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Irish orthography

Index Irish orthography

Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD. [1]

130 relations: Acrophony, Acute accent, Alder, All caps, Alnus viridis, Ampersand, An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, An Gúm, Apostrophe, ASCII, Aspirated consonant, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani language, Éamon de Valera, ß, Bilingual dictionary, Birch, Calluna, Capitalization, Catechism, Civil Service of the Republic of Ireland, Clitic, Compound (linguistics), Conditional mood, Connacht Irish, Constitution of Ireland, County Cork, County Donegal, County Galway, County Kerry, County Mayo, County Waterford, Crataegus monogyna, Diacritic, Diaeresis (diacritic), Dialect continuum, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Dotted and dotless I, Eadhadh, Etymology, Fraxinus, French language, Full stop, Future tense, Gaelic revival, Gaelic type, Gaelicisation, German language, God, ..., Grammatical particle, Grapheme, Hazel, Hedera, History of the Irish language, Holly, Hyphen, Imperative mood, Imperfect, Insular script, Iodhadh, Irish Braille, Irish Free State, Irish general election, 1932, Irish initial mutations, Irish language, Irish manual alphabet, Irish phonology, Irish Texts Society, Labial consonant, Latin alpha, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Lenition, Munster Irish, Muskerry West, Niall Ó Dónaill, Oak, Ogham, Oireachtas, Old Irish, Orthography, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (phonetics), Participle, Patrick S. Dinneen, Phonation, Phoneme, Phonological change, Pine, Populus, President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State, Primitive Irish, Punctuation, Road signs in Ireland, Roman type, Rowan, Sambucus, Samhain, Schwa, Scottish Gaelic orthography, Silent letter, Slievenamon, Small caps, Spanish language, Spelling, Spelling reform, Standard language, Stop consonant, Switzerland, T. F. O'Rahilly, Taoiseach, Taxus, Theobald Stapleton, Tironian notes, Title, Tittle, Tomás de Bhaldraithe, Transport (typeface), Trigraph (orthography), Turkish language, Ulex, Ulster Irish, Velar consonant, Velarization, Verb, Vine, Vowel, Vowel length, Willow. Expand index (80 more) »


Acrophony (Greek: ἄκρος akros uppermost + φωνή phone sound) is the naming of letters of an alphabetic writing system so that a letter's name begins with the letter itself.

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Acute accent

The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.

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Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae.

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All caps

In typography, all caps (short for "all capitals") refers to text or a font in which all letters are capital letters, for example:.

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Alnus viridis

Alnus viridis (green alder) is an alder distributed widely across the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere.

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The ampersand is the logogram &, representing the conjunction "and".

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An Caighdeán Oifigiúil

An Caighdeán Oifigiúil ("The Official Standard"), often shortened to An Caighdeán, is an artificial standard for the spelling and grammar of the Irish language, to be used in official publications and taught in most schools in the state.

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An Gúm

An Gúm ("The Scheme") was an Irish state company tasked with the publication of Irish literature, especially educational materials.

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The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.

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ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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No description.

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Azerbaijani language

Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).

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Éamon de Valera

Éamon de Valera (first registered as George de Valero; changed some time before 1901 to Edward de Valera; 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was a prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland.

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In German orthography, the grapheme ß, called Eszett or scharfes S, in English "sharp S", represents the phoneme in Standard German, specifically when following long vowels and diphthongs, while ss is used after short vowels.

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Bilingual dictionary

A bilingual dictionary or translation dictionary is a specialized dictionary used to translate words or phrases from one language to another.

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A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.

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Calluna vulgaris (known as common heather, ling, or simply heather) is the sole species in the genus Calluna in the flowering plant family Ericaceae.

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Capitalisation, or capitalization,see spelling differences is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction.

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A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.

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Civil Service of the Republic of Ireland

The Civil Service (An Státseirbhís) of Ireland is the collective term for the permanent staff of the departments of state and certain state agencies who advise and work for the Government of Ireland.

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A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Compound (linguistics)

In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

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Conditional mood

The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.

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Connacht Irish

Connacht Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Connacht.

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Constitution of Ireland

The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland.

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County Cork

County Cork (Contae Chorcaí) is a county in Ireland.

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County Donegal

County Donegal (Contae Dhún na nGall) is a county of Ireland in the province of Ulster.

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County Galway

County Galway (Contae na Gaillimhe) is a county in Ireland.

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County Kerry

County Kerry (Contae Chiarraí) is a county in Ireland.

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County Mayo

County Mayo (Contae Mhaigh Eo, meaning "Plain of the yew trees") is a county in Ireland.

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County Waterford

County Waterford (Contae Phort Láirge; the English name comes from Old Norse Vedrafjörður) is a county in Ireland.

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Crataegus monogyna

Crataegus monogyna, known as common hawthorn or single-seeded hawthorn, is a species of hawthorn native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia.

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A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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Diaeresis (diacritic)

The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.

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Dialect continuum

A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.

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Digraph (orthography)

A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

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A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Dotted and dotless I

Dotted İi and dotless Iı are separate letters in Turkish and Azerbaijani.

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Eadhadh is the Irish name of the twenty-fourth letter of the Ogham alphabet, ᚓ. In Old Irish, the letter name was Edad.

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EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".

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Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Full stop

The full point or full stop (British and broader Commonwealth English) or period (North American English) is a punctuation mark.

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Future tense

In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.

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Gaelic revival

The Gaelic revival (Athbheochan na Gaeilge) was the late-nineteenth-century national revival of interest in the Irish language (also known as Gaelic) and Irish Gaelic culture (including folklore, sports, music, arts, etc.). Irish had diminished as a spoken tongue, remaining the main daily language only in isolated rural areas, with English having become the dominant language in the majority of Ireland.

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Gaelic type

Gaelic type (sometimes called Irish character, Irish type, or Gaelic script) is a family of insular typefaces devised for printing Classical Gaelic.

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Gaelicisation, or Gaelicization, is the act or process of making something Gaelic, or gaining characteristics of the Gaels.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.

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Grammatical particle

In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.

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In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.

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The hazel (Corylus) is a genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere.

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Hedera, commonly called ivy (plural ivies), is a genus of 12–15 species of evergreen climbing or ground-creeping woody plants in the family Araliaceae, native to western, central and southern Europe, Macaronesia, northwestern Africa and across central-southern Asia east to Japan and Taiwan.

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History of the Irish language

The history of the Irish language begins with the period from the arrival of speakers of Celtic languages in Ireland to Ireland's earliest known form of Irish, Archaic Irish, which is found in Ogham inscriptions dating from the 3rd or 4th century AD.

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Ilex, or holly, is a genus of 400 to 600 species of flowering plants in the family Aquifoliaceae, and the only living genus in that family.

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The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.

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Imperative mood

The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

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The imperfect (abbreviated) is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state).

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Insular script

Insular script was a medieval script system invented in Ireland that spread to Anglo-Saxon England and continental Europe under the influence of Irish Christianity.

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Iodhadh is the Irish name of the twenty-fifth letter of the Ogham alphabet, ᚔ. In Old Irish, the letter name was idad.

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Irish Braille

Irish Braille is the braille alphabet of the Irish language.

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Irish Free State

The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.

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Irish general election, 1932

The Irish general election of 1932 was held on 16 February 1932, just over two weeks after the dissolution of the Dáil on 29 January.

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Irish initial mutations

Irish, like all modern Celtic languages, is characterized by its initial consonant mutations.

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Irish language

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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Irish manual alphabet

The Irish manual alphabet is the manual alphabet used in Irish Sign Language.

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Irish phonology

The phonology of the Irish language varies from dialect to dialect; there is no standard pronunciation of Irish.

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Irish Texts Society

The Irish Texts Society (Irish: Cumann na Scríbheann nGaedhilge) was founded in 1898 to promote the study of Irish literature.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Latin alpha

Latin alpha (majuscule: Ɑ, minuscule: ɑ) or script a is a letter of the Latin alphabet, based on one lowercase form of a, or on the Greek lowercase alpha (α).

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.

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Munster Irish

Munster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Munster.

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Muskerry West

Muskerry West (Múscraí Thiar) is one of the baronies of Ireland, a historical geographical unit of land.

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Niall Ó Dónaill

Niall Ó Dónaill (1908 – 10 February 1995) was an Irish language lexicographer from Loughanure, County Donegal.

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An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.

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Ogham (Modern Irish or; ogam) is an Early Medieval alphabet used to write the early Irish language (in the "orthodox" inscriptions, 1st to 6th centuries AD), and later the Old Irish language (scholastic ogham, 6th to 9th centuries).

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The Oireachtas, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland.

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Old Irish

Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.

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An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palatalization (phonetics)

In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.

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A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

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Patrick S. Dinneen

Patrick Stephen Dinneen (Pádraig Ua Duinnín; 25 December 1860 – 29 September 1934) was an Irish lexicographer and historian, and a leading figure in the Gaelic revival.

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The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonological change

In historical linguistics, phonological change is any sound change which alters the distribution of phonemes in a language.

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A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.

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Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere.

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President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State

The President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State (Uachtarán ar Ard-Chomhairle Shaorstát Éireann) was the head of government or prime minister of the Irish Free State which existed from 1922 to 1937.

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Primitive Irish

Primitive Irish or Archaic Irish (Gaeilge Ársa) is the oldest known form of the Goidelic languages.

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Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.

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Road signs in Ireland

Road signs in the Republic of Ireland do not differ greatly from those used elsewhere in Europe – with the notable exception that hazard or warning signs follow the "New World" model that is employed, notably, in the Americas, Australasia, and Japan: that is to say that they feature a black symbol on the background of a yellow diamond.

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Roman type

In Latin script typography, roman is one of the three main kinds of historical type, alongside blackletter and italic.

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The rowans or mountain-ashes are shrubs or trees in the genus Sorbus of the rose family, Rosaceae.

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Sambucus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Adoxaceae.

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Samhain is a Gaelic festival marking the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter or the "darker half" of the year.

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In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.

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Scottish Gaelic orthography

Scottish Gaelic orthography has evolved over many centuries.

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Silent letter

In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.

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Slievenamon (Sliabh na mBan,, "mountain of the women") is a mountain which is situated northwest of Carrick on Suir and northeast of Clonmel in County Tipperary, Ireland.

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Small caps

In typography, small capitals (usually abbreviated small caps) are lowercase characters typeset with glyphs that resemble uppercase letters ("capitals") but reduced in height and weight, close to the surrounding lowercase (small) letters or text figures, for example:.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Spelling is the combination of alphabetic letters to form a written word.

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Spelling reform

A spelling reform is a deliberate, often officially sanctioned or mandated change to spelling rules of a language.

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Standard language

A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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T. F. O'Rahilly

Thomas Francis O'Rahilly (Tomás Ó Rathile; 1883–1953) was an Irish scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly in the fields of historical linguistics and Irish dialects.

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The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.

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Taxus is a small genus of coniferous trees or shrubs in the yew family Taxaceae.

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Theobald Stapleton

Theobald Stapleton, alias Teabóid Gallduf or Gallduff (1589 – 13 September 1647), was an Irish Roman Catholic priest born in County Tipperary, Ireland.

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Tironian notes

Tironian notes (notae Tironianae; or Tironian shorthand) is a system of shorthand invented by Tiro (94 4 BC), Marcus Tullius Cicero's slave and personal secretary, and later his freedman.

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A title is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name in certain contexts.

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A tittle or superscript dot is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic or the dot on a lowercase i or j. The tittle is an integral part of the glyph of i and j, but diacritic dots can appear over other letters in various languages.

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Tomás de Bhaldraithe

Tomás de Bhaldraithe (14 December 1916 – 24 April 1996) was an Irish language scholar and lexicographer born Thomas MacDonagh Waldron in Limerick.

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Transport (typeface)

Transport is a sans serif typeface first designed for road signs in the United Kingdom.

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Trigraph (orthography)

A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three characters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Ulex (commonly known as gorse, furze or whin) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae.

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Ulster Irish

Ulster Irish is the variety of Irish spoken in the province of Ulster.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.

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A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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A vine (Latin vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners.

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_orthography

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