256 relations: Abstentionism, Acts of Union 1800, Adoption of the Constitution of Ireland, African Americans, Agrarianism, Anglicanism, Anglo-Irish Treaty, Ardfheis, Armagh, Armalite and ballot box strategy, ArmaLite AR-18, Arthur Griffith, Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of Ireland, Austin Currie, Auxiliary Division, Éamon de Valera, Éirígí, Éire, Bairbre de Brún, Balfour Declaration of 1926, Battle of Dublin, Battle of Fort Erie (1866), Battle of Ridgeway, Belfast, Bernadette Devlin McAliskey, Black and Tans, Bloody Sunday (1920), Blueshirts, Border Campaign (Irish Republican Army), British Army, Burning of Cork, Campobello Island, Canada under British rule, Cathal Goulding, Catholic Church, Catholic emancipation, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, Charles Gavan Duffy, Charles Kickham, Civil and political rights, Commonwealth of Nations, Confederate Ireland, Constitution of Ireland, Constitutional monarchy, Continuity Irish Republican Army, Cork (city), County Antrim, County Armagh, County Down, County Fermanagh, ..., County Kildare, County Londonderry, County Tyrone, County Wexford, Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Culture of Ireland, Cumann na nGaedheal, Daniel O'Connell, Danny Morrison (Irish republican), David Lloyd George, David Trimble, Dáil Éireann, Defenders (Ireland), Democratic socialism, Democratic Unionist Party, Des Dalton, Direct action, Dissenter, Dissident republican, Dominion, Dublin, Dublin Castle, Easter Rising, Emmet Monument Association, England, Eoin O'Duffy, Executions during the Irish Civil War, Fenian, Fenian Brotherhood, Fenian dynamite campaign, Fenian raids, Fenian Rising, Fianna, Fianna Fáil, First Dáil, Flight of the Earls, Fort Erie, Ontario, Four Courts, French Revolution of 1848, Gaelic Ireland, Gaels, George III of the United Kingdom, George VI, Gerry Adams, Gerrymandering, Good Friday Agreement, Government of Ireland, Government of Ireland Act 1914, Government of Ireland Act 1920, Government of Northern Ireland, Great Famine (Ireland), Guerrilla warfare, Habeas corpus, Harold's Cross, Henry Joy McCracken, History of Ireland, History of Sinn Féin, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, Hume–Adams dialogue, Ian Paisley, Independent Monitoring Commission, Ireland, Ireland Act 1949, Irish Catholics, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Civil War, Irish clans, Irish Confederate Wars, Irish Free State, Irish general election, 1918, Irish House of Commons, Irish language, Irish National Liberation Army, Irish Rebellion of 1641, Irish Rebellion of 1798, Irish Republic, Irish Republican Army, Irish Republican Army (1919–1922), Irish Republican Army (1922–1969), Irish Republican Brotherhood, Irish Republican Socialist Movement, Irish Republican Socialist Party, Irish Socialist Republican Party, Irish Volunteers, Irish War of Independence, James Connolly, James Larkin, James Napper Tandy, James Stephens (Fenian), John A. Costello, John Blake Dillon, John Hume, John O'Connell (MP), John O'Mahony, Joseph Holt (rebel), Killala, Kingdom of Italy, Leinster, Loyalism, Martin McGuinness, Marxism, Marxism–Leninism, Michael Collins (Irish leader), Michael Doheny, Michael Dwyer, Monarchy in the Irish Free State, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, National Army (Ireland), Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War), New Brunswick, Nine Years' War (Ireland), Nonconformist, Norman invasion of Ireland, Normans in Ireland, Northern Ireland, Northern Ireland Assembly, Northern Ireland Executive, Northern Ireland peace process, Official Irish Republican Army, Parliament of England, Parliament of Ireland, Patrick Pearse, Peerage, Peerage of Ireland, Penal Laws (Ireland), Penal transportation, Plantation (settlement or colony), Plantation of Ulster, Plantations of Ireland, Plenipotentiary, Presbyterianism, President of Ireland, President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State, President of the Irish Republic, Proclamation of the Irish Republic, Protestant Ascendancy, Protestant Irish nationalists, Provisional Irish Republican Army, Provisional Irish Republican Army campaign, Puritans, Real Irish Republican Army, Repeal Association, Republic of Ireland, Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Republican faction (Spanish Civil War), Republican Sinn Féin, Richard Mulcahy, Robert Emmet, Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, Royal Irish Constabulary, Royal Ulster Constabulary, Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, Saint Patrick's Day, Samuel Neilson, Scotland, Seamus Costello, Seanad Éireann, Seán Mac Diarmada, Seán Mac Stíofáin, Seán Russell, Second Dáil, Sectarianism, Sinn Féin, Sir Henry Wilson, 1st Baronet, Social democracy, Social Democratic and Labour Party, Society of United Irishmen, Spanish Civil War, St Andrews Agreement, State of emergency, Statute of Westminster 1931, Sunningdale Agreement, Syndicalism, Terence MacManus, The Nation (Irish newspaper), The Troubles, Thomas Addis Emmet, Thomas Clarke Luby, Thomas Davis (Young Irelander), Thomas Francis Meagher, Thomas Russell (rebel), Tivoli Variety Theatre, Tom Clarke (Irish republican), Trinity College Dublin, Tudor conquest of Ireland, Ulster, Ulster Unionist Party, Ulster Volunteer Force, Unionism in Ireland, United Ireland, Van Diemen's Land, W. T. Cosgrave, Whigs (British political party), Wicklow Mountains, William Pitt the Younger, William R. Roberts, William Smith O'Brien, Wolfe Tone, Workers' Party of Ireland, World War I, World War II, Yeoman, Young Ireland, Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848, 32 County Sovereignty Movement. Expand index (206 more) » « Shrink index
Abstentionism is standing for election to a deliberative assembly while refusing to take up any seats won or otherwise participate in the assembly's business.
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The current Constitution of Ireland came into effect on 29 December 1937, repealing and replacing the Constitution of the Irish Free State, having been approved in a national plebiscite on 1 July 1937 with the support of 56.5% of voters in the then Irish Free State.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
Agrarianism is a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society, the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of life that can shape the ideal social values.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and representatives of the Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence.
Ardfheis or Ard Fheis ("high assembly"; plural Ardfheiseanna) is the name used by many Irish political parties for their annual party conference.
Armagh is the county town of County Armagh and a city in Northern Ireland, as well as a civil parish.
The Armalite and ballot box strategy was a strategy pursued by the Irish republican movement in the 1980s and early 1990s in which elections in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland were contested by Sinn Féin, while the IRA continued to pursue an armed struggle against the British Army, the Royal Ulster Constabulary, and loyalist paramilitary groups.
The ArmaLite AR-18 is a gas-operated, selective-fire rifle chambered for 5.56×45mm NATO ammunition.
Arthur Joseph Griffith (Art Seosamh Ó Gríobhtha; 31 March 1871 – 12 August 1922) was an Irish politician and writer, who founded and later led the political party Sinn Féin.
Article 2 and Article 3 of the Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) were adopted with the constitution as a whole on 29 December 1937, but completely revised by means of the Nineteenth Amendment which took effect on 2 December 1999.
Joseph Austin Currie (born 11 October 1939) is a former Irish Fine Gael politician who served as Minister of State for Justice from 1994 to 1997.
The Auxiliary Division of the Royal Irish Constabulary (ADRIC), generally known as the Auxiliaries or Auxies, was a paramilitary unit of the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) during the Irish War of Independence.
Éamon de Valera (first registered as George de Valero; changed some time before 1901 to Edward de Valera; 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was a prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland.
éirígí (or, is a socialist republican political party in Ireland, registered since 2010 to contest local elections only. The party name, "Éirígí", means "Arise" or "Rise Up" in the Irish language, a reference to a famous speech by trade union leader James Larkin. It gained its first local councillors in 2009, when two former Sinn Féin councillors, Dungannon councillor Barry Monteith and Dublin City Councillor Louise Minihan, joined the organisation. Former Wexford county councillor for Sinn Féin and New Ross town councillor John Dwyer also joined Éirígí. It failed to win any seats in the 2014 local elections, leaving it without elected representation.
Éire is Irish for "Ireland", the name of an island and a sovereign state.
Bairbre de Brún (born 10 January 1954) is an Irish politician and former Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for Northern Ireland.
The Balfour Declaration of 1926, issued by the 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London, was named after Lord President of the Council (and former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) Arthur Balfour.
The Battle of Dublin was a week of street battles in Dublin from 28 June to 5 July 1922 that marked the beginning of the Irish Civil War.
The Battle of Fort Erie was a bloody skirmish in the afternoon immediately following the Battle of Ridgeway on June 2, 1866 in Canada West.
The Battle of Ridgeway (sometimes the Battle of Lime Ridge or Limestone Ridge) was fought in the vicinity of the town of Fort Erie across the Niagara River from Buffalo, New York, near the village of Ridgeway, Canada West, currently Ontario, Canada, on June 2, 1866, between Canadian troops and an irregular army of Irish-American invaders, the Fenians.
Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.
Josephine Bernadette McAliskey (née Devlin; born 23 April 1947), usually known as Bernadette Devlin or Bernadette McAliskey, is an Irish civil rights leader and former politician.
The Black and Tans (Dúchrónaigh), officially the Royal Irish Constabulary Special Reserve, was a force of temporary constables recruited to assist the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) during the Irish War of Independence.
Bloody Sunday (Domhnach na Fola) was a day of violence in Dublin on 21 November 1920, during the Irish War of Independence.
The Army Comrades Association (ACA), later the National Guard, then Young Ireland and finally League of Youth, but better known by the nickname The Blueshirts (Na Léinte Gorma), was a Right-wing movement in the Irish Free State in the early 1930s.
The Border Campaign (12 December 1956 – 26 February 1962) was a guerrilla warfare campaign (codenamed Operation Harvest) carried out by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) against targets in Northern Ireland, with the aim of overthrowing British rule there and creating a united Ireland.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The Burning of Cork by British forces took place on the night of 11–12 December 1920, during the Irish War of Independence.
Campobello Island is an island located at the entrance to Passamaquoddy Bay, adjacent to the entrance to Cobscook Bay, and within the Bay of Fundy.
Canada was under British rule beginning with the Treaty of Paris (1763), when New France, of which the colony of Canada was a part, formally became a part of the British Empire.
Cathal Goulding (Cathal Ó Goillín; 2 January 1923 – 26 December 1998) was Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army and the Official IRA.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws.
Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis KG, PC (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as The Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army general and official.
Sir Charles Gavan Duffy Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (12 April 1816 – 9 February 1903), Irish-Australian nationalist, journalist, poet and politician, was the 8th Premier of Victoria and one of the most colourful figures in Victorian political history.
Charles Joseph Kickham (9 May 1828 – 22 August 1882) was an Irish revolutionary, novelist, poet, journalist and one of the most prominent members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Confederate Ireland or the Union of the Irish (Hiberni Unanimes) refers to the period of Irish self-government between 1642 and 1649, during the Eleven Years' War.
The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Continuity Irish Republican Army, usually known as the Continuity IRA (CIRA) is an Irish republican paramilitary group that claims to be the armed forces of the Irish Republic that was proclaimed in 1916.
Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.
County Antrim (named after the town of Antrim)) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined to the north-east shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of and has a population of about 618,000. County Antrim has a population density of 203 people per square kilometre or 526 people per square mile. It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, as well as part of the historic province of Ulster. The Glens of Antrim offer isolated rugged landscapes, the Giant's Causeway is a unique landscape and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bushmills produces whiskey, and Portrush is a popular seaside resort and night-life area. The majority of Belfast, the capital city of Northern Ireland, is in County Antrim, with the remainder being in County Down. It is currently one of only two counties of Ireland to have a majority of the population from a Protestant background, according to the 2001 census. The other is County Down to the south.
County Armagh (named after its county town, Armagh) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland.
County Down is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland in the northeast of the island of Ireland.
County Fermanagh is one of the thirty-two counties of Ireland and one of the six counties of Northern Ireland.
County Kildare (Contae Chill Dara) is a county in Ireland.
County Londonderry (Contae Dhoire; Ulster-Scots: Coontie Lunnonderrie), also known as County Derry, is one of the six counties of Northern Ireland.
County Tyrone is one of the six historic counties of Northern Ireland.
County Wexford (Contae Loch Garman, Yola: Weiseforthe) is a county in Ireland.
The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland (1649–53) refers to the conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
The culture of Ireland includes customs and traditions, language, music, art, literature, folklore, cuisine and sports associated with Ireland and the Irish people.
Cumann na nGaedheal ("Society of the Gaels"), sometimes spelt Cumann na nGaedhael, was a political party in the Irish Free State, which formed the government from 1923 to 1932.
Daniel O'Connell (Dónall Ó Conaill; 6 August 1775 – 15 May 1847), often referred to as The Liberator or The Emancipator, was an Irish political leader in the first half of the 19th century.
Daniel Gerard Morrison (born 9 January 1953), known generally as Danny Morrison, is a former IRA volunteer, Irish author and activist who played a crucial role in public events during the Troubles in Northern Ireland.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
William David Trimble, Baron Trimble, PC (born 15 October 1944), is a British politician who was the first First Minister of Northern Ireland from 1998 to 2002, and the leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) from 1995 to 2005.
Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).
The Defenders were a Roman Catholic agrarian secret society in 18th-century Ireland, founded in County Armagh.
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.
Des Dalton is the president of Republican Sinn Féin (RSF).
Direct action occurs when a group takes an action which is intended to reveal an existing problem, highlight an alternative, or demonstrate a possible solution to a social issue.
A dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, "to disagree") is one who disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc.
Dissident republicans, renegade republicans, anti-Agreement republicans or anti-ceasefire republicans (poblachtach easaontach) are Irish republicans who do not support the current peace agreements in Northern Ireland.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Dublin Castle (Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath) off Dame Street, Dublin, Ireland, is a major Irish government complex, conference centre, and tourist attraction.
The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca), also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, April 1916.
The Emmet Monument Association (EMA) was a mid-nineteenth century secret military organization with the special purpose of training men to attack England and free Ireland.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Eoin O'Duffy (Eoin Ó Dubhthaigh; born Owen Duffy, 28 January 1890 – 30 November 1944) was an Irish nationalist political activist, soldier and police commissioner.
The executions during the Irish Civil War took place during the guerrilla phase of the Irish Civil War (June 1922 – May 1923).
Fenian was an umbrella term for the Fenian Brotherhood and Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), fraternal organisations dedicated to the establishment of an independent Irish Republic in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Fenian Brotherhood was an Irish republican organisation founded in the United States in 1858 by John O'Mahony and Michael Doheny.
The Fenian dynamite campaign (or Fenian bombing campaign) was a bombing campaign orchestrated by Irish republicans against the British Empire, between the years 1881 and 1885.
Between 1866 and 1871, the Fenian raids of the Fenian Brotherhood, an Irish Republican organization based in the United States, on British army forts, customs posts and other targets in Canada, were fought to bring pressure on Britain to withdraw from Ireland.
The Fenian Rising of 1867 (Éirí Amach na bhFíníní, 1867) was a rebellion against British rule in Ireland, organised by the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB).
Fianna (singular fiann, Scottish Gaelic: An Fhèinne) were small, semi-independent warrior bands in Irish mythology.
Fianna Fáil (meaning 'Soldiers of Destiny' or 'Warriors of Fál'), officially Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach), is a political party in Ireland.
The First Dáil (An Chéad Dáil) was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919–1921.
The Flight of the Earls (Irish: Imeacht na nIarlaí) took place on 4 September 1607, when Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone and Red Hugh O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, and about ninety followers left Ulster in Ireland for mainland Europe.
Fort Erie is a town on the Niagara River in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada.
The Four Courts (Na Ceithre Cúirteanna) is Ireland's main courts building, located on Inns Quay in Dublin.
The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe.
Gaelic Ireland (Éire Ghaidhealach) was the Gaelic political and social order, and associated culture, that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
Gerard Adams (Gearóid Mac Ádhaimh; born 6 October 1948) is an Irish republican politician who was the Leader of the Sinn Féin political party between 13 November 1983 and 10 February 2018, and has been a Teachta Dála (TD) for Louth since the 2011 general election.
Gerrymandering is a practice intended to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries.
The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.
The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland.
The Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 90), also known as the Home Rule Act, and before enactment as the Third Home Rule Bill, was an Act passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom intended to provide home rule (self-government within the United Kingdom) for Ireland.
The Government of Ireland Act 1920 (10 & 11 Geo. 5 c. 67) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The government of Northern Ireland is, generally speaking, whatever political body exercises political authority over Northern Ireland.
The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
Harold's Cross is an urban village and inner suburb on the south side of Dublin, Ireland.
Henry Joy McCracken (31 August 1767 – 17 July 1798) was an Irish Republican and industrialist from Belfast, Ireland.
Prehistoric Ireland spans a period from the first known evidence of human presence dated to about 10,000 years ago until the emergence of "protohistoric" Gaelic Ireland at the time of Christianization in the 5th century.
Sinn Féin ("We Ourselves", often mistranslated as "Ourselves Alone") is the name of an Irish political party founded in 1905 by Arthur Griffith.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Hugh O'Neill (Irish: Aodh Mór Ó Néill; literally Hugh The Great O'Neill; c. 1550 – 20 July 1616), was an Irish Gaelic lord, Earl of Tyrone (known as the Great Earl) and was later created The Ó Néill.
The Hume–Adams dialogue was a series of talks between then Social Democratic and Labour Party leader John Hume and Sinn Féin leader Gerry Adams during the Northern Ireland peace process.
Ian Richard Kyle Paisley, Baron Bannside, (6 April 1926 – 12 September 2014), was a loyalist politician and Protestant religious leader from Northern Ireland.
The Independent Monitoring Commission (IMC) was an organisation founded on 7 January 2004, by an agreement between the British and Irish governments, signed in Dublin on 25 November 2003.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Ireland Act 1949 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom intended to deal with the consequences of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 as passed by the Irish parliament, the Oireachtas.
Irish Catholics are an ethnoreligious group native to Ireland that are both Catholic and Irish.
The Irish Citizen Army, or ICA, was a small paramilitary group of trained trade union volunteers from the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union (ITGWU) established in Dublin for the defence of workers' demonstrations from the police.
The Irish Civil War (Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.
Irish clans are traditional kinship groups sharing a common surname and heritage and existing in a lineage based society prior to the 17th century.
The Irish Confederate Wars, also called the Eleven Years' War (derived from the Irish language name Cogadh na hAon Bhliana Déag), took place in Ireland between 1641 and 1653.
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 general election which took place in Ireland.
The Irish House of Commons was the lower house of the Parliament of Ireland that existed from 1297 until 1800.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA, Arm Saoirse Náisiúnta na hÉireann) is an Irish republican socialist paramilitary group formed on 10 December 1974, during "the Troubles".
The Irish Rebellion of 1641 (Éirí Amach 1641) began as an attempted coup d'état by Irish Catholic gentry, who tried to seize control of the English administration in Ireland to force concessions for Catholics.
The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798), also known as the United Irishmen Rebellion (Éirí Amach na nÉireannach Aontaithe), was an uprising against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798.
The Irish Republic (Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann) was a revolutionary state that declared its independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in January 1919.
The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is any of several paramilitary movements in Ireland in the 20th and 21st centuries dedicated to Irish republicanism, the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.
The Irish Republican Army (IRA) (Óglaigh na hÉireann) was an Irish republican revolutionary paramilitary organisation.
The original Irish Republican Army (IRA) fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence between 1919 and 1921.
The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) was a secret oath-bound fraternal organisation dedicated to the establishment of an "independent democratic republic" in Ireland between 1858 and 1924.
The Irish Republican Socialist Movement (IRSM) is an umbrella term for.
The Irish Republican Socialist Party or IRSP (Páirtí Poblachtach Sóisialach na hÉireann) is a republican socialist party active in Ireland.
The Irish Socialist Republican Party was a small, but pivotal Irish political party founded in 1896 by James Connolly.
The Irish Volunteers (Óglaigh na hÉireann), sometimes called the Irish Volunteer Force or Irish Volunteer Army, was a military organisation established in 1913 by Irish nationalists.
The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.
James Connolly (Séamas Ó Conghaile; 5 June 1868 – 12 May 1916) was an Irish republican and socialist leader.
James Larkin (Séamas Ó Lorcáin; 21 January 1876 – 30 January 1947), sometimes known as Jim Larkin, was an Irish republican, socialist and trade union leader.
James Napper Tandy (16 February 1739 – 24 August 1803) was an Irish revolutionary, and member of the United Irishmen.
James Stephens (26 January 1825 – 29 March 1901) was an Irish Republican, and the founding member of an originally unnamed revolutionary organisation in Dublin.
John Aloysius Costello (20 June 1891 – 5 January 1976) was an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as Taoiseach from 1948 to 1951 and 1954 to 1957, Leader of the Opposition from 1951 to 1954 and 1957 to 1959 and Attorney General of Ireland from 1926 to 1932.
John Blake Dillon (5 May 1814 – 15 September 1866) was an Irish writer and politician who was one of the founding members of the Young Ireland movement.
John Hume, KCSG (born 18 January 1937) is an Irish former politician from Derry, Northern Ireland.
John O'Connell JP DL (24 December 1810 – 24 June 1858) was one of seven children (the third of four sons) of the Irish Nationalist leader Daniel O'Connell and his wife Mary.
John Francis O'Mahony (1816 – 7 February 1877) was a Gaelic scholar and the founding member of the Fenian Brotherhood in the United States, sister organisation to the Irish Republican Brotherhood.
Joseph Holt (1756 – 16 May 1826) was a United Irish general and leader of a large guerrilla force which fought against British troops in County Wicklow from June–October 1798.
Killala is a village in County Mayo in Ireland, north of Ballina.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
Leinster (— Laighin / Cúige Laighean — /) is one of the Provinces of Ireland situated in the east of Ireland.
In general, loyalism is an individual's allegiance toward an established government, political party, or sovereign, especially during times of war and revolt.
James Martin Pacelli McGuinness (Séamus Máirtín Pacelli Mag Aonghusa; 23 May 1950 – 21 March 2017) was an Irish republican and Sinn Féin politician who was the deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland from May 2007 to January 2017.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Michael Collins (Mícheál Ó Coileáin; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary, soldier and politician who was a leading figure in the early-20th-century Irish struggle for independence.
Michael Doheny (22 May 1805 – 1 April 1863) was an Irish writer and member of the Young Ireland movement.
Michael Dwyer (1772–1825) was a United Irishmen leader in the 1798 rebellion.
From its foundation on 6 December 1922 until 11 December 1936, the Irish Free State was in accordance with its constitution, governed formally under a form of constitutional monarchy.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
The National Army, sometimes unofficially referred to as the Free State army or the Regulars, was the army of the Irish Free State from January 1922 until October 1924.
The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
The Nine Years' War or Tyrone's Rebellion took place in Ireland from 1593 to 1603.
In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.
The Norman invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century, at a time when Gaelic Ireland was made up of several kingdoms, with a High King claiming lordship over all.
The Normans in Ireland, or Hiberno-Normans, were a group of Normans who invaded the various realms of Gaelic Ireland.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Northern Ireland Assembly (Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlan Assemblie) is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland.
The Northern Ireland Executive is the devolved government of Northern Ireland, an administrative branch of the legislature Northern Ireland Assembly.
The Northern Ireland peace process is often considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of the Troubles, the Good Friday (or Belfast) Agreement of 1998, and subsequent political developments.
The Official Irish Republican Army or Official IRA (OIRA) was an Irish republican paramilitary group whose goal was to remove Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom and create a "workers' republic" encompassing all of Ireland.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of Ireland was the legislature of the Lordship of Ireland, and later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1297 until 1800.
Patrick Henry Pearse (also known as Pádraig or Pádraic Pearse; Pádraig Anraí Mac Piarais; An Piarsach; 10 November 1879 – 3 May 1916) was an Irish teacher, barrister, poet, writer, nationalist, republican political activist and revolutionary who was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916.
A peerage is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks.
The Peerage of Ireland consists of those titles of nobility created by the English monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In the island of Ireland, Penal Laws (Na Péindlíthe) were a series of laws imposed in an attempt to force Irish Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters (such as local Presbyterians) to accept the reformed denomination as defined by the English state established Anglican Church and practised by members of the Irish state established Church of Ireland.
Penal transportation or transportation refers to the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination.
Plantation was an early method of colonisation where settlers went in order to establish a permanent or semi-permanent colonial base, for example for planting tobacco or cotton.
The Plantation of Ulster (Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr) was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulstera province of Irelandby people from Great Britain during the reign of James VI and I. Most of the colonists came from Scotland and England, although there was a small number of Welsh settlers.
Plantations in 16th- and 17th-century Ireland involved the confiscation of land by the English crown and the colonisation of this land with settlers from the island of Great Britain.
The word plenipotentiary (from the Latin plenus "full" and potens "powerful") has two meanings.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.
The President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State (Uachtarán ar Ard-Chomhairle Shaorstát Éireann) was the head of government or prime minister of the Irish Free State which existed from 1922 to 1937.
President of the Republic was the title given to the head of the Irish ministry or Aireacht in August 1921 by an amendment to the Dáil Constitution, which replaced the previous title, Príomh Aire or President of Dáil Éireann.
The Proclamation of the Republic (Forógra na Poblachta), also known as the 1916 Proclamation or the Easter Proclamation, was a document issued by the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army during the Easter Rising in Ireland, which began on 24 April 1916.
The Protestant Ascendancy, known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic and social domination of Ireland between the 17th century and the early 20th century by a minority of landowners, Protestant clergy and members of the professions, all members of the Church of Ireland or the Church of England.
Protestant Irish nationalists are adherents of Protestantism in Ireland who also support Irish nationalism.
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate the reunification of Ireland and bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.
From 1969 until 1997,Moloney, p. 472 the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) conducted an armed paramilitary campaign primarily in Northern Ireland and England, aimed at ending British rule in Northern Ireland in order to create a united Ireland.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
The Real Irish Republican Army or Real IRA (RIRA), also called the New IRA (NIRA) since 2012, is a dissident Irish republican paramilitary organisation which aims to bring about a united Ireland.
The Repeal Association was an Irish mass membership political movement set up by Daniel O'Connell in 1830 to campaign for a repeal of the Acts of Union of 1800 between Great Britain and Ireland.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
The Republic of Ireland Act 1948 (No. 22 of 1948) is an Act of the Oireachtas which declared that Ireland may be officially described as the Republic of Ireland, and vested in the President of Ireland the power to exercise the executive authority of the state in its external relations, on the advice of the Government of Ireland.
The Republican faction (Bando republicano), also known as the Loyalist faction (Bando leal or bando gubernamental), was the side in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939 that supported the established government of the Second Spanish Republic against the Nationalist or rebel faction of the military rebellion.
Republican Sinn Féin or RSF (Sinn Féin Poblachtach) is an Irish republican political party in Ireland.
Richard James Mulcahy (10 May 1886 – 16 December 1971) was an Irish Fine Gael politician and army general who served as Minister for Education from 1954 to 1957 and 1948 to 1951, Minister for the Gaeltacht from June 1956 to October 1956, Leader of the Opposition from 1944 to 1948, Leader of Fine Gael from 1944 to 1959, Minister for Local Government and Public Health from 1927 to 1932, Minister for Defence from 1922 to 1924 and January 1919 to April 1919.
Robert Emmet (4 March 1778 – 20 September 1803) was an Irish nationalist and Republican, orator and rebel leader.
Robert Stewart, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry, (18 June 1769 – 12 August 1822), usually known as Lord Castlereagh, which is derived from his courtesy title Viscount Castlereagh,The name Castlereagh derives from the baronies of Castlereagh (or Castellrioughe) and Ards, in which the manors of Newtownards and Comber were located.
The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC, Irish: Constáblacht Ríoga na hÉireann; simply called the Irish Constabulary 1836–67) was the police force in Ireland from the early nineteenth century until 1922.
The Royal Ulster Constabulary was the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001.
Ruairí Ó Brádaigh (born Peter Roger Casement Brady; 2 October 1932 – 5 June 2013) was an Irish republican political and military leader.
Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick (Lá Fhéile Pádraig, "the Day of the Festival of Patrick"), is a cultural and religious celebration held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick (AD 385–461), the foremost patron saint of Ireland.
Samuel Neilson (17 September 1761 – 29 August 1803) was one of the founding members of the Society of United Irishmen and the founder of its newspaper, the ''Northern Star''.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Seamus Costello (Séamus Mac Coisdealbha, 1939 – 5 October 1977) was a leader of Official Sinn Féin and the Official Irish Republican Army and latterly of the Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP) and the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA).
Seanad Éireann (Senate of Ireland) is the government upper house of the Oireachtas (the Irish legislature), which also comprises the President of Ireland and Dáil Éireann (the lower house).
Seán Mac Diarmada (27 January 1883 – 12 May 1916), also known as Seán MacDermott, was an Irish republican political activist and revolutionary leader.
Seán Mac Stíofáin (17 February 1928 – 18 May 2001), born John Stephenson, was an English-born chief of staff of the Provisional IRA, a position he held between 1969 and 1972.
Seán Russell (1893 – 14 August 1940) was an Irish republican who held senior positions in the IRA until the end of the Irish War of Independence.
The Second Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 16 August 1921 until 8 June 1922.
Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group.
Sinn Féin (isbn) is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
Field Marshal Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, 1st Baronet, (5 May 1864 – 22 June 1922) was one of the most senior British Army staff officers of the First World War and was briefly an Irish unionist politician.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) is a social-democratic and Irish nationalist political party in Northern Ireland.
The Society of United Irishmen was founded as a liberal political organisation in 18th-century Ireland that initially sought Parliamentary reform.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The St Andrews Agreement (Comhaontú Chill Rímhinn; Ulster Scots: St Andra's 'Greement, St Andrew's Greeance or St Andrae's Greeance) was an agreement between the British and Irish governments and Northern Ireland's political parties in relation to the devolution of power in the region.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.
The Sunningdale Agreement was an attempt to establish a power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive and a cross-border Council of Ireland.
Syndicalism is a proposed type of economic system, considered a replacement for capitalism.
Terence Bellew MacManus (born 1811 or 1823-15 January 1861) was an Irish rebel who participated in the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848.
The Nation was an Irish nationalist weekly newspaper, published in the 19th century.
The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.
Thomas Addis Emmet (24 April 1764 – 14 November 1827) was an Irish and American lawyer and politician.
Thomas Clarke Luby (16 January 1822 – 29 November 1901) was an Irish revolutionary, author, journalist and one of the founding members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood.
Thomas Osborne Davis (14 October 1814 – 16 September 1845) was an Irish writer who was the chief organiser of the Young Ireland movement.
Thomas Francis Meagher (3 August 1823 1 July 1867) was an Irish nationalist and leader of the Young Irelanders in the Rebellion of 1848.
Thomas Paliser Russell (21 November 1767 – 21 October 1803) was a co-founder and leader of the United Irishmen.
The Tivoli Theatre in Dublin, Ireland, started life as the Conciliation Hall in 1834.
Thomas James "Tom" Clarke (Tomás Séamus Ó Cléirigh; 11 March 1858 – 3 May 1916) was an Irish republican revolutionary leader from Dungannon, County Tyrone.
Trinity College (Coláiste na Tríonóide), officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland.
The Tudor conquest (or reconquest) of Ireland took place under the Tudor dynasty, which held the Kingdom of England during the 16th century.
Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.
The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) is an Ulster loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland.
Unionism in Ireland is a political ideology that favours the continuation of some form of political union between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.
United Ireland (also referred to as Irish reunification) is the proposition that the whole of Ireland should be a single sovereign state.
Van Diemen's Land was the original name used by most Europeans for the island of Tasmania, now part of Australia.
William Thomas Cosgrave (6 June 1880 – 16 November 1965) was an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as President of the Executive Council from 1922 to 1932, Leader of the Opposition from 1932 to 1944, Leader of Fine Gael from 1934 to 1944, Leader of Cumann na nGaedheal from 1923 to 1933, Chairman of the Provisional Government from August 1922 to December 1922, President of Dáil Éireann from September 1922 to December 1922, Minister for Finance from 1922 to 1923 and Minister for Local Government from 1919 to 1922.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
The Wicklow Mountains (archaic: Cualu) form the largest continuous upland area in Ireland.
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
William Randall Roberts (February 6, 1830 – August 9, 1897) was a diplomat, Fenian Society member, and United States Representative from New York (1871–1875).
William Smith O'Brien (Liam Mac Gabhann Ó Briain; 17 October 1803 – 18 June 1864) was an Irish nationalist Member of Parliament (MP) and leader of the Young Ireland movement.
Theobald Wolfe Tone, posthumously known as Wolfe Tone (20 June 1763 – 19 November 1798), was a leading Irish revolutionary figure and one of the founding members of the United Irishmen, and is regarded as the father of Irish republicanism and leader of the 1798 Irish Rebellion.
The Workers' Party (Páirtí na nOibrithe), originally known as Official Sinn Féin, is a Marxist–Leninist political party active throughout Ireland.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A yeoman was a member of a social class in late medieval to early modern England.
Young Ireland (Éire Óg) was a political, cultural and social movement of the mid-19th century.
The Young Irelander Rebellion was a failed Irish nationalist uprising led by the Young Ireland movement, part of the wider Revolutions of 1848 that affected most of Europe.
The 32 County Sovereignty Movement, often abbreviated to 32CSM or 32csm, is an Irish republican group that was founded by Bernadette Sands McKevitt.
Irish Republican, Irish Republicanism, Irish Republicans, Irish republican, Irish republican socialism, Irish republican socialist, Irish republicans, Republican (Ireland), Republicanism in Ireland, Republicanism in Northern Ireland, Republicanism in ireland, Republicanism in the Republic of Ireland.