559 relations: A Latin Dictionary, Abraham Darby I, Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Abundance of the chemical elements, Acetic anhydride, Acetophenone, Acetylferrocene, Acid phosphatase, Acidianus, Acidithiobacillus, Actinometer, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Addition reaction, Adenosine triphosphate, Ages of Man, Agriculture, Allotropy, Alloy, Alloy steel, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Alpha process, Aluminium, Aluminium-26, Alzheimer's disease, Ammonia, Ammonium iron(II) sulfate, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Anemia, Anger, Angewandte Chemie, Aniline, Annalen der Physik, Annealing (metallurgy), Antoine Lavoisier, Aromaticity, Aryl, Asmar, Afghanistan, Aspergillus niger, Asteroid, Atharvaveda, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic mass, Atomic number, Austenite, Axial chirality, Bainite, Balto-Slavic languages, ..., Banded iron formation, Basic oxygen steelmaking, Bath stone, Bean, Bechamp reduction, Benzene, Berlin iron jewellery, Bessemer process, Bicarbonate, Bioinorganic chemistry, Black-eyed pea, Blacksmith, Blast furnace, Blood, Blood donation, Bloomery, Blueprint, Bluing (steel), Bohr effect, Brass, Bread, Breakfast cereal, Brinell scale, Bronze Age, Bunter (geology), Buntsandstein, Calcium carbonate, Calcium oxide, Car, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon steel, Carbonate, Carbonyl iron, Carbothermic reaction, Carboxyhemoglobin, Carburizing, Case-hardening, Cast iron, Catalase, Catalysis, Cathodic protection, Caucasus, Cell (biology), Cell growth, Cellular respiration, Celtic languages, Celts, Cementation process, Cementite, Chalcogen, Charcoal, Charge-transfer complex, Chelation, Chemical element, Chemical equation, Chemical formula, Chemical milling, Chemotherapy, Chert, Chickpea, China, Chinese language, Chlorobis(dppe)iron hydride, Christian Bohr, Chromium, Chromosome 6, Circulatory system, Cis–trans isomerism, Close-packing of equal spheres, Coagulopathy, Cobalt, Cobaltocene, Cofactor (biochemistry), Coke (fuel), Colorectal cancer, Coma, Conservation of mass, Copper, Crust (geology), Crystal structure, Cubic crystal system, Curie temperature, Cuticle, Cyanide, Cyclopentadiene, Cyclopentadienyliron dicarbonyl dimer, Cysteine, Cytochrome, Cytochrome P450, Damascus steel, Decay product, Deferoxamine, Deoxyribose, Dewar–Chatt–Duncanson model, Diamond anvil cell, Dicyclopentadiene, Dietary Reference Intake, Dietary supplement, Direct reduced iron, Diseases of Canaries, Disodium tetracarbonylferrate, DNA, DNA replication, Dolomite, Domestic canary, Donzdorf, Double beta decay, Ductile iron, Duodenum, Earth, Earth science, El Mutún, Elastic modulus, Electric arc furnace, Electron, Electron configuration, Electron transfer, Enol, Enthalpy of atomization, Enzyme, Equilibrium constant, Ernst Otto Fischer, Ester, Etruscan language, European Food Safety Authority, Extinct radionuclide, Ferrate(VI), Ferredoxin, Ferric, Ferric chloride test, Ferrite (magnet), Ferritin, Ferrocene, Ferrocenium tetrafluoroborate, Ferromagnetism, Ferropericlase, Ferrous, Finery forge, Fischer–Tropsch process, Fish, Flux (metallurgy), Food and Drug Administration, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Foundry, Frederick William III of Prussia, French language, Fulvalene, Galvanization, Gastrointestinal tract, Genetic disorder, Geoffrey Wilkinson, German Campaign of 1813, Glucose, Glycine, Graphite, Gray iron, Greeks, Group 8 element, Haber process, Half sandwich compound, Half-life, Halogen, Hückel's rule, Heart, Heat treating, Hematite, Heme, Hemerythrin, Hemoglobin, Henry Bessemer, Henry Cort, Hepcidin, Hesiod, Hexaferrum, Hexane, High-strength low-alloy steel, High-valent iron, Hippocampus, Histidine, History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent, Hittites, Hull (watercraft), Human iron metabolism, Hydrate, Hydrocarbon, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen halide, Hydrogenase, Hydrolysis, Igneous rock, Imidazole, Industrial Revolution, Inner core, Inner sphere electron transfer, Inorganic Chemistry (journal), Inorganic Syntheses, Inorganica Chimica Acta, International Journal of Hematology, International Resource Panel, Intravenous therapy, Iodine, Iron (metaphor), Iron Age, Iron Cross, Iron deficiency, Iron fertilization, Iron group, Iron in folklore, Iron meteorite, Iron nanoparticle, Iron ore, Iron overload, Iron oxide, Iron pentacarbonyl, Iron supplement, Iron(II) carbonate, Iron(II) chloride, Iron(II) fumarate, Iron(II) oxalate, Iron(II) oxide, Iron(II) sulfate, Iron(II,III) oxide, Iron(III) chloride, Iron(III) oxide, Iron(III) sulfate, Iron-56, Iron-deficiency anemia, Iron-oxidizing bacteria, Iron-responsive element-binding protein, Iron–platinum nanoparticle, Iron–sulfur cluster, Iron–sulfur protein, Isotope, Isotopes of nickel, Italian language, Japanese language, Jiangsu, John Peter Oleson, Joseph Hall (metallurgist), Journal of Chemical Education, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Kamacite, Ketone, Knölker complex, Latent iron deficiency, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lead, Leaf vegetable, Lentil, Lethal dose, Levant, Light-dependent reactions, Limestone, Lipid, Lipoxygenase, List of copper alloys, List of countries by iron ore production, Lithuanian language, Liver, Liver failure, Lorestan Province, Ludwig Mond, Luhe County, Machine tool, Magnesium, Magnetic resonance imaging, Magnetic storage, Magnetite, Malnutrition, Manganese, Mantle (geology), Marine invertebrates, Mars surface color, Martensite, Mass spectrometry, Mössbauer effect, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Melting point, Menopause, Mercury (element), Metabolic acidosis, Metabolism, Metal, Metal Stocks in Society report, Metallicity, Metallocene, Metalloprotein, Metamorphoses, Meteoric iron, Meteorite, Meteoroid, Methane, Methane monooxygenase, Methanol, Methionine, Michael Witzel, Middle Ages, Mineral, Moiety (chemistry), Molasses, Molecular dynamics, Molecular orbital theory, Molybdenum, Monocrystalline whisker, Mussel, Myoglobin, Nature (journal), Neoplasm, Nickel, Nickel-62, Niels Bohr, Nitric acid, Nitrobenzene, Nitrogen, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogenase, Nitrospirae, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Non-stoichiometric compound, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear Physics (journal), Nuclear reaction, Nucleosynthesis, Nuclide, Ochre, Old English, Open hearth furnace, Organic Syntheses, Organoiron chemistry, Organometallic chemistry, Osmium, Outer core, Oxalate, Oxidation state, Oxygen, Oyster, Paint, Paramagnetism, Parkinson's disease, Passivation (chemistry), Pearlite, Pelletizing, Pentlandite, Periclase, Periodic Videos, Perovskite, Peroxide, Phenol, Phosphate, Phosphorus, Phosphorus trifluoride, Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, Phytoplankton, Pig iron, Pigment, Planetary core, Planetary differentiation, Planetary science, Platinum Metals Review, Pliny the Elder, Polish language, Polymer, Polysulfide, Porphyrin, Portuguese language, Potassium ferrate, Potassium ferricyanide, Potassium ferrioxalate, Potassium ferrocyanide, Poultry, Printed circuit board, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protein, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Proton decay, Prussian blue, Puddling (metallurgy), Pyrite, Pyrrhotite, Quantum tunnelling, R-process, Radical (chemistry), Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, Red blood cell, Red giant, Red meat, Redox, Reduction potential, Reference Daily Intake, Refractory, Regolith, Reviews of Modern Physics, Ribonucleotide reductase, Ribose, Rigveda, Ringwoodite, RMS Titanic, Road, Robert Burns Woodward, Rockwell scale, Roman Empire, Romance languages, Room temperature, Royal family, Rubredoxin, Russian language, Rust, Ruthenium, Salt (chemistry), Sandwich compound, Scandium, Semitic languages, Sewage treatment, Shale, Ship, Shipwreck, Shock (circulatory), Shogakukan, Siderite, Siderophore, Silicate perovskite, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Silicon-burning process, Simplified Chinese characters, Sino-Tibetan languages, Slag, Smelting, Sodium chloride, Sodium ferrioxalate, Solar System, Song dynasty, Spanish language, Spectrochemical series, Spin (physics), Spin states (d electrons), Sponge iron reaction, Stability constants of complexes, Stable isotope ratio, Stainless steel, Star, Steam engine, Steel, Stellar population, Stress concentration, Structural formula, Substantia nigra, Substitution reaction, Sulfolobus, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Supernova, Supernova remnant, Taenite, Tang dynasty, Telluric iron, Terrestrial planet, Tetrakis(methylammonium) hexachloroferrate(III) chloride, The Iron Bridge, The New York Times, Thermite, Thiocyanate, Timeline of the far future, Tofu, Tokyo, Tonne, Toughness, Traditional Chinese characters, Transfer hydrogenation, Transferrin, Transition metal, Transition zone (Earth), Triiron dodecacarbonyl, Triple point, Tungsten, Tutankhamun, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger, Type II supernova, Ultimate tensile strength, United Nations Environment Programme, Universe, Valence bond theory, Vanadium, Vedas, Vickers hardness test, Warring States period, Water, Water of crystallization, Watercress, Wüstite, Weathering, Wootz steel, Work hardening, Works and Days, Wrought iron, X-ray crystallography, Zeise's salt, Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Zimbabwe, 1,1'-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene, 1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane. 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A Latin Dictionary (or Harpers' Latin Dictionary, often referred to as Lewis and Short or L&S) is a popular English-language lexicographical work of the Latin language, published by Harper and Brothers of New York in 1879 and printed simultaneously in the United Kingdom by Oxford University Press.
Abraham Darby, in his later life called Abraham Darby the Elder, now sometimes known for convenience as Abraham Darby I (14 April 1678 – 8 March 1717) was the first and best known of several men of that name.
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.
Acetic anhydride, or ethanoic anhydride, is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3CO)2O.
Acetophenone is the organic compound with the formula C6H5C(O)CH3 (also represented by the pseudoelement symbols PhAc or BzMe).
Acetylferrocene is the organoiron compound with the formula (C5H5)Fe(C5H4COMe).
Acid phosphatase (acid phosphomonoesterase, phosphomonoesterase, glycerophosphatase, acid monophosphatase, acid phosphohydrolase, acid phosphomonoester hydrolase, uteroferrin, acid nucleoside diphosphate phosphatase, orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (acid optimum)) is a phosphatase, a type of enzyme, used to free attached phosphoryl groups from other molecules during digestion.
In taxonomy, Acidianus is a genus of the Sulfolobaceae.
Acidithiobacillus is a genus of the Acidithiobacillia in the "Proteobacteria".
Actinometers are instruments used to measure the heating power of radiation.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical condition occurring in critically ill or critically wounded patients characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs.
An addition reaction, in organic chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form the larger one (the adduct).
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
The Ages of Man are the stages of human existence on the Earth according to Greek mythology and its subsequent Roman interpretation.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
The alpha process, also known as the alpha ladder, is one of two classes of nuclear fusion reactions by which stars convert helium into heavier elements, the other being the triple-alpha process.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium-26, 26Al, is a radioactive isotope of the chemical element aluminium, decaying by either of the modes beta-plus or electron capture, both resulting in the stable nuclide magnesium-26.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammonium iron(II) sulfate, or Mohr's salt, is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2·6H2O.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Anger or wrath is an intense negative emotion.
Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.
Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
In the context of organic molecules, aryl is any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring, usually an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as phenyl and naphthyl.
Asmar (اسمار) is one of the major cities in northeastern of Kunar province of Afghanistan and is the district center of Bar Kunar district, which is located in the most southern part of the district at 983 m altitude in a river valley.
Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, from and veda, meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Austenite, also known as gamma-phase iron (γ-Fe), is a metallic, non-magnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron, with an alloying element.
Axial chirality is a special case of chirality in which a molecule does not possess a stereogenic center (the most common form of chirality in organic compounds) but an axis of chirality – an axis about which a set of substituents is held in a spatial arrangement that is not superposable on its mirror image.
Bainite is a plate-like microstructure that forms in steels at temperatures of 125–550 °C (depending on alloy content).
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Banded iron formations (also known as banded ironstone formations or BIFs) are distinctive units of sedimentary rock that are almost always of Precambrian age.
Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS, BOP, BOF, or OSM), also known as Linz–Donawitz-steelmaking or the oxygen converter processBrock and Elzinga, p. 50.
Bath Stone is an oolitic limestone comprising granular fragments of calcium carbonate.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
The Bechamp reduction is used to reduce aromatic nitro compounds to their corresponding anilines, using iron and hydrochloric acid.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Berlin iron jewellery refers to articles of cast-iron jewellery that were made during the early 19th century in Germany.
The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Bioinorganic chemistry is a field that examines the role of metals in biology.
The black-eyed pea, black-eyed bean or goat pea, a legume, is a subspecies of the cowpea, grown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean.
A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. whitesmith).
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
A blood donation occurs when a person voluntarily has blood drawn and used for transfusions and/or made into biopharmaceutical medications by a process called fractionation (separation of whole-blood components).
A bloomery is a type of furnace once used widely for smelting iron from its oxides.
A blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing, an architectural plan, or an engineering design, using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets.
Bluing is a passivation process in which steel is partially protected against rust, and is named after the blue-black appearance of the resulting protective finish.
The Bohr effect is a physiological phenomenon first described in 1904 by the Danish physiologist Christian Bohr: hemoglobin's oxygen binding affinity (see Oxygen–haemoglobin dissociation curve) is inversely related both to acidity and to the concentration of carbon dioxide.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
Breakfast cereal is a food product made from processed cereal grains that is often eaten as a breakfast in primarily Western societies.
The Brinell scale characterizes the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bunter Pebble Beds are sandstone deposits containing rounded pebbles.
The Buntsandstein (German for coloured or colourful sandstone) or Bunter sandstone is a lithostratigraphic and allostratigraphic unit (a sequence of rock strata) in the subsurface of large parts of west and central Europe.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
Carbonyl iron is a highly pure (97.5% for grade S, 99.5+% for grade R) iron, prepared by chemical decomposition of purified iron pentacarbonyl.
Carbothermic reactions involve the reduction of substances, often metal oxides (O2^2-), using carbon as the reducing agent.
Carboxyhemoglobin or carboxyhaemoglobin (symbol COHb or HbCO) is a stable complex of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin (Hb) that forms in red blood cells upon contact with carbon monoxide (CO).
Carburizing, carburising (chiefly English), or carburization is a heat treatment process in which iron or steel absorbs carbon while the metal is heated in the presence of a carbon-bearing material, such as charcoal or carbon monoxide.
Case-hardening or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal object while allowing the metal deeper underneath to remain soft, thus forming a thin layer of harder metal (called the "case") at the surface.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique used to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The cementation process is an obsolete technology for making steel by carburization of iron.
Cementite (or iron carbide) is a compound of iron and carbon, more precisely an intermediate transition metal carbide with the formula Fe3C.
The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
A charge-transfer complex (CT complex) or electron-donor-acceptor complex is an association of two or more molecules, or of different parts of one large molecule, in which a fraction of electronic charge is transferred between the molecular entities.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chemical milling or industrial etching is the subtractive manufacturing process of using baths of temperature-regulated etching chemicals to remove material to create an object with the desired shape.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chert is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline silica, the mineral form of silicon dioxide (SiO2).
The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chlorobis(dppe)iron hydride is a coordination complex with the formula HFeCl(dppe)2, where dppe is the bidentate ligand 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane.
Christian Harald Lauritz Peter Emil Bohr (1855–1911) was a Danish physician, father of the physicist and Nobel laureate Niels Bohr, as well as the mathematician and football player Harald Bohr and grandfather of another physicist and nobel laureate Aage Bohr.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Cis–trans isomerism, also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, is a term used in organic chemistry.
In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).
A bleeding disorder (coagulopathy) is a condition that affects the way the blood clots.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Cobaltocene, known also as bis(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt(II) or even "bis Cp cobalt", is an organocobalt compound with the formula Co(C5H5)2.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
The law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as system's mass cannot change, so quantity cannot be added nor removed.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
In physics and materials science, the Curie temperature (TC), or Curie point, is the temperature above which certain materials lose their permanent magnetic properties, to be replaced by induced magnetism.
A cuticle, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
Cyclopentadiene is an organic compound with the formula C5H6.
Cyclopentadienyliron dicarbonyl dimer is an organometallic compound with the formula (η5-C5H5)2Fe2(CO)4, also abbreviated Cp2Fe2(CO)4.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Cytochromes are heme-containing proteins.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Damascus steel was the forged steel composing the blades of swords smithed in the Near East from ingots of wootz steel.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
Deferoxamine (DFOA), sold under the brand name Desferal, is a medication that binds iron and aluminium.
Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.
The Dewar–Chatt–Duncanson model is a model in organometallic chemistry that explains the type of chemical bonding between an alkene and a metal (pi-complex) in certain organometallic compounds.
A diamond anvil cell (DAC) is a high-pressure device used in scientific experiments.
Dicyclopentadiene, abbreviated DCPD, is a chemical compound with formula C10H12.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Direct-reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, is produced from the direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets, or fines) to iron by a reducing gas or elemental carbon produced from natural gas or coal.
Diseases of Canaries is a 1933 book by Robert Stroud, better known by his prison nickname of "The Bird Man of Alcatraz".
Disodium tetracarbonylferrate is the organoiron compound with the formula Na2.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
The domestic canary, often simply known as the canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica), is a domesticated form of the wild canary, a small songbird in the finch family originating from the Macaronesian Islands (The Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands).
Donzdorf is a town in the district of Göppingen in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany.
In nuclear physics, double beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which two protons are simultaneously transformed into two neutrons, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
Ductile iron, also known as ductile cast iron, nodular cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron, spheroidal graphite cast iron and SG iron, is a type of graphite-rich cast iron discovered in 1943 by Keith Millis.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
El Cerro Mutún (Spanish for "the Mountain Mutún") is an iron ore deposit.
An elastic modulus (also known as modulus of elasticity) is a quantity that measures an object or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is applied to it.
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron relocates from an atom or molecule to another such chemical entity.
Enols, or more formally, alkenols, are a type of reactive structure or intermediate in organic chemistry that is represented as an alkene (olefin) with a hydroxyl group attached to one end of the alkene double bond.
The enthalpy of atomization (also atomisation in British spelling) is the enthalpy change that accompanies the total separation of all atoms in a chemical substance (either a chemical element or a chemical compound).
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction is the value of its reaction quotient at chemical equilibrium, a state approached by a dynamic chemical system after sufficient time has elapsed at which its composition has no measurable tendency towards further change.
Ernst Otto Fischer (10 November 1918 – 23 July 2007) was a German chemist who won the Nobel Prize for pioneering work in the area of organometallic chemistry.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
An extinct radionuclide is a radionuclide that was formed by nucleosynthesis before the formation of the Solar System, about 4.6 billion years ago, and incorporated into it, but has since decayed to virtually zero abundance, due to having a half-life shorter than about 100 million years.
Ferrate(VI) is the inorganic anion with the chemical formula 2−.
Ferredoxins (from Latin ferrum: iron + redox, often abbreviated "fd") are iron-sulfur proteins that mediate electron transfer in a range of metabolic reactions.
Ferric refers to iron-containing materials or compounds.
The ferric chloride test is used to determine the presence of phenols in a given sample or compound (for instance natural phenols in a plant extract).
A ferrite is a ceramic material made by mixing and firing large proportions iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3, rust) blended with small proportions of one or more additional metallic elements, such as barium, manganese, nickel, and zinc.
Ferritin is a universal intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion.
Ferrocene is an organometallic compound with the formula Fe(C5H5)2.
Ferrocenium tetrafluoroborate is an organometallic compound with the formula BF4.
Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.
Ferropericlase or magnesiowüstite is a magnesium/iron oxide ((Mg,Fe)O) that is interpreted to be one of the main constituents of the Earth's lower mantle together with silicate perovskite, a magnesium/iron silicate with a perovskite structure.
In chemistry, ferrous (Fe2+), indicates a divalent iron compound (+2 oxidation state), as opposed to ferric, which indicates a trivalent iron compound (+3 oxidation state).
A finery forge is a hearth used to fine (i.e., produce, refine) wrought iron, through the decarburization of the pig iron.
The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
In metallurgy, a flux (derived from Latin fluxus meaning “flow”) is a chemical cleaning agent, flowing agent, or purifying agent.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings.
Frederick William III (Friedrich Wilhelm III) (3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fulvalene (bicyclopentadienylidene) is the member of the fulvalene family with the molecular formula C10H8.
Galvanization or galvanizing is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, to prevent rusting.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson FRS (14 July 1921 – 26 September 1996) was a Nobel laureate English chemist who pioneered inorganic chemistry and homogeneous transition metal catalysis.
The German Campaign (lit) was fought in 1813.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Gray iron, or grey cast iron, is a type of cast iron that has a graphitic microstructure.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Group 8 is a group of chemical element in the periodic table.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
Half sandwich compounds are organometallic complexes that feature a cyclic polyhapto ligand bound to an MLn center, where L is a unidentate ligand.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
In organic chemistry, Hückel's rule estimates whether a planar ring molecule will have aromatic properties.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heat treating (or heat treatment) is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Hemerythrin (also spelled haemerythrin; blood, red) is an oligomeric protein responsible for oxygen (O2) transport in the marine invertebrate phyla of sipunculids, priapulids, brachiopods, and in a single annelid worm genus, Magelona.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Sir Henry Bessemer (19 January 1813 – 15 March 1898) was an English inventor, whose steelmaking process would become the most important technique for making steel in the nineteenth century for almost one century from year 1856 to 1950.
Henry Cort (c. 1740 – 23 May 1800) was an English ironmaster.
Hepcidin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAMP gene.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
Hexaferrum and epsilon iron (ε-Fe) are synonyms for the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) phase of iron that is stable only at extremely high pressure.
Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.
High-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA) is a type of alloy steel that provides better mechanical properties or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel.
High-valent iron commonly denotes compounds and intermediates in which iron is found in a formal oxidation state > 3 that show a number of bonds > 6 with a coordination number ≤ 6.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The history of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent began prior to the 3rd millennium BCE and continued well into the British Raj.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat.
Human iron metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that maintain human homeostasis of iron at the systemic and cellular level.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogen halides are diatomic inorganic compounds with the formula HX where X is one of the halogens: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine.
A hydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2), as shown below: Hydrogen uptake is coupled to the reduction of electron acceptors such as oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and fumarate.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Imidazole is an organic compound with the formula C3N2H4.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Earth's inner core is the Earth's innermost part.
Inner sphere or bonded electron transfer is a redox chemical reaction that proceeds via a covalent linkage—a strong electronic interaction—between the oxidant and the reductant reactants.
Inorganic Chemistry is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society since 1962.
Inorganic Syntheses is a book series which aims to publish "detailed and foolproof" procedures for the synthesis of inorganic compounds.
Inorganica Chimica Acta is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1967 that covers original research and reviews of fundamental and applied aspects of inorganic chemistry.
International Journal of Hematology is the official journal of the Japanese Society of Hematology.
The International Resource Panel is a scientific panel of experts that aims to help nations use natural resources sustainably without compromising economic growth and human needs.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iron, when used metaphorically, refers to certain traits of the metal iron.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
The Iron Cross (abbreviated EK) is a former military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945).
Iron deficiency, or sideropaenia, is the state in which a body has not enough (or not qualitatively enough) iron to supply its eventual needs.
Iron fertilization is the intentional introduction of iron fines to iron-poor areas of the ocean surface to stimulate phytoplankton production.
In chemistry and physics, the iron group refers to elements that are in some way related to iron.
Iron has a long and varied tradition in the mythology and folklore of the world.
Iron meteorites are meteorites that consist overwhelmingly of an iron–nickel alloy known as meteoric iron that usually consists of two mineral phases: kamacite and taenite.
Nanoscale iron particles are sub-micrometer particles of iron metal.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Iron overload (variously known as haemochromatosis, hemochromatosis, hemochromocytosis, Celtic curse, Irish illness, British gene, Scottish sickness and bronzing diabetes) indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause.
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.
Iron pentacarbonyl, also known as iron carbonyl, is the compound with formula5.
Iron supplements, also known as iron salts and iron pills, are a number of iron formulations used to treat and prevent iron deficiency including iron deficiency anemia.
iron(II) carbonate, or ferrous carbonate, is a chemical compound with formula, that occurs naturally as the mineral siderite.
Iron(II) chloride, also known as ferrous chloride, is the chemical compound of formula FeCl2.
Iron(II) fumarate, also known as ferrous fumarate, is the iron(II) salt of fumaric acid, occurring as a reddish-orange powder, used to supplement iron intake.
Ferrous oxalate, or iron(II) oxalate, is a inorganic compound with the formula FeC2O4(H2O)x where x is typically 2.
Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula FeO.
Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO4·xH2O.
iron(II,III) oxide is the chemical compound with formula Fe3O4.
Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state.
Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.
Iron(III) sulfate (or ferric sulfate), is the chemical compound with the formula Fe2(SO4)3.
Iron-56 (56Fe) is the most common isotope of iron.
Iron-deficiency anemia is anemia caused by a lack of iron.
Iron-oxidizing bacteria are chemotrophic bacteria that derive the energy they need to live and multiply by oxidizing dissolved ferrous iron.
The iron-responsive element-binding proteins, also known as IRE-BP, IRBP, IRP and IFR, bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) in the regulation of human iron metabolism.
Iron–platinum nanoparticles (FePt NPs) are 3D superlattices composed of an approximately equal atomic ratio of Fe and Pt.
Iron–sulfur clusters are molecular ensembles of iron and sulfide.
Iron–sulfur proteins are proteins characterized by the presence of iron–sulfur clusters containing sulfide-linked di-, tri-, and tetrairon centers in variable oxidation states.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Naturally occurring nickel (28Ni) is composed of five stable isotopes;,,, and with being the most abundant (68.077% natural abundance).
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
John Peter Oleson (born 1946) is a Canadian classical archaeologist and historian of ancient technology.
Joseph Hall 1789 – 1862, the inventor of 'Wet Puddling', was born in 1789 and apprenticed in 1806 as a puddler to use Henry Cort's puddling process.
The Journal of Chemical Education is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal available in both print and electronic versions.
The Journal of Organometallic Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier, covering research on organometallic chemistry.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
Kamacite is an alloy of iron and nickel, which is found on Earth only in meteorites.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
The Knölker complex is an organoiron compound, which is a catalyst for transfer hydrogenation.
Latent iron deficiency (LID), also called iron-deficient erythropoiesis, is a medical condition in which there is evidence of iron deficiency without anemia (normal hemoglobin level).
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Leaf vegetables, also called leafy greens, salad greens, pot herbs, vegetable greens, or simply greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots.
The lentil (Lens culinaris or Lens esculenta) is an edible pulse.
In toxicology, the lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethal toxicity of a given substance or type of radiation.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions take place on the thylakoid membranes.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Lipoxygenases are a family of (non-heme), iron-containing enzymes most of which catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipids containing a cis,cis-1,4- pentadiene into cell signaling agents that serve diverse roles as autocrine signals that regulate the function of their parent cells, paracrine signals that regulate the function of nearby cells, and endocrine signals that regulate the function of distant cells.
Copper alloys are metal alloys that have copper as their principal component.
This is a list of countries by iron ore production based on U.S. Geological Survey data.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.
Lorestan Province (استان لرستان, also written Luristan, Lurestan, or Loristan), is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains.
Ludwig Mond (7 March 1839 – 11 December 1909) was a German-born chemist and industrialist who took British nationality.
Luhe County is a county of eastern Guangdong province, China.
A machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing, or other forms of deformation.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Magnetic storage or magnetic recording is the storage of data on a magnetized medium.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats.
The surface of the planet Mars appears reddish from a distance because of rusty dust suspended in the atmosphere.
Martensite, named after the German metallurgist Adolf Martens (1850–1914), most commonly refers to a very hard form of steel crystalline structure, but it can also refer to any crystal structure that is formed by diffusionless transformation.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
The Mössbauer effect, or recoilless nuclear resonance fluorescence, is a physical phenomenon discovered by Rudolf Mössbauer in 1958.
Mössbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
The report Metal Stocks in Society: Scientific Synthesis was the first of six scientific assessments on global metals to be published by the International Resource Panel (IRP) of the United Nations Environment Programme.
In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.
A metallocene is a compound typically consisting of two cyclopentadienyl anions (abbreviated Cp) bound to a metal center (M) in the oxidation state II, with the resulting general formula (C5H5)2M.
Metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that contains a metal ion cofactor.
The Metamorphoses (Metamorphōseōn librī: "Books of Transformations") is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus.
Meteoric iron, sometimes meteoritic iron, is a native metal found in meteorites and made from the elements iron and nickel mainly in the form of the mineral phases kamacite and taenite.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methane monooxygenase, or MMO, is an enzyme capable of oxidizing the C-H bond in methane as well as other alkanes.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943) is a German-American philologist and academic.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
In organic chemistry, a moiety is a part of a molecule.
Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation method for studying the physical movements of atoms and molecules.
In chemistry, molecular orbital (MO) theory is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
A monocrystalline whisker is a filament of material that is structured as a single, defect-free crystal.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
Myoglobin (symbol Mb or MB) is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nickel-62 is an isotope of nickel having 28 protons and 34 neutrons.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrobenzene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5NO2.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Nitrogenases are enzymes that are produced by certain bacteria, such as cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
Nitrospirae is a phylum of bacteria.
The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
Non-stoichiometric compounds are chemical compounds, almost always solid inorganic compounds, having elemental composition whose proportions cannot be represented by integers; most often, in such materials, some small percentage of atoms are missing or too many atoms are packed into an otherwise perfect lattice work.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
Ochre (British English) (from Greek: ὤχρα, from ὠχρός, ōkhrós, pale) or ocher (American English) is a natural clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Open hearth furnaces are one of a number of kinds of furnace where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to produce steel.
Organic Syntheses is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1921.
Organoiron chemistry is the chemistry of iron compounds containing a carbon-to-iron chemical bond.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
The outer core of the Earth is a fluid layer about thick and composed of mostly iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.
Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is the dianion with the formula, also written.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Pearlite is a two-phased, lamellar (or layered) structure composed of alternating layers of ferrite (88 wt%) and cementite (12 wt%) that occurs in some steels and cast irons.
Pelletizing is the process of compressing or molding a material into the shape of a pellet.
Pentlandite is an iron-nickel sulfide, (Fe,Ni)9S8.
Periclase is a magnesium mineral that occurs naturally in contact metamorphic rocks and is a major component of most basic refractory bricks.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Perovskite (pronunciation) is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium titanate (Ca Ti O3).
Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Phosphorus trifluoride (formula PF3), is a colorless and odorless gas.
Physics and Chemistry of Minerals is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published monthly by Springer Science+Business Media.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers.
In planetary science, planetary differentiation is the process of separating out different constituents of a planetary body as a consequence of their physical or chemical behaviour, where the body develops into compositionally distinct layers; the denser materials of a planet sink to the center, while less dense materials rise to the surface, generally in a magma ocean.
Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.
Platinum Metals Review, renamed in 2014 as Johnson Matthey Technology Review, is a quarterly, peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing reports on scientific research on the platinum group metals and related industrial developments.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polysulfides are a class of chemical compounds containing chains of sulfur atoms.
Porphyrins (/phɔɹfɚɪn/ ''POUR-fer-in'') are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Potassium ferrate is the chemical compound with the formula K2FeO4.
Potassium ferricyanide is the chemical compound with the formula K3.
Potassium ferrioxalate, also known as potassium trisoxalatoferrate(III), is a chemical compound with the formula, where iron is in the +3 oxidation state.
Potassium ferrocyanide is the inorganic compound with formula K4·3H2O.
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
In particle physics, proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, such as a neutral pion and a positron.
Prussian blue is a dark blue pigment produced by oxidation of ferrous ferrocyanide salts.
Puddling was one step in one of the most important processes of making the first appreciable volumes of high-grade bar iron (malleable wrought iron) during the Industrial Revolution.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
Pyrrhotite is an iron sulfide mineral with the formula Fe(1-x)S (x.
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
The Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, commonly called the Pauly–Wissowa or simply RE, is a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
In gastronomy, red meat is commonly red when raw and a dark color after it is cooked, in contrast to white meat, which is pale in color before and after cooking.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reduction potential (also known as redox potential, oxidation / reduction potential, ORP, pE, ε, or E_) is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced.
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
A refractory mineral is a mineral that is resistant to decomposition by heat, pressure, or chemical attack.
Regolith is a layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial deposits covering solid rock.
Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.
Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), also known as ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase (rNDP), is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides.
Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Ringwoodite is a high-pressure phase of Mg2SiO4 formed at high temperatures and pressures of the Earth's mantle between depth.
RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in the early hours of 15 April 1912, after colliding with an iceberg during its maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Robert Burns Woodward (April 10, 1917 – July 8, 1979) was an American organic chemist.
The Rockwell scale is a hardness scale based on indentation hardness of a material.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family.
Rubredoxins are a class of low-molecular-weight iron-containing proteins found in sulfur-metabolizing bacteria and archaea.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.
Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
In organometallic chemistry, a sandwich compound is a chemical compound featuring a metal bound by haptic covalent bonds to two arene ligands.
Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.
A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either beached on land or sunken to the bottom of a body of water.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
is a Japanese publisher of dictionaries, literature, manga, non-fiction, DVDs, and other media in Japan.
Siderite is a mineral composed of iron(II) carbonate (FeCO3).
Siderophores (Greek: "iron carrier") are small, high-affinity iron-chelating compounds secreted by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi and serving to transport iron across cell membranes.
Silicate perovskite (or bridgmanite) is (Mg,Fe)SiO3 and CaSiO3 (calcium silicate) when arranged in a perovskite structure.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
In astrophysics, silicon burning is a very brief sequence of nuclear fusion reactions that occur in massive stars with a minimum of about 8-11 solar masses.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium ferrioxalate, also known as sodium oxalatoferrate, is a chemical compound with the formula Na3, where iron is in the +3 oxidation state.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A spectrochemical series is a list of ligands ordered on ligand strength and a list of metal ions based on oxidation number, group and its identity.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
Spin states when describing transition metal coordination complexes refers to the potential spin configurations of the metal center's d electrons.
The sponge iron reaction (SIR) is a chemical process based on redox cycling of an iron-based contact mass, the first cycle is a conversion step between iron metal (Fe) and wuestite (FeO), the second cycle is a conversion step between wuestite (FeO) and magnetite (Fe3O4).
A stability constant (formation constant, binding constant) is an equilibrium constant for the formation of a complex in solution.
The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
During 1944, Walter Baade categorized groups of stars within the Milky Way into bluer stars associated with the spiral arms and the general position of yellow stars near the central galactic bulge or within globular star clusters.
A stress concentration (often called stress raisers or stress risers) is a location in an object where stress is concentrated.
The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphic representation of the molecular structure, showing how the atoms are arranged.
The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.
Substitution reaction (also known as single displacement reaction or single substitution reaction) is a chemical reaction during which one functional group in a chemical compound is replaced by another functional group.
Sulfolobus is a genus of microorganism in the family Sulfolobaceae.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.
Taenite (Fe,Ni) is a mineral found naturally on Earth mostly in iron meteorites.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Telluric iron, also called native iron, is iron that originated on Earth, and is found in a metallic form rather than as an ore.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
Tetrakis(methylammonium) hexachloroferrate(III) chloride is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3NH3)4Cl.
The Iron Bridge is a bridge that crosses the River Severn in Shropshire, England.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermite is a pyrotechnic composition of metal powder, which serves as fuel, and metal oxide.
Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.
While predictions of the future can never be absolutely certain, present understanding in various scientific fields allows for the prediction of far-future events, if only in the broadest outline.
Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food cultivated by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
Transfer hydrogenation is the addition of hydrogen (H2; dihydrogen in inorganic and organometallic chemistry) to a molecule from a source other than gaseous H2.
Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron (Fe) in biological fluids.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
The transition zone is part of the Earth’s mantle, and is located between the lower mantle and the upper mantle, between a depth of 410 and 660 km (250 to 400 mi).
Triiron dodecarbonyl is the organoiron compound with the formula Fe3(CO)12.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period.
Tutankhamun's iron dagger closely correlates with meteoric composition, including homogeneity.
A Type II supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas) results from the rapid collapse and violent explosion of a massive star.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
In chemistry, valence bond (VB) theory is one of two basic theories, along with molecular orbital (MO) theory, that were developed to use the methods of quantum mechanics to explain chemical bonding.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The Vickers hardness test was developed in 1921 by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
In chemistry, water of crystallization or water of hydration or crystallization water is water molecules that are present inside crystals.
Watercress is an aquatic plant species with the botanical name Nasturtium officinale. This should not be confused with the profoundly different and unrelated group of plants with the common name of nasturtium, within the genus Tropaeolum.
Wüstite (FeO) is a mineral form of iron(II) oxide found with meteorites and native iron.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Wootz steel is a crucible steel characterized by a pattern of bands, which are formed by sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix in higher carbon steel, or by ferrite and pearlite banding in lower carbon steels.
Work hardening, also known as strain hardening, is the strengthening of a metal or polymer by plastic deformation.
The Works and Days (Ἔργα καὶ Ἡμέραι, Erga kai Hēmerai)The Works and Days is sometimes called by the Latin translation of the title, Opera et Dies.
puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%).
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Zeise's salt, potassium trichloro(ethene)platinate(II), is the chemical compound with the formula K·H2O.
Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie (Journal of Inorganic and General Chemistry) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal dealing with inorganic chemistry, published by Wiley-VCH.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
1,1'-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene, commonly abbreviated dppf, is an organophosphorus compound commonly used as a ligand in homogeneous catalysis.
1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (dppe) is an organophosphorus compound with the formula (Ph2PCH2)2 (Ph.
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