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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26. [1]

382 relations: Abraham Darby I, Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Abundance of the chemical elements, Acid phosphatase, Acidianus, Acidithiobacillus, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Agriculture, Allotropes of iron, Allotropy, Alloy, Alloy steel, Alpha particle, Alpha process, Alzheimer's disease, Ammonia, Ammonium iron(II) sulfate, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Aniline, Annealing (metallurgy), Antoine Lavoisier, Archaea, Asmar, Aspergillus niger, Asteroid, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic mass, Atomic number, Austenite, Bainite, Banded iron formation, Barium ferrate, Basic oxygen steelmaking, Bean, Bechamp reduction, Bessemer process, Beta ferrite, Bible, Bioavailability, Bioinorganic chemistry, Black-eyed pea, Blacksmith, Blast furnace, Blood, Blood donation, Bloomery, Blueprint, Bluing (steel), ..., Bolivia, Book of Genesis, Bread, Breakfast cereal, Brinell scale, Bronze Age, Building, Caesium, Calcium carbonate, Calcium oxide, Car, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon 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Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft, Red giant, Red meat, Redox, Refractory, Regolith, Ribonucleotide reductase, Ribose, RMS Titanic, Road, Rockwell scale, Roman Empire, Royal Society of Chemistry, Rubredoxin, Rust, Sandwich compound, Sewage treatment, Shale, Ship, Shipwreck, Shock (circulatory), Siderophore, Silicon dioxide, Silicon-burning process, Slag, Smelting, Solar System, Song dynasty, Spin (physics), Stable isotope ratio, Stainless steel, Star, Steel, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Stellar population, Stress concentration, Substantia nigra, Sulfolobus, Sulfur, Supernova, Supernova remnant, Taenite, Tang dynasty, Telluric iron, Terrestrial planet, Thallium, The Iron Bridge, The Periodic Table of Videos, Thermite, Tofu, Tonne, Trace element, Transferrin, Transition metal, Trevor R. 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Abraham Darby I (14 April 1678 – 8 March 1717) was the first and most well known of three generations of that name.

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The table shows the abundance of elements in Earth's crust.

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The abundance of a chemical element measures how common is the element relative to all other elements in a given environment.

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Acid phosphatase (acid phosphomonoesterase, phosphomonoesterase, glycerophosphatase, acid monophosphatase, acid phosphohydrolase, acid phosphomonoester hydrolase, uteroferrin, acid nucleoside diphosphate phosphatase, orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (acid optimum)) is a phosphatase, a type of enzyme, used to free attached phosphoryl groups from other molecules during digestion.

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In taxonomy, Acidianus is a genus of the Sulfolobaceae.

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Acidithiobacillus is a genus of Proteobacteria.

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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), previously known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), acute lung injury, adult respiratory distress syndrome, or shock lung, is a severe, life-threatening medical condition characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.

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Iron represents perhaps the best-known example for allotropy in a metal.

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Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.

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An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element.

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Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties.

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Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus.

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The alpha process, also known as the alpha ladder, is one of two classes of nuclear fusion reactions by which stars convert helium into heavier elements, the other being the triple-alpha process.

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Alzheimer's disease (AD), also known as Alzheimer disease, or just Alzheimer's, accounts for 60% to 70% of cases of dementia.

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Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Ammonium iron(II) sulfate, or Mohr's Salt, is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2·6H2O.

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Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.

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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).

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Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.

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Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene is a toxic organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the prototypical aromatic amine. Its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane and other industrial chemicals. Like most volatile amines, it possesses the odor of rotten fish. It ignites readily, burning with a smoky flame characteristic of aromatic compounds.

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Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.

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Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution; 26 August 17438 May 1794) was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

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The Archaea (or or; singular archaeon) constitute a domain or kingdom of single-celled microorganisms.

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Asmar (اسمار) is one of the major cities in northeastern of Kunar province of Afghanistan and is the district center of Bar Kunar district, which is located in the most southern part of the district at 983 m altitude in a river valley.

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Aspergillus niger or A. niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus.

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Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.

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The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity.

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The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atomic particle, sub-atomic particle, or molecule.

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In chemistry and physics, the atomic number of a chemical element (also known as its proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element, and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus.

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Austenite, also known as gamma-phase iron (γ-Fe), is a metallic, non-magnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron, with an alloying element.

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Bainite is a plate-like microstructure or phase morphology (not an equilibrium phase) that forms in steels at temperatures of 250–550 °C (depending on alloy content).

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Banded iron formations (also known as banded ironstone formations or BIFs) are distinctive units of sedimentary rock that are almost always of Precambrian age.

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Barium ferrate is the chemical compound of formula BaFeO4.

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Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS, BOP, BOF, and OSM), also known as Linz-Donawitz-Verfahren steelmaking or the oxygen converter processBrock and Elzinga, p. 50.

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Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (alternately Leguminosae) which are used for human or animal food.

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The Bechamp reduction is used to reduce aromatic nitro compounds to their corresponding anilines, using iron and hydrochloric acid.

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The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron prior to the open hearth furnace.

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Beta ferrite (β-Fe) and beta iron (β-iron) are obsolete terms for the paramagnetic form of alpha ferrite (α-Fe).

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of texts sacred in Judaism and Christianity.

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In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

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Bioinorganic chemistry is a field that examines the role of metals in biology.

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The black-eyed pea or black-eyed bean, a legume, is a subspecies of the cowpea, grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean.

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A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. whitesmith).

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A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally iron, but also others such as lead or copper.

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Blood is a bodily fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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A blood donation occurs when a person voluntarily has blood drawn and used for transfusions and/or made into biopharmaceutical medications by a process called fractionation (separation of whole-blood components).

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A bloomery is a type of furnace once widely used for smelting iron from its oxides.

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A blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing, documenting an architecture or an engineering design, using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets.

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Bluing is a passivation process in which steel is partially protected against rust, and is named after the blue-black appearance of the resulting protective finish.

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Bolivia (Buliwya; Wuliwya; Volívia), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek γένεσις, meaning "origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, Bərēšīṯ, "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Christian Old Testament.

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Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.

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Breakfast cereal (or just cereal) is a food made from processed grains that is often eaten as the first meal of the day.

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The Brinell scale characterizes the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece.

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The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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A building or edifice is a man-made structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.

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Caesium or cesium is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

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Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.

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A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon steel is steel in which the main interstitial alloying constituent is carbon in the range of 0.12–2.0%.

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Carbonyl iron is a highly pure (97.5% for grade S, 99.5+% for grade R) iron, prepared by chemical decomposition of purified iron pentacarbonyl.

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Carbothermic reactions involve the reduction of substances, often metal oxides, using carbon as the reducing agent.

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Carburizing, carburising (chiefly British English), or carburization is a heat treatment process in which iron or steel absorbs carbon liberated when the metal is heated in the presence of a carbon bearing material, such as charcoal or carbon monoxide, with the intent of making the metal harder.

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Carrier proteins facilitate the diffusion of different molecules, while channel proteins are involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.

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Case-hardening or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal object while allowing the metal deeper underneath to remain soft, thus forming a thin layer of harder metal (called the "case") at the surface.

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Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.

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Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).

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Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique used to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell.

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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black and the Caspian seas.

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The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cellular respiration is the set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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The cementation process is an obsolete technique for making steel by carburization of iron.

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Cementite, also known as iron carbide, is a chemical compound of iron and carbon, with the formula Fe3C (or Fe2C:Fe).

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The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.

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Charcoal is a light, black residue, consisting of carbon and any remaining ash, obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.

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Chelation describes a particular way that ions and molecules bind metal ions.

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A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).

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A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.

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Chemical milling or industrial etching is the subtractive manufacturing process of using baths of temperature-regulated etching chemicals to remove material to create an object with the desired shape.

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Chemistry World is a monthly chemistry news magazine published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.

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Chert is a fine-grained silica-rich microcrystalline, cryptocrystalline or microfibrous sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils.

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The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).

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Coagulopathy (also called a clotting disorder) is a condition in which the blood’s ability to coagulate (form clots) is impaired.

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A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is required for the protein's biological activity.

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Coke is a fuel with few impurities and a high carbon content, usually made from coal.

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Colorectal cancer (also known as colon cancer, rectal cancer, or bowel cancer) is the development of cancer in the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

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In medicine, coma (from the Greek κῶμα koma, meaning "deep sleep") is a state of unconsciousness in which a person: cannot be awakened; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet or natural satellite, which is chemically distinct from the underlying mantle.

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In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline liquid or solid.

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In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.

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Curie point, also called Curie Temperature, temperature at which certain magnetic materials undergo a sharp change in their magnetic properties.

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In chemistry, cyclopentadienyl is the radical formula C5H5.

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Cyclopentadienyliron dicarbonyl dimer is an organometallic compound with the formula (η5-C5H5)2Fe2(CO)4, also abbreviated Cp2Fe2(CO)4.

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Cytochromes are hemeproteins containing heme groups and are primarily responsible for the generation of ATP via electron transport.

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Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) belong to the superfamily of proteins containing a heme cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.

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Damascus steel was a type of steel used for manufacturing blades in the Near East made with wootz steel imported from India.

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In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.

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Deferoxamine (also known as desferrioxamine B, desferoxamine B, DFO-B, DFOA, DFB or desferal) is a bacterial siderophore produced by the Actinobacteria Streptomyces pilosus.

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Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.

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A diamond anvil cell (DAC) is a device used in scientific experiments.

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The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).

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A dietary supplement is intended to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient quantities.

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Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

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Direct-reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, is produced from direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets or fines) by a reducing gas produced from natural gas or coal.

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Disodium tetracarbonylferrate is the organometallic compound with the formula Na2.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule.

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Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg(CO3)2.

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Double beta decay is a radioactive decay process where a nucleus releases two beta rays as a single process.

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Ductile iron, also known as ductile cast iron, nodular cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron, spheroidal graphite cast iron and SG iron, is a type of cast iron invented in 1943 by Keith Millis.

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The duodenum, also known as dodecadactylum, is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.

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Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.

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Earth science or geoscience is an all-encompassing term that refers to the fields of science dealing with planet Earth.

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El Cerro Mutún (Spanish for "the Mountain Mutún") is an iron ore deposit.

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An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Eragrostis tef, teff, Williams lovegrass, annual bunch grass, taf (ጤፍ ṭēff; ጣፍ ṭaff), or xaafii (Oromo), is an annual grass, a species of lovegrass native to Ethiopia.

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In chemistry, esters are chemical compounds derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).

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An extinct radionuclide is one that scientists believe was formed by primordial processes, such as stellar nucleogenesis in the supernova(s) that contributed radioisotopes to the early solar system, about 4.6 billion years ago.

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Farina is a cereal food, frequently described as mild-tasting, usually served warm, made from cereal grains (usually semolina).

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Ferric refers to iron-containing materials or compounds.

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Ferrite, also known as α-ferrite (α-Fe) or alpha iron, is a materials science term for pure iron, with a body-centered cubic B.C.C crystal structure.

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A ferrite is a type of ceramic compound composed of iron oxide (Fe2O3) combined chemically with one or more additional metallic elements.

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Ferritin is a ubiquitous intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion.

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Ferrocene is an organometallic compound with the formula Fe(C5H5)2.

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Ferrocenium tetrafluoroborate is an organometallic compound with the formula BF4.

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Ferrous (Fe2+), in chemistry, indicates a divalent iron compound (+2 oxidation state), as opposed to ferric, which indicates a trivalent iron compound (+3 oxidation state).

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The large water-powered trip hammer (left) is used to gradually forge the heated iron into workable wrought iron.--> A finery forge is a hearth used to fine (i.e., produce, refine) wrought iron, through the decarburization of the pig iron.

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The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.

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A fish is any member of a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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The formation of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.

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A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings.

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Galvanization, or galvanisation, is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, to prevent rusting.

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A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth (congenital).

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Glycine (abbreviated as Gly or G) is the smallest of the 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins, and indeed is the smallest possible (having a hydrogen substituent as its side-chain).

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Graphite, archaically referred to as Plumbago, is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of carbon.

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Gray iron, or grey cast iron, is a type of cast iron that has a graphitic microstructure.

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Group 8 is a group of chemical element in the periodic table.

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The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.

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Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.

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The halogens or halogen elements are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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The heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heat treating is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material.

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Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.

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Heme (American English) or haem (British English) is a cofactor consisting of an Fe2+ (ferrous) ion contained in the centre of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin, made up of four pyrrolic groups joined together by methine bridges.

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Hemerythrin (also spelled haemerythrin; from Greek words αίμα.

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Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals.

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Hemoglobin; also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Sir Henry Bessemer (19 January 1813 – 15 March 1898) was an English inventor whose steelmaking process established the town of Sheffield as a major manufacturing centre.

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Henry Cort (?1741 – 23 May 1800) was an English ironmaster.

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Hexaferrum and epsilon iron (ε-Fe) are synonyms for the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) phase of iron that is stable only at extremely high pressure.

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See also: HSLA color space (hue, saturation, lightness, alpha) High-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA) is a type of alloy steel that provides better mechanical properties or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel.

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High-valent iron commonly denotes compounds and intermediates in which iron is found in a formal oxidation state > 3 that show a number of bonds > 6 with a coordination number ≤ 6.

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The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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The history of metallurgy in South Asia began prior to the 3rd millennium BCE and continued well into the British Raj.

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The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who established an empire centred on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.

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A hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat.

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Human iron metabolism is the set of chemical reactions maintaining human homeostasis of iron at both the systemic and cellular level.

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In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.

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In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.

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A hydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2), as shown below: Hydrogen uptake (1) is coupled to the reduction of electron acceptors such as oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and fumarate.

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Hydrolysis usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water.

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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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The Earth's inner core is the Earth's innermost part and according to seismological studies, it is a primarily solid ball with a radius of about 1220 kilometers, or 760 miles (about 70% of the Moon's radius).

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Inner sphere or bonded electron transfer is a redox chemical reaction that proceeds via a covalent linkage—a strong electronic interaction—between the oxidant and the reductant reactants.

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International Journal of Hematology is the official journal of the Japanese Society of Hematology.

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The International Resource Panel is a scientific panel of experts that aims to help nations use natural resources sustainably without compromising economic growth and human needs.

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Iron, when used metaphorically, refers to certain traits of the metal iron.

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The Iron Age is the period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron.

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Iron deficiency (sideropenia or hypoferremia) is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world.

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Iron fertilization is the intentional introduction of iron to the upper ocean to stimulate a phytoplankton bloom.

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Iron has a long and varied tradition in the mythology and folklore of the world.

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Iron meteorites are meteorites that consist overwhelmingly of an iron–nickel alloy known as meteoric iron that usually consists of two mineral phases: kamacite and taenite.

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Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.

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Iron overload, also known as haemochromatosis, indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause.

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Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.

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Iron pentacarbonyl, also known as iron carbonyl, is the compound with formula5.

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Iron supplements are dietary supplements containing iron that can be prescribed by a doctor for a medical reason, or purchased from a vitamin shop, drug store etc.

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Iron(II) chloride, also known as ferrous chloride, is the chemical compound of formula FeCl2.

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Iron(II) fumarate, also known as ferrous fumarate, is the iron(II) salt of fumaric acid, occurring as a reddish-orange powder, used to supplement iron intake.

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Iron(II) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula FeO.

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Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate is a salt with the formula FeSO4.

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Iron(II,III) oxide is the chemical compound with formula Fe3O4.

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Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state.

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Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.

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Iron(III) sulfate (or ferric sulfate), is the chemical compound with the formula Fe2(SO4)3, the sulfate of trivalent iron.

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Iron-56 (56Fe) is the most common isotope of iron.

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Iron-deficiency anemia, also spelled iron-deficiency anaemia, is defined as a decrease in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood due to not enough iron.

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The iron-responsive element-binding proteins, also known as IRE-BP, IRBP, IRP and IFR, bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) in the regulation of human iron metabolism.

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Iron-sulfur clusters are ensembles of iron and sulfide centres.

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The iron–sulfur world hypothesis is a set of proposals for the origin of life and the early evolution of life advanced in a series of articles between 1988 and 1992 by Günter Wächtershäuser, a Munich patent lawyer with a degree in chemistry, who had been encouraged and supported by philosopher Karl R. Popper to publish his ideas.

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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.

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Naturally occurring nickel (Ni) is composed of five stable isotopes;,,, and with being the most abundant (68.077% natural abundance).

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Jiangsu, earlier romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China, with its capital in Nanjing.

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John Peter Oleson (born 1946) is a Canadian classical archaeologist and historian of ancient technology.

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Joseph Hall 1789 – 1862, the inventor of 'Wet Puddling', was born in 1789 and apprenticed in 1806 as a puddler to use Henry Cort's puddling process.

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Kamacite is an alloy of iron and nickel, which is found on earth only in meteorites.

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Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, vegetable greens, leafy greens or salad greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots.

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Leghemoglobin (also leghaemoglobin or legoglobin) is a nitrogen or oxygen carrier, because naturally occurring oxygen and nitrogen interact similarly with this protein; and a hemoprotein found in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants.

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The lentil (Lens culinaris) is an edible pulse.

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In toxicology, the lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethality of a given substance or type of radiation.

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The Levant (Arabic: المشرق Naim, Samia, Dialects of the Levant, in Weninger, Stefan et al. (eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter (2011), p. 921) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Lipids are a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others.

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Lipoxygenases are a family of iron-containing enzymes that catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipids containing a cis,cis-1,4- pentadiene structure.

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This is a list of countries by iron ore production based on U.S. Geological Survey data.

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The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals.

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Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.

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Lorestan Province (also Luristan; Luri:لورسو, Lurisô; fa) is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains.

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Luhe County is a county of eastern Guangdong province, China.

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A machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing, or other forms of deformation.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to investigate the anatomy and physiology of the body in both health and disease.

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Magnetic storage or magnetic recording is the storage of data on a magnetised medium.

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Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.

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Magnetite is a mineral, one of the three common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group.

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Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).

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Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

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Marine invertebrates are all multicellular animals that inhabit a marine environment apart from the vertebrate members of the chordate phylum; invertebrates, lack a vertebral column.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.

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Martensite, named after the German metallurgist Adolf Martens (1850–1914), most commonly refers to a very hard form of steel crystalline structure, but it can also refer to any crystal structure that is formed by diffusionless transformation.

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Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that helps identify the amount and type of chemicals present in a sample by measuring the mass-to-charge ratio and abundance of gas-phase ions.

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The Mössbauer effect, or recoilless nuclear resonance fluorescence, is a physical phenomenon discovered by Rudolf Mössbauer in 1958.

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Mössbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect.

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The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میان‌رودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.

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Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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The report Metal Stocks in Society: Scientific Synthesis was the first of six scientific assessments on global metals to be published by the International Resource Panel (IRP) of the United Nations Environment Programme.

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In astronomy and physical cosmology, the metallicity or Z, is the fraction of mass of a star or other kind of astronomical object, beyond hydrogen (X) and helium (Y).

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Metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that contains a metal ion cofactor.

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Meteoric iron, sometimes meteoritic iron, is a native metal found in meteorites and made from the elements iron and nickel mainly in the form of the mineral phases kamacite and taenite.

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A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from a source such as an asteroid or a comet, which originates in outer space and survives its impact with the Earth's surface.

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A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body travelling through space.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methane monooxygenase, or MMO, is an enzyme capable of oxidizing the C-H bond in methane as well as other alkanes.

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No description.

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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous by-product of the refining of sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.

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Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation of physical movements of atoms and molecules in the context of N-body simulation.

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Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.

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A monocrystalline whisker is a filament of material that is structured as a single, defect-free crystal.

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Mutation Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes research papers in the area of mutation research which focus on fundamental mechanisms underlying the phenotypic and genotypic expression of genetic damage.

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Myoglobin is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals.

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The New Testament (Koine Greek: Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē) is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, which is based on the Hebrew Bible.

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Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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Nickel-62 is an isotope of nickel having 28 protons and 34 neutrons.

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Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

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Nitrobenzene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5NO2.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nitrogen fixation is a process in which nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is converted into ammonium (NH4+) or nitrogen dioxide, for example.

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Nitrogenases are enzymes used by some organisms to fix atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2).

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Nitrospirae is a phylum of bacteria.

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In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come very close and then collide at a very high speed and join to form a new nucleus.

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In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.

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Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.

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A nuclide (from nucleus) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.

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The Old Testament is the first section of the Christian Bible, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible, a collection of religious writings by ancient Israelites.

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Open hearth furnaces are one of a number of kinds of furnace where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to produce steel.

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Organometallic chemistry is the study of chemical compounds containing at least one bond between a carbon atom of an organic compound and a metal.

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The outer core of the Earth is a liquid layer about thick and composed of iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.

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The oxidation state, often called the oxidation number, is an indicator of the degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.

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Parkinson's disease (PD, also known as idiopathic or primary parkinsonism, hypokinetic rigid syndrome (HRS), or paralysis agitans) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system.

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Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, being less affected by environmental factors such as air and water.

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Pearlite is a two-phased, lamellar (or layered) structure composed of alternating layers of alpha-ferrite (88 wt%) and cementite (12 wt%) that occurs in some steels and cast irons.

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Pelletizing is the process of compressing or molding a material into the shape of a pellet.

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A permeable reactive barrier (PRB), also referred to as a permeable reactive treatment zone (PRTZ), is a developing technology that has been recognized as being a cost-effective technology for in situ (at the site) groundwater remediation.

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A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen–oxygen single bond or the peroxide anion, O. The O−O group is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.

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A phase transition is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase or state of matter to another one by heat transfer.

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A phosphate (PO43−) as an inorganic chemical is a salt of phosphoric acid.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Phytoplankton are the autotrophic components of the plankton community and a key factor of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.

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Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting iron ore.

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The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers.

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In planetary science, planetary differentiation is the process of separating out different constituents of a planetary body as a consequence of their physical or chemical behaviour, where the body develops into compositionally distinct layers; the denser materials of a planet sink to the center, while less dense materials rise to the surface.

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Planetary science (rarely planetology) is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.

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Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23 – August 25, AD 79), better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian.

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Potassium ferrate is the chemical compound with the formula K2FeO4.

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Potassium ferricyanide is the chemical compound with the formula K3.

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Potassium ferrocyanide is the inorganic compound with formula K4 · 3H2O.

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Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for the eggs they produce, their meat, their feathers, or sometimes as pets.

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In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in the chemical reaction that produces another compound.

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A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Prussian blue is a dark blue pigment with the idealized chemical formula Fe7(CN)18.

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Puddling was one step in one of the most important processes of making the first appreciable volumes of high-grade bar iron (malleable wrought iron) during the Industrial Revolution.

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The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2.

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The r-process is a nucleosynthesis process that occurs in core-collapse supernovae (see also supernova nucleosynthesis) and is responsible for the creation of approximately half of the neutron-rich atomic nuclei heavier than iron.

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In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has unpaired valency electrons.

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Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.

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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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The Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, commonly called the Pauly–Wissowa or simply RE, is a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship.

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A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.

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In gastronomy, red meat is mammal meat which is red when raw and not white when cooked; it includes the meat of most adult mammals.

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Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

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A refractory material is one that retains its strength at high temperatures.

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Regolith is a layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial material covering solid rock.

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Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), also known as ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides.

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Ribose is an organic compound with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.

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RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in the early morning of 15 April 1912 after colliding with an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton, UK, to New York City, US.

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A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by some conveyance, including a horse, cart, bicycle, or motor vehicle.

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The Rockwell scale is a hardness scale based on indentation hardness of a material.

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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences." It was formed in 1980 from the merger of the Chemical Society, the Royal Institute of Chemistry, the Faraday Society and the Society for Analytical Chemistry with a new Royal Charter and the dual role of learned society and professional body.

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Rubredoxins are a class of low-molecular-weight iron-containing proteins found in sulfur-metabolizing bacteria and archaea.

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Rust is an iron oxide, usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.

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In organometallic chemistry, a sandwich compound is a chemical compound featuring a metal bound by haptic covalent bonds to two arene ligands.

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Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.

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Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.

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A ship is a large buoyant watercraft.

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A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either beached on land or sunken to the bottom of a body of water.

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Circulatory shock, commonly known as shock, is a life-threatening medical condition of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.

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Siderophores (Greek: "iron carrier") are small, high-affinity iron chelating compounds secreted by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and grasses.

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Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula.

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In astrophysics, silicon burning is a very brief sequence of nuclear fusion reactions that occur in massive stars with a minimum of about 8–11 solar masses.

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Slag is the glass-like co-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.

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Smelting is a form of extractive metallurgy; its main use is to produce a base metal from its ore.

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The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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The term stable isotope has a similar meaning to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.

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In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French "inoxydable", is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.

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A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Steels are alloys of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, widely used in construction and other applications because of their high tensile strengths and low costs.

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Stellar nucleosynthesis is the process by which the natural abundances of the chemical elements within stars vary due to nuclear fusion reactions in the cores and overlying mantles of stars.

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In 1944, Walter Baade categorized groups of stars within the Milky Way from their spectra.

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A stress concentration (often called stress raisers or stress risers) is a location in an object where stress is concentrated.

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The substantia nigra is a brain structure located in the mesencephalon (midbrain) that plays an important role in reward, addiction, and movement.

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Sulfolobus is a genus of microorganism in the family Sulfolobaceae.

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Sulfur or sulphur (see spelling differences) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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A supernova is a stellar explosion that briefly outshines an entire galaxy, radiating as much energy as the Sun or any ordinary star is expected to emit over its entire life span, before fading from view over several weeks or months.

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A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.

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Taenite (Fe,Ni) is a mineral found naturally on Earth mostly in iron meteorites.

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The Tang dynasty, was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Telluric iron, also called native iron, is iron that originated on Earth, and is found in a metallic form rather than as an ore.

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A terrestrial planet, telluric planet or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.

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Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.

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The Iron Bridge is a bridge that crosses the River Severn in Shropshire, England.

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The Periodic Table of Videos is a series of videos on YouTube produced by Brady Haran, a former BBC video journalist, featuring Sir Martyn Poliakoff ("The Professor"), Peter Licence, Stephen Liddle, Debbie Kays, Neil Barnes, Sam Tang and others at the University of Nottingham.

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Thermite is a pyrotechnic composition of metal powder fuel and metal oxide.

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Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food made by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks.

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The tonne (British and SI; or metric ton (in the United States) is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to.

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In analytical chemistry, a trace element is an element in a sample that has an average concentration of less than 100 parts per million measured in atomic count or less than 100 micrograms per gram.

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Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron in biological fluids.

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In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has two possible meanings.

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Trevor Robert Bryce (born 1940) is an Australian Hittitologist specializing in ancient and classical Near-eastern history.

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Triiron dodecarbonyl is the organoiron compound with the formula Fe3(CO)12.

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In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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Tungsten, also known as wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W and atomic number 74.

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A Type II supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas) results from the rapid collapse and violent explosion of a massive star.

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Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS) or ultimate strength, is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before failing or breaking.

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The Universe is all of time and space and its contents.

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Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.

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The Vickers hardness test was developed in 1921 by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials.

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The Warring States period is a period in ancient China following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the victory of the state of Qin in 221 BC, creating a unified China under the Qin dynasty.

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Water (chemical formula: H2O) is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams, lakes, oceans and rain, and is the major constituent of the fluids of organisms.

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In crystallography, water of crystallization or water of hydration or crystallization water is water that occurs inside crystals.

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Watercress is an aquatic plant species with the botanical name Nasturtium officinale. This should not be confused with the quite different group of plants with the common name of nasturtium, botanical name Tropaeolum.

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Wootz steel is a steel characterized by a pattern of bands or sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix.

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Work hardening, also known as strain hardening or cold working, is the strengthening of a metal by plastic deformation.

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puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%), and has fibrous inclusions known as slag up to 2% by weight.

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Zerovalent iron and zerovalent metals (ZVI and ZVM, respectively) have a variety of applications ranging from filters to electrodes to trenches.

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Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers.

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1,1'-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene, commonly abbreviated dppf, is an organophosphorus compound commonly used as a ligand in homogeneous catalysis.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron

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