972 is an amendment to the Constitution of Ireland which deleted two subsections that recognised the special position of the Catholic Church and that recognised other named religious denominations.
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 90), also known as the Home Rule Act, and before enactment as the Third Home Rule Bill, was an Act passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom intended to provide home rule (self-government within the United Kingdom) for Ireland.
The Government of Ireland Act 1920 (10 & 11 Geo. 5 c. 67) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Second Dáil was elected at the 1921 Irish elections on 24 May 1921 and lasted 388 days.
The Governor-General (Seanascal) was the official representative of the sovereign of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1936.
The Great Seal of the Irish Free State (Séala Mór do Shaorstát Éireann) is the seal which was used to seal official documents of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann) by the Governor-General.
The Great Seal of the Realm or Great Seal of the United Kingdom (known prior to the Treaty of Union of 1707 as the Great Seal of England; and from then until the Union of 1801 as the Great Seal of Great Britain and Ireland) is a seal that is used to symbolise the Sovereign's approval of important state documents.
The Halibut Treaty was a 1923 Canadian–American agreement concerning fishing rights in the northern Pacific Ocean.
Hans Place is a garden square in the Knightsbridge district of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London, immediately south of Harrods in SW1.
Sinn Féin ("We Ourselves", often mistranslated as "Ourselves Alone") is the name of an Irish political party founded in 1905 by Arthur Griffith.
Hugh Edward Kennedy, KC (11 July 1879 – 1 December 1936) was an Irish Fine Gael politician, barrister and judge who served as Chief Justice of Ireland from 1924 to 1936, a Justice of the Supreme Court from 1924 to 1936, Attorney General of Ireland from 1922 to 1924.
During World War I (1914–1918), Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which entered the war in August 1914 as one of the Entente Powers, along with France, and the Russian Empire.
The Irish Civil War (Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.
The Irish Free State (Agreement) Act 1922 (12 & 13 Geo. 5 c. 4) was an Act of the British Parliament passed on 31 March 1922.
The Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922 (Session 2) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1922 to enact in UK law the Constitution of the Irish Free State, and to formally ratify the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty of 6 December 1921.
The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 general election which took place in Ireland.
The Irish general election of 1922 took place in Southern Ireland on 16 June 1922, under the provisions of the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty to elect a constituent assembly paving the way for the formal establishment of the Irish Free State.
The Irish general election of 1932 was held on 16 February 1932, just over two weeks after the dissolution of the Dáil on 29 January.
The Irish general election of 1937 was held on 1 July 1937, just over two weeks after the dissolution of the Dáil on 14 June.
The Irish general election of June 1927 was held on 9 June 1927.
During the period from December 1936 to April 1949, some commentators consider that it was unclear whether or not the Irish state was a republic or a form of constitutional monarchy and (from 1937) whether its head of state was the President of Ireland or King George VI.
The Irish Home Rule movement was a movement that campaigned for self-government for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP; commonly called the Irish Party or the Home Rule Party) was formed in 1874 by Isaac Butt, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland up until 1918.
The Irish Republic (Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann) was a revolutionary state that declared its independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in January 1919.
The Irish Republican Army (IRA) (Óglaigh na hÉireann) was an Irish republican revolutionary paramilitary organisation.
The original Irish Republican Army (IRA) fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence between 1919 and 1921.
The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) was a secret oath-bound fraternal organisation dedicated to the establishment of an "independent democratic republic" in Ireland between 1858 and 1924.
Irish republicanism (poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.
Irish states have existed under a number of different names for nearly a thousand years.
The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.
James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon, PC, PC (NI) DL (8 January 1871 – 24 November 1940), was a prominent Irish unionist politician, leader of the Ulster Unionist Party and the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Joseph Lee (born 9 July 1942) (commonly known as J.J. Lee), is an Irish historian and former senator.
John Edward Redmond (1 September 1856 – 6 March 1918) was an Irish nationalist politician, barrister, and MP in the British House of Commons.
The Labour Party (Páirtí an Lucht Oibre) is a social-democratic political party in the Republic of Ireland.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.
The Lord Chamberlain or Lord Chamberlain of the Household is the most senior officer of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom, supervising the departments which support and provide advice to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom while also acting as the main channel of communication between the Sovereign and the House of Lords.
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was the title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 till the Partition of Ireland in 1922.
Michael Collins (Mícheál Ó Coileáin; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary, soldier and politician who was a leading figure in the early-20th-century Irish struggle for independence.
From its foundation on 6 December 1922 until 11 December 1936, the Irish Free State was in accordance with its constitution, governed formally under a form of constitutional monarchy.
The National Army, sometimes unofficially referred to as the Free State army or the Regulars, was the army of the Irish Free State from January 1922 until October 1924.
The Nineteenth Amendment of the Constitution Act, 1998 (previously bill no. 24 of 1998) is an amendment of the Constitution of Ireland which permitted the state to be bound by Good Friday Agreement and enabled the establishment of shared political institutions between Ireland and Northern Ireland.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Northern Ireland Executive is the devolved government of Northern Ireland, an administrative branch of the legislature Northern Ireland Assembly.
The Irish Oath of Allegiance was a controversial provision in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which Irish TDs (members of the Lower House of the Irish Parliament) and Senators were required to swear before taking their seats in Dáil Éireann (Chamber of Deputies) and Seanad Éireann (Irish Senate) before the 'Constitution (Removal of Oath) Act, 1933' was passed on 3 May 1933.
The Oireachtas, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland.
The Oireachtas of the Irish Free State (Oireachtas Shaorstát Éireann) was the legislature of the Irish Free State from 1922 until 1937.
The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the Home Rule legislature of Northern Ireland, created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which sat from 7 June 1921 to 30 March 1972, when it was suspended with the introduction of Direct Rule.
The Parliament of Southern Ireland was a Home Rule legislature set up by the British Government during the Irish War of Independence under the Fourth Home Rule Bill.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The partition of Ireland (críochdheighilt na hÉireann) was the division of the island of Ireland into two distinct jurisdictions, Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland.
Physical force Irish republicanism (PFIR) is the recurring appearance of a non-parliamentary violent insurrection in Ireland between 1798 and the present.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.
The President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State (Uachtarán ar Ard-Chomhairle Shaorstát Éireann) was the head of government or prime minister of the Irish Free State which existed from 1922 to 1937.
President of the Republic was the title given to the head of the Irish ministry or Aireacht in August 1921 by an amendment to the Dáil Constitution, which replaced the previous title, Príomh Aire or President of Dáil Éireann.
The Prime Minister of Northern Ireland was the head of the Government of Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
The Provisional Government of Ireland (Rialtas Sealadach na hÉireann) was the provisional government for the administration of Southern Ireland from 16 January 1922 to 5 December 1922.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Republic of Ireland Act 1948 (No. 22 of 1948) is an Act of the Oireachtas which declared that Ireland may be officially described as the Republic of Ireland, and vested in the President of Ireland the power to exercise the executive authority of the state in its external relations, on the advice of the Government of Ireland.
Republican Sinn Féin or RSF (Sinn Féin Poblachtach) is an Irish republican political party in Ireland.
Rowland Thomas Baring, 2nd Earl of Cromer, (29 November 1877 – 13 May 1953), styled Viscount Errington between 1901 and 1917, was a British diplomat and courtier.
The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 (17 & 18 Geo. 5 c. 4) was an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that authorised the alteration of the British monarch's royal style and titles, and altered the formal name of the British Parliament, in recognition of most of Ireland separating from the United Kingdom as the Irish Free State.
Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.
The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC, Irish: Constáblacht Ríoga na hÉireann; simply called the Irish Constabulary 1836–67) was the police force in Ireland from the early nineteenth century until 1922.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
In the Commonwealth realms, a Royal Style and Titles Act or a Royal Titles Act is an Act of Parliament passed in the relevant jurisdiction which defines the sovereign's formal title in that jurisdiction.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Seanad Éireann (Senate of Ireland) was the upper house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1936.
Seán Thomas O'Kelly (Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh; 25 August 1882 – 23 November 1966), originally John T. O'Kelly, was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as the 2nd President of Ireland from June 1945 to June 1959.
The Second Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 16 August 1921 until 8 June 1922.
The Series A Banknotes (Nótaí bainc sraith A) were introduced by the Irish Free State in 1928 and were the first banknotes created by and for the state; the series continued to be issued when the Free State became Ireland.
Sinn Féin (isbn) is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
The sovereign is a gold coin of the United Kingdom, with a nominal value of one pound sterling.
The 1918 Spring Offensive, or Kaiserschlacht (Kaiser's Battle), also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, beginning on 21 March 1918, which marked the deepest advances by either side since 1914.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.
A TD (plural TDanna in Irish or TDs in English; full Irish form Teachta Dála,, plural Teachtaí Dála) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (the Irish Parliament).
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
Timothy Michael Healy, KC (17 May 1855 – 26 March 1931) was an Irish nationalist politician, journalist, author, barrister and one of the most controversial Irish Members of Parliament (MPs) in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Following the establishment of the Irish Free State, three deep water Treaty Ports at Berehaven, Queenstown (modern Cóbh) and Lough Swilly were retained by the United Kingdom in accordance with the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 6 December 1921.
The Ulster Special Constabulary (USC; commonly called the "B-Specials" or "B Men") was a quasi-military reserve special constable police force in Northern Ireland.
The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) is an Ulster loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
William Thomas Cosgrave (6 June 1880 – 16 November 1965) was an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as President of the Executive Council from 1922 to 1932, Leader of the Opposition from 1932 to 1944, Leader of Fine Gael from 1934 to 1944, Leader of Cumann na nGaedheal from 1923 to 1933, Chairman of the Provisional Government from August 1922 to December 1922, President of Dáil Éireann from September 1922 to December 1922, Minister for Finance from 1922 to 1923 and Minister for Local Government from 1919 to 1922.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames.
The 1926 Imperial Conference was the seventh Imperial Conference bringing together the prime ministers of the dominions of the British Empire.
Dominion of Ireland (1922–1937), Dominion of the Irish Free State, Ireland Free State, Irish Free state, Irish free state, Irish state (1922-1937), Irish state (1922–1937), Saorstat, Saorstat Eirann, Saorstat Eireann, Saorstat Éireann, Saorstát Eireann, Saorstát Éireann, The Ireland Free State, The Irish Free State.