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Irish language

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The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. [1]

285 relations: Accusative case, Achill Island, Acute accent, Adjective, Affirmation and negation, Agent (grammar), Agreement (linguistics), Altan (band), An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, Approximant consonant, Aran Islands, Argentina, Assimilation (phonology), Athy, Attributive verb, Australia, Béarlachas, BBC, Brittany, Buntús Cainte, Cape Clear Island, Carraroe, Cèilidh, Celtic languages, Celtic League, Celtic nations, Character encoding, Civil Service of the Republic of Ireland, Clannad, Clitic, Comparison of Scottish Gaelic and Irish, Conditional mood, Connacht, Connemara, Conradh na Gaeilge, Consonant mutation, Constitution of Ireland, Copula (linguistics), Cork (city), Cornwall, Coronal consonant, County Carlow, County Cork, County Donegal, County Dublin, County Galway, County Kerry, County Kildare, County Kilkenny, County Laois, ..., County Longford, County Louth, County Louth Historic Names, County Mayo, County Meath, County Offaly, County Roscommon, County Waterford, County Westmeath, County Wexford, County Wicklow, Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Cumann Gaelach, Dalkey, Dative case, Dáil Éireann, Declension, Deixis, Demonstrative, Department of Children and Youth Affairs, Dependent and independent verb forms, Diacritic, Dialect, Diaspora, Dictionary of the Irish Language, Diglossia, Dingle Peninsula, Diphthong, Dorsal consonant, Dot (diacritic), Douglas Hyde, Drogheda, Dual (grammatical number), Dublin, Duke of Leinster, Dundalk, Dungarvan, Duolingo, Dyslexia, Early Irish literature, Education in the Republic of Ireland, Elision, English language in Europe, Enya, Epenthesis, Erris, Essence, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, European Parliament, First language, Flap consonant, Foinse, Foras na Gaeilge, Fricative consonant, Fusional language, Future tense, Fynes Moryson, Gaelic revival, Gaelic type, Gaelscoil, Gaeltacht, Gaeltacht Cois Fharraige, Gaeltacht Quarter, Belfast, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Garda Síochána, General Certificate of Education, General Certificate of Secondary Education, Genitive case, Geoffrey Keating, Glenties, Glottal consonant, Goidelic languages, Goidelic substrate hypothesis, Good Friday Agreement, Government (linguistics), Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical particle, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Great Britain, Gweedore, Habitual aspect, Hiberno-Latin, History of the Irish language, History of the Republic of Ireland, Imperative mood, Indo-European languages, Inflection, Insular Celtic languages, Interrogative, Ireland, Irish (Junior Cert), Irish Braille, Irish Defence Forces cap badge, Irish Folklore Commission, Irish Free State, Irish initial mutations, Irish language in Newfoundland, Irish language in Northern Ireland, Irish name, Irish orthography, Irish people, Isle of Man, ISO basic Latin alphabet, ISO/IEC 8859-14, Iveragh Peninsula, Joep Leerssen, Joyce Country, Kells, County Meath, Labial consonant, Language Freedom Movement, Language shift, Languages of Ireland, Languages of Northern Ireland, Languages of the European Union, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Leaving Certificate (Ireland), Leinster, Leixlip, Lenition, List of artists who have released Irish-language songs, List of English words of Irish origin, List of Ireland-related topics, List of Irish language media, List of Irish words used in the English language, List of Irish-language given names, London, Lough Corrib, Lough Mask, Mairéad Ní Mhaonaigh, Manchán Magan, Manx language, Marginalia, Medieval Latin, Michael D. Higgins, Middle Irish, Modern literature in Irish, Morphology (linguistics), Moya Brennan, Munster, Munster Irish, Mutual intelligibility, Na Casaidigh, Naas, Nasal consonant, Nasalization, National University of Ireland, New York City, New Zealand, Newfoundland (island), No Béarla, Nominative case, Nominative–accusative language, Northern Ireland, NUI Galway, Null morpheme, Numeral (linguistics), Ogham, Old English, Old Irish, Old Welsh, Omeath, Oxford University Press, Palatalization (phonetics), Parliament of Northern Ireland, Passive voice, Past tense, Patagonia, Periphrasis, Place names in Ireland, Plantation of Ulster, Plural, Possession (linguistics), Postal worker, Prefix, Preposition and postposition, Prepositional case, Present tense, President of Ireland, Primitive Irish, Realis mood, Relative clause, Republic of Ireland, Richard Stanihurst, Ring, County Waterford, River Boyne, River Liffey, Root (linguistics), Roscommon, Rosguill, Sandhi, Scotland, Scottish Gaelic, Second language, Semantics, Spiddal, St Andrews Agreement, Standard language, Status of the Irish language, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Subjunctive mood, Suffix, Tax collector, Teastas Eorpach na Gaeilge, The Irish Times, The Pale, The Rosses, Tory Island, Trim, County Meath, Ulster, Ulster Cycle, Ulster Irish, Ulster Unionist Party, Unicode, University College Dublin, Velarization, Verb framing, Verbal noun, Verb–subject–object, Vocative case, Voice (phonetics), West Indies, Wexford, William Bedell, William Gerard, World War II. 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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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Achill Island

Achill Island (Acaill, Oileán Acla) in County Mayo is the largest of the Irish isles, and is situated off the west coast of Ireland.

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Acute accent

The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.

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Adjective

In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Affirmation and negation

In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively and) are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.

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Agent (grammar)

In linguistics, a grammatical agent is the thematic relation of the cause or initiator to an event.

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Agreement (linguistics)

Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.

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Altan (band)

Altan are an Irish folk music band formed in County Donegal in 1987 by lead vocalist Mairéad Ní Mhaonaigh and her husband Frankie Kennedy.

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An Caighdeán Oifigiúil

An Caighdeán Oifigiúil ("The Official Standard"), often shortened to An Caighdeán, is an artificial standard for the spelling and grammar of the Irish language, to be used in official publications and taught in most schools in the state.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Aran Islands

The Aran Islands (Oileáin Árann—pronunciation) or The Arans (na hÁrainneacha—) are a group of three islands located at the mouth of Galway Bay, on the west coast of Ireland, with a total area of about.

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Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Assimilation (phonology)

In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.

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Athy

Athy is a market town at the meeting of the River Barrow and the Grand Canal in south-west County Kildare, Ireland, 72 kilometres southwest of Dublin.

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Attributive verb

An attributive verb is a verb that modifies (expresses an attribute of) a noun in the manner of an attributive adjective, rather than express an independent idea as a predicate.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Béarlachas

Béarlachas is Irish for "anglicism", or words and phrases used in Irish that are influenced by or stem from the English language.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Brittany

Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.

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Buntús Cainte

Buntús Cainte (Basic Speaking) - first steps in spoken Irish - was written by Tomás Ó Domhnalláin in the mid-1960s.

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Cape Clear Island

Clear Island or Cape Clear Island (officially known by its Irish name: Cléire, and sometimes also called Oileán Chléire) lies south-west of County Cork in Ireland.

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Carraroe

Carraroe (its official name) is a village in County Galway, Ireland, in the Irish-speaking region (Gaeltacht) of Connemara, famous for its traditional fishing boats known as Galway Hookers.

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Cèilidh

A cèilidh or céilí is a traditional Scottish or Irish social gathering.

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Celtic League

The Celtic League is a pan-Celtic organisation, founded in 1961, that aims to promote modern Celtic identity and culture in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man – referred to as the Celtic nations; it places particular emphasis on promoting the Celtic languages of those nations.

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Celtic nations

The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.

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Character encoding

Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.

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Civil Service of the Republic of Ireland

The Civil Service (An Státseirbhís) of Ireland is the collective term for the permanent staff of the departments of state and certain state agencies who advise and work for the Government of Ireland.

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Clannad

Clannad are an Irish family band formed in 1970 in Gweedore, County Donegal.

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Clitic

A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Comparison of Scottish Gaelic and Irish

Although Scottish Gaelic and Irish are closely related as Celtic - Gaelic languages, they are in fact starkly different in many ways.

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Conditional mood

The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.

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Connacht

ConnachtPage five of An tOrdú Logainmneacha (Contaetha agus Cúigí) 2003 clearly lists the official spellings of the names of the four provinces of the country with Connacht listed for both languages; when used without the term 'The province of' / 'Cúige'.

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Connemara

Connemara (Conamara) is a cultural region in County Galway, Ireland.

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Conradh na Gaeilge

Conradh na Gaeilge (historically known in English as the Gaelic League) is a social and cultural organisation which promotes the Irish language in Ireland and worldwide.

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Consonant mutation

Consonant mutation is change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.

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Constitution of Ireland

The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland.

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Copula (linguistics)

In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.

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Cork (city)

Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.

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Cornwall

Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.

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Coronal consonant

Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.

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County Carlow

County Carlow (Contae Cheatharlach) is a county in Ireland, part of the South-East Region and the province of Leinster.

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County Cork

County Cork (Contae Chorcaí) is a county in Ireland.

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County Donegal

County Donegal (Contae Dhún na nGall) is a county of Ireland in the province of Ulster.

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County Dublin

County Dublin (Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath or Contae Átha Cliath) is a county in Ireland.

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County Galway

County Galway (Contae na Gaillimhe) is a county in Ireland.

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County Kerry

County Kerry (Contae Chiarraí) is a county in Ireland.

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County Kildare

County Kildare (Contae Chill Dara) is a county in Ireland.

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County Kilkenny

County Kilkenny (Contae Chill Chainnigh) is a county in Ireland.

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County Laois

County Laois (Contae Laoise) is a county in Ireland.

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County Longford

County Longford (Contae an Longfoirt) is a county in Ireland.

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County Louth

County Louth (Contae Lú) is a county in Ireland.

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County Louth Historic Names

The Placenames Branch, Dept.

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County Mayo

County Mayo (Contae Mhaigh Eo, meaning "Plain of the yew trees") is a county in Ireland.

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County Meath

County Meath (Contae na Mí or simply an Mhí) is a county in Ireland.

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County Offaly

County Offaly (Contae Uíbh Fhailí) is a county in Ireland.

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County Roscommon

County Roscommon (Contae Ros Comáin) is a county in Ireland.

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County Waterford

County Waterford (Contae Phort Láirge; the English name comes from Old Norse Vedrafjörður) is a county in Ireland.

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County Westmeath

County Westmeath (Contae na hIarmhí or simply An Iarmhí) is a county in Ireland.

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County Wexford

County Wexford (Contae Loch Garman, Yola: Weiseforthe) is a county in Ireland.

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County Wicklow

County Wicklow (Contae Chill Mhantáin) is a county in Ireland.

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Cromwellian conquest of Ireland

The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland (1649–53) refers to the conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.

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Cumann Gaelach

An Cumann Gaelach (English: The Irish language Society) is a student society found in many colleges and universities in Ireland.

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Dalkey

Dalkey is one of the most affluent suburbs of Dublin, and a seaside resort southeast of the city, and the town of Dun Laoghaire, in Ireland.

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".

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Dáil Éireann

Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).

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Declension

In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.

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Deixis

In linguistics, deixis refers to words and phrases, such as “me” or “here”, that cannot be fully understood without additional contextual information -- in this case, the identity of the speaker (“me”) and the speaker's location (“here”).

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Demonstrative

Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.

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Department of Children and Youth Affairs

The Department of Children and Youth Affairs (An Roinn Leanaí agus Gnóthaí Óige) is a department of the Government of Ireland.

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Dependent and independent verb forms

In the Goidelic languages, dependent and independent verb forms are distinct verb forms; each tense of each verb exists in both forms.

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Diacritic

A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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Dialect

The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.

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Diaspora

A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.

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Dictionary of the Irish Language

Dictionary of the Irish Language: Based Mainly on Old and Middle Irish Materials (also called "the DIL"), published by the Royal Irish Academy, is the definitive dictionary of the origins of the Irish language, specifically the Old Irish and Middle Irish stages; the modern language is not included.

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Diglossia

In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.

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Dingle Peninsula

The Dingle Peninsula (Corca Dhuibhne; anglicised as Corkaguiny, the name of the corresponding barony) is the northernmost of the major peninsulas in County Kerry.

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Diphthong

A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Dorsal consonant

Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum).

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Dot (diacritic)

When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.

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Douglas Hyde

Douglas Ross Hyde (Dubhghlas de hÍde; 17 January 1860 – 12 July 1949), known as An Craoibhín Aoibhinn (lit. "The Pleasant Little Branch"), was an Irish academic, linguist, scholar of the Irish language, politician and diplomat who served as the 1st President of Ireland from June 1938 to June 1945.

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Drogheda

Drogheda is one of the oldest towns in Ireland.

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Dual (grammatical number)

Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.

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Dublin

Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.

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Duke of Leinster

Duke of Leinster is a title in the Peerage of Ireland and the premier dukedom in that peerage.

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Dundalk

Dundalk is the county town of County Louth, Ireland.

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Dungarvan

Dungarvan is a coastal town and harbour in County Waterford, on the south coast of Ireland.

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Duolingo

Duolingo is a freemium language-learning platform that includes a language-learning website and app, as well as a digital language proficiency assessment exam.

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Dyslexia

Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence.

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Early Irish literature

Early Irish literature is the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe.

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Education in the Republic of Ireland

The levels of Ireland's education are primary, secondary and higher (often known as "third-level" or tertiary) education.

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Elision

In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.

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English language in Europe

The English language in Europe, as a native language, is mainly spoken in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

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Enya

Eithne Pádraigín Ní Bhraonáin (anglicised as Enya Patricia Brennan; born 17 May 1961), known professionally as Enya, is an Irish singer, songwriter and musician.

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Epenthesis

In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).

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Erris

Erris is a barony in northwestern County Mayo in Ireland consisting of over, much of which is mountainous blanket bog.

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Essence

In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.

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European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.

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European Parliament

The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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Flap consonant

In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.

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Foinse

Foinse (Irish for "Source") was an Irish-language newspaper in Ireland.

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Foras na Gaeilge

Foras na Gaeilge ("Irish Institute"; often abbreviated to FnaG) is a public body responsible for the promotion of the Irish language throughout the island of Ireland, including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Fusional language

Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.

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Future tense

In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.

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Fynes Moryson

Fynes Moryson (or Morison) (1566 – 12 February 1630) spent most of the decade of the 1590s travelling on the European continent and the eastern Mediterranean lands.

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Gaelic revival

The Gaelic revival (Athbheochan na Gaeilge) was the late-nineteenth-century national revival of interest in the Irish language (also known as Gaelic) and Irish Gaelic culture (including folklore, sports, music, arts, etc.). Irish had diminished as a spoken tongue, remaining the main daily language only in isolated rural areas, with English having become the dominant language in the majority of Ireland.

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Gaelic type

Gaelic type (sometimes called Irish character, Irish type, or Gaelic script) is a family of insular typefaces devised for printing Classical Gaelic.

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Gaelscoil

A Gaelscoil (plural: Gaelscoileanna) is an Irish-medium school in Ireland: the term refers especially to Irish-medium schools outside the Irish-speaking regions or Gaeltacht.

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Gaeltacht

Gaeltacht (plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish-language word for any primarily Irish-speaking region.

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Gaeltacht Cois Fharraige

Cois Fharraige is a coastal area west of Galway city, where the Irish language is the predominant language (a Gaeltacht).

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Gaeltacht Quarter, Belfast

The Gaeltacht Quarter (An Cheathrú Ghaeltachta) in Belfast, Northern Ireland, is an area surrounding the Falls Road in the west of the city.

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Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology

Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology (Institúid Teicneolaíochta na Gaillimhe-Maigh Eo) is a third level institute of education and is based at five locations in the west of Ireland.

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Garda Síochána

An Garda Síochána (meaning "the Guardian of the Peace"), more commonly referred to as the Gardaí ("Guardians") or "the Guards", is the police force of the Republic of Ireland.

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General Certificate of Education

The General Certificate of Education (GCE) is a subject specific family of academic qualifications that awarding bodies in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Crown dependencies and a few Commonwealth countries, notably Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Malaysia and Singapore, confer on students.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education

The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification, generally taken in a number of subjects by pupils in secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Geoffrey Keating

Seathrún Céitinn (c. 1569 – c. 1644; known in English as Geoffrey Keating) was a 17th-century historian.

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Glenties

Glenties is a village in County Donegal, Ireland.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Goidelic languages

The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.

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Goidelic substrate hypothesis

The Goidelic substrate hypothesis refers to the hypothesized language or languages spoken in Ireland before the Iron Age arrival of the Goidelic languages.

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Good Friday Agreement

The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.

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Government (linguistics)

In grammar and theoretical linguistics, government or rection refers to the relationship between a word and its dependents.

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

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Grammatical case

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

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Grammatical conjugation

In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grammatical mood

In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Grammatical particle

In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.

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Grammatical person

Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).

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Grammatical tense

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Gweedore

Gweedore (officially known by its Irish language name, Gaoth Dobhair) is an Irish-speaking parish located on the Atlantic coast of County Donegal in the Republic of Ireland.

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Habitual aspect

In linguistics, the aspect of a verb is a grammatical category that defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in a given action, event, or state.

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Hiberno-Latin

Hiberno-Latin, also called Hisperic Latin, was a learned style of literary Latin first used and subsequently spread by Irish monks during the period from the sixth century to the tenth century.

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History of the Irish language

The history of the Irish language begins with the period from the arrival of speakers of Celtic languages in Ireland to Ireland's earliest known form of Irish, Archaic Irish, which is found in Ogham inscriptions dating from the 3rd or 4th century AD.

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History of the Republic of Ireland

The Irish state came into being in 1922 as the Irish Free State, a dominion of the British Commonwealth, having seceded from the United Kingdom under the Anglo-Irish Treaty.

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Imperative mood

The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Inflection

In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Insular Celtic languages

Insular Celtic languages are a group of Celtic languages that originated in Britain and Ireland, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.

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Interrogative

Interrogative is a term used in grammar to refer to features that form questions.

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Ireland

Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Irish (Junior Cert)

Irish (Gaeilge) is a subject of the Junior Cycle examination in Secondary schools in Ireland.

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Irish Braille

Irish Braille is the braille alphabet of the Irish language.

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Irish Defence Forces cap badge

The Irish Defence Forces Cap Badge (or "FF badge" as it is sometimes called) is common to all services and corps of the Irish Defence Forces.

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Irish Folklore Commission

The Irish Folklore Commission (Coimisiún Béaloideasa Éireann in Irish) was set up in 1935 by the Irish Government to study and collect information on the folklore and traditions of Ireland.

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Irish Free State

The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.

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Irish initial mutations

Irish, like all modern Celtic languages, is characterized by its initial consonant mutations.

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Irish language in Newfoundland

The Irish language was once widely spoken on the island of Newfoundland before largely disappearing there by the early 20th century.

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Irish language in Northern Ireland

The Irish language (also known as Irish Gaelic) (Gaeilge) is a recognised minority language in Northern Ireland.

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Irish name

A formal Irish-language personal name consists of a given name and a surname.

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Irish orthography

Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD.

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Irish people

The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.

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Isle of Man

The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.

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ISO basic Latin alphabet

The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.

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ISO/IEC 8859-14

ISO/IEC 8859-14:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 14: Latin alphabet No.

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Iveragh Peninsula

The Iveragh Peninsula is located in County Kerry in Ireland.

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Joep Leerssen

Joseph Theodoor "Joep" Leerssen (born 12 June 1955, Leiden) is a Dutch comparatist and cultural historian.

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Joyce Country

Joyce Country (Dúiche Sheoighe) is a cultural region in counties Galway and Mayo in Ireland.

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Kells, County Meath

Kells is a town in County Meath, Ireland.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Language Freedom Movement

Founded in 1966, the Language Freedom Movement (Irish: Gluaiseacht Saoirse Teanga) was a political organisation opposed to the state-sponsored revival of the Irish language in the Republic of Ireland, which had the backing of several notable Irish-speaking writers including Séamus Ó Grianna ("Máire") and John B. Keane.

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Language shift

Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.

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Languages of Ireland

There are a number of languages used in Ireland.

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Languages of Northern Ireland

English is the most spoken language in Northern Ireland.

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Languages of the European Union

The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Leaving Certificate (Ireland)

The Leaving Certificate Examination (Scrúdú na hArdteistiméireachta), which is commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert (Irish: Ardteist) is the university matriculation examination in the Republic of Ireland and the final exam of the Irish secondary school system.

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Leinster

Leinster (— Laighin / Cúige Laighean — /) is one of the Provinces of Ireland situated in the east of Ireland.

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Leixlip

Leixlip is a town in north-east County Kildare, Ireland.

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Lenition

In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.

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List of artists who have released Irish-language songs

The following is a partial list of a few music artists who have released songs in the Irish language.

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List of English words of Irish origin

This is a list of English language words from the Celtic Irish language.

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List of Ireland-related topics

This page aims to list articles related to the island of Ireland.

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List of Irish language media

The following is a list of media available in the Irish language.

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List of Irish words used in the English language

Irish words used in English in modern Ireland without being assimilated to English forms include.

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List of Irish-language given names

This list of Irish-language given names shows Irish language (as Gaeilge) given names and Anglicized or Latinized forms, with English equivalents.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lough Corrib

Lough Corrib is a lake in the west of Ireland.

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Lough Mask

Lough Mask (Irish: Loch Measca) is a limestone lough (lake) of 20,500 acres (83 km²) in Counties Galway and Mayo, Ireland, north of Lough Corrib.

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Mairéad Ní Mhaonaigh

Mairéad Ní Mhaonaigh (born 26 July 1959) is an Irish fiddler and the lead vocalist for the Irish folk music band Altan, which she co-founded with her late husband Frankie Kennedy in 1987.

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Manchán Magan

Manchán Magan is an Irish writer, traveller and television programme maker.

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Manx language

No description.

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Marginalia

Marginalia (or apostils) are marks made in the margins of a book or other document.

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Medieval Latin

Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.

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Michael D. Higgins

Michael Daniel Higgins (Mícheál Dónal Ó hUiginn; born 18 April 1941) is an Irish politician who has served as the 9th President of Ireland since November 2011.

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Middle Irish

Middle Irish (sometimes called Middle Gaelic, An Mheán-Ghaeilge) is the Goidelic language which was spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from circa 900-1200 AD; it is therefore a contemporary of late Old English and early Middle English.

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Modern literature in Irish

Although Irish has been used as a literary language for more than 1,500 years (see Irish literature), and in a form intelligible to contemporary speakers since at least the sixteenth century, modern literature in Irish owes much to the Gaelic Revival, a cultural movement which began in the late nineteenth century.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Moya Brennan

Moya Brennan, born Máire Ní Bhraonáin, also known as Máire Brennan (born 4 August 1952), is an Irish folk singer, songwriter, harpist, and philanthropist.

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Munster

Munster (an Mhumhain / Cúige Mumhan,.

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Munster Irish

Munster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Munster.

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Mutual intelligibility

In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.

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Na Casaidigh

Na Casaidigh or The Cassidys are an Irish traditional group.

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Naas

Naas (Nás na Ríogh, or An Nás) is the county town of County Kildare in Ireland.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Nasalization

In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.

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National University of Ireland

The National University of Ireland (NUI) (Ollscoil na hÉireann) is a federal university system of constituent universities (previously called constituent colleges) and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, and significantly amended by the Universities Act, 1997.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Newfoundland (island)

Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

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No Béarla

No Béarla is a four-part documentary style programme broadcast on Irish language television channel TG4 and produced by Dearg Films RTÉ/TG4.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Nominative–accusative language

Nominative–accusative languages, or nominative languages have a form of morphosyntactic alignment in which subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs are distinguished from objects of transitive verbs by word order, case-marking, and/or verb agreement.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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NUI Galway

The National University of Ireland Galway (NUI Galway; OÉ Gaillimh) is located in the city of Galway in the Ireland.

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Null morpheme

In morphology, a null morpheme or zero morpheme is a morpheme that has no phonetic form.

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Numeral (linguistics)

In linguistics, a numeral is a member of a part of speech characterized by the designation of numbers; some examples are the English word 'two' and the compound 'seventy-seventh'.

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Ogham

Ogham (Modern Irish or; ogam) is an Early Medieval alphabet used to write the early Irish language (in the "orthodox" inscriptions, 1st to 6th centuries AD), and later the Old Irish language (scholastic ogham, 6th to 9th centuries).

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old Irish

Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.

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Old Welsh

Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it developed into Middle Welsh.

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Omeath

Omeath is a village on the R173 regional road in County Louth, Ireland, close to the border with Northern Ireland.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Palatalization (phonetics)

In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.

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Parliament of Northern Ireland

The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the Home Rule legislature of Northern Ireland, created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which sat from 7 June 1921 to 30 March 1972, when it was suspended with the introduction of Direct Rule.

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Passive voice

Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.

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Past tense

The past tense (abbreviated) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.

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Patagonia

Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Periphrasis

In linguistics, periphrasis is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible.

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Place names in Ireland

The vast majority of placenames in Ireland are anglicisations of Irish language names; that is, adaptations of the Irish names to English phonology and spelling.

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Plantation of Ulster

The Plantation of Ulster (Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr) was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulstera province of Irelandby people from Great Britain during the reign of James VI and I. Most of the colonists came from Scotland and England, although there was a small number of Welsh settlers.

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Plural

The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Possession (linguistics)

Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, the referent of one of which (the possessor) in some sense possesses (owns, has as a part, rules over, etc.) the referent of the other (the possessed).

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Postal worker

A postal worker is one who works for a post office, such as a mail carrier.

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Prefix

A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).

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Prepositional case

Prepositional case (abbreviated) and postpositional case (abbreviated) are grammatical cases that respectively mark the object of a preposition and a postposition.

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Present tense

The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.

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President of Ireland

The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.

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Primitive Irish

Primitive Irish or Archaic Irish (Gaeilge Ársa) is the oldest known form of the Goidelic languages.

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Realis mood

A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.

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Relative clause

A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains the element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and antecedent on which it depends.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Richard Stanihurst

Richard Stanyhurst (1547–1618) was an Irish alchemist, translator, poet and historian, born in Dublin.

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Ring, County Waterford

Ring (its official name) or Ringagonagh (Rinn Ó gCuanach) is a parish within the Irish-speaking Gaeltacht na nDéise area in County Waterford, Ireland.

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River Boyne

The River Boyne (An Bhóinn or Abhainn na Bóinne) is a river in Leinster, Ireland, the course of which is about long.

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River Liffey

The River Liffey (Irish: An Life) is a river in Ireland, which flows through the centre of Dublin.

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Root (linguistics)

A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.

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Roscommon

Roscommon is the county town of County Roscommon in Ireland.

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Rosguill

Rosguill (Irish language and official name: Ros Goill) is a peninsula situated in north-north-west County Donegal, Ireland.

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Sandhi

SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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Semantics

Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.

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Spiddal

Spiddal is a Gaeltacht Placenames Database of Ireland.

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St Andrews Agreement

The St Andrews Agreement (Comhaontú Chill Rímhinn; Ulster Scots: St Andra's 'Greement, St Andrew's Greeance or St Andrae's Greeance) was an agreement between the British and Irish governments and Northern Ireland's political parties in relation to the devolution of power in the region.

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Standard language

A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.

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Status of the Irish language

Irish is a main home, work or community language for approximately 1% of the population of the Republic of Ireland;http://www.cso.ie/en/media/csoie/releasespublications/documents/population/2017/7._The_Irish_language.pdf the population of the Republic of Ireland was shown as 4,761,865 in the 2016 census.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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Subjunctive mood

The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.

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Suffix

In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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Tax collector

A tax collector or a taxman is a person who collects unpaid taxes from other people or corporations.

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Teastas Eorpach na Gaeilge

The Teastas Eorpach na Gaeilge (TEG) or European Certificate in Irish is a set of examinations for adult learners of Irish.

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The Irish Times

The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.

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The Pale

The Pale (An Pháil in Irish) or the English Pale (An Pháil Shasanach or An Ghalltacht) was the part of Ireland that was directly under the control of the English government in the late Middle Ages.

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The Rosses

The Rosses (officially known by its Irish language name, Na Rosa; in the genitive case Na Rosann) is a geographical and social region in the west of County Donegal, Ireland, with a population of over 7,000 centred on the town of Dungloe, which acts as the educational, shopping and civil centre for the area.

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Tory Island

Tory Island, or simply Tory (officially known by its Irish name Toraigh), is an island off the north-west coast of County Donegal in Ulster, Ireland, and is the most remote inhabited island of Ireland.

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Trim, County Meath

Trim is a town in County Meath, Ireland.

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Ulster

Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.

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Ulster Cycle

The Ulster Cycle (an Rúraíocht), formerly known as the Red Branch Cycle, one of the four great cycles of Irish mythology, is a body of medieval Irish heroic legends and sagas of the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster and northern Leinster, particularly counties Armagh, Down and Louth, and taking place around or before the 1st century AD.

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Ulster Irish

Ulster Irish is the variety of Irish spoken in the province of Ulster.

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Ulster Unionist Party

The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.

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Unicode

Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

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University College Dublin

University College, Dublin (commonly referred to as UCD; An Coláiste Ollscoile, Baile Átha Cliath) is a research university in Dublin, Ireland.

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Velarization

Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.

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Verb framing

In linguistics, verb-framing and satellite-framing are typological descriptions of a way that verb phrases in a language can describe the path of motion or the manner of motion, respectively.

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Verbal noun

A verbal noun is a noun formed from or otherwise corresponding to a verb.

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Verb–subject–object

In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges).

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Vocative case

The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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West Indies

The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.

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Wexford

Wexford (Yola: Weiseforth) is the county town of County Wexford, Ireland.

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William Bedell

The Rt. Rev. William Bedell, D.D. (Irish: Uilliam Beidil; 1571 – 7 February 1642), was an Anglican churchman who served as Lord Bishop of Kilmore became a martyr of the Reformation during the Irish Rebellion of 1641.

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William Gerard

Sir William Gerard (1518–1581) was an Elizabethan statesman, who had a distinguished record of government service in England, Wales and Ireland.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Redirects here:

Erse language, Gaeilge, Gaeilge language, Gaeilgeoir, Gaeilgeoirí, Gaeleg, Gaelge, Gaelige, Gailge, Gaolainn, Gaoluinn, Ghaeilge, ISO 639:ga, ISO 639:gle, Irish (language), Irish Gaelic, Irish Gaelic language, Irish Language, Irish dialect, Irish dialects, Irish gaelic, Irish-Gaelic, Irish-language, Irish-speaker, Irish-speaking, List of Irish counties by percentage of people with Irish language ability, Modern Irish.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_language

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